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body to reap those rewards which the bountiful Author and bring back from a residence in foreign countries of all things has assigned to his industry. Neither is nothing but the vague and customary notions concern. it any common enjoyment, to turn for a while from ing it, which are carried and brought back for half a the memory of those distractions which have so century, without verification or change. The most recently agitated the Old World, and to reflect that ordinary shape in which this tendency to prejudge is very horrors and crimes may have thus prepared a makes its appearance among travellers, is by a dispo. ang era of opulence and peace for a people yet in. sition to exait, or, a still more absurd' disposition, to solved in the womb of time.
depreciate their native country. They are incapable of considering a foreign people but under one single point of view—the relation in which they stand to their own; and the whole narrative is frequently no.
thing more than a mere triumph of national vanity, or J. FIEVEE. (EDINBURGH REVIEW, 1809.)
the ostentation of superiority to so common a failing. Lettres sur l'Angleterre. Par J. Fievée. 1802.
But we are wasting our time in giving a theory of
the faults of travellers, when we have such ample Or all the species of travels, that which has moral means of exemplifying them all from the publication jbservation for its object is the most liable to error, now before us, in which Mr. Jacob Fieréé, with the and has the greatest difficulties to overcome, before it most surprising talents for doing wrong, has contrived an arrive at excellence. Stones and roots, and leaves, to condense and agglomerate every species of absurd. are subjects which may exercise the understanding ity that has hitherto been made known, and even to without rousing the passions. A mineralogical travel. launch out occasionally into new regions of nonsenso, ler will hardly fall fouler upon the granite and the with a boldness which well entitles him to the merit feldspar of other countries than his own; a botanist of originality in folly, and discovery in impertinence. will not conceal its non-descripts; and an agricultural We consider Mr. Fievée's book as extremely valuable tourist will faithfully detail the average crop per acre; in one point of view. It affords a sort of limit or mind. but the traveller who observes on the manners, habits, mark, beyond which we conceive it to be impossible and institutions of other countries, must have emanci- in future ihat pertness and petulance should pass. It pated his mind from the extensive and powerful do- is well to be acquainted with the boundaries of our minion of association, must have extinguished the nature on both sides; and to Mr, Fievee we are in. agrecable and deceitful feelings of national vanity, debted for this valuable approach to pessimism. The and cultivated that patient humility which builds ge height of knowledge no man has yet scanned; but we neral inferences only upon the repetition of individual have now pretty well fathomed the gulf of ignorance. facts. Every thing he sees shocks some passion or We must, however, do justice to Mr. Fievée when flatters it; and he is perpetually seduced to distort he deserves it. He evinces, in his preface, a lurking facts, so as to render them agreeable to his system uneasiness at the apprehension of exciting war between and his feelings ! Books of travels are now pnblished the two countries, from the anger to which his letters in such vast abundance, that it may not be useless, will give birth in England. He pretends to deny that perhaps, to state a few of the reasons why their value they will occasion a war; but it is very easy to see ho so commonly happens to be in the inverse ratio of their is not convinced by his own arguments; and we connumber.
fess ourselves extremely pleased by this amiable soli. Ist, Travels are bad, from a want of opportunity citude at the probable effusion of human blood. We for observation in those who write them. If the sides hope Mr. Fievee is deceived by his philanthropy, and of a building are to be measured, and the number of that no such unhappy consequences will ensue, as he its windows to be counted, a very short space of time really believes, though he aflects to deny them. We may suffice for these operations; but to gain such a dare to say the dignity of this country will be satis. knowledge of their prevalent opinions and propensi fied. if the publication in question is disowned by the ties, as will enable a stranger to comprehend (what is French government, or, at most, if the author is given commonly called) the genius of people, requires a long up. At all events, we have no scruple to say, that to residence among them, a familiar acquaintance with sacrifice twenty thousand lives, and a hundred millions their language, and an easy circulation ameng their of money, to resent Mr. Fievée's bock, would be an various societies. The society into which a transient unjustifiable waste of blood and treasure ; and that to stranger gains the most easy access in any country, is take him off privately by assassination, would be an lot often that which ought to stamp the national cha. undertaking hardly compatible with the dignity of a racter; and no criterion can be more fallible, in a peo- great empire, ple so reserved and inaccessible as the British, who To show, however, the magnitude of the provoca. (even when they open their doors to letters of intro- tion, we shall specify a few of the charges which he duction) cannot for years overcome the awkward makes against ihe English: that they do not under. timidity of their nature. The same expressions are stand fireworks as weil as the French ; that they of so different a value in different countries, the same charge a shilling for admission to the exhibition ; that actions proceed from such different causes, and pro- they have the misfortune of being incommoded by a duce such different effects, that a judgment of foreign certain disgraceful privilege, called the liberty of ihe nations, founded on rapid observation, is almost cer. press; thai the opera band plays out of tune ; that the tainly a mere tissue of ludicrous and disgraceful mis- English are so fond of drinking, that they get drunk takes; and yet a residence of a month or iwo seems to with a certain air called the gas of Paradise ; that the entitle a traveller to present the world with a picture privilege of electing members of parliament is so bur. of manners in London, Paris, or Vienna, and even to thensome, that cities sometimes petition to be ex. dogmatize upon the political, religious, and legal in- empted from it; that the great obstacle to a parlia. stitutions, as if it were one and the same thing to mentary reform is the mob; that women sometimes speak of the abstract effects of such institutions, and have tiiles distinct from those of their busbandsal. of their effects combined with all the peculiar circum- though, in England, any body can sell his wife at stances in which any nation may be placed.
market, with a rope about her neck. To these com. 2dly, An affectation of quickness in observation, an plaints he adds that the English are go far from en. intuitive glance that requires only a moment, and a joying that equality of wbich their partisans boast, part, to judge of a perpetuity and a whole. The late that none but the servants of the higher nobility can Mr. Petion, who was sent over into this country to ac. carry canes behind a carriage; that the power which quire a knowledge of our criminal law, is said to have the French kings had of pardoning before trial, is declared himself thoroughly informed upon the sub- much the same thing as the English mode of pardon. ject, after remaining precisely two and thirty minutes ing after trial ; that he should conceive it to be a good in the Old Bailey:
reason for rejecting any measure in France, that it 3dly, The tendency to found observation on a sys- was imitated from the Ènglish, who have no family lem, rather than a system upon observation. The fact affections, and who love money so much, that their is, there are very few original eyes and ears. The first question, in an inquiry concerning the character great mass see and bear as they are directed by others, of any man, is, as to his degree of fortune. Lastly,
Mr. Fievée alleges against the English, that they have a walk : he moves on for ten yards on the straight great pleasure in contemplating the spectacle of men road, with surprising perseverance; then sets out after deprived of their reason. And indeed we must have a butterfly, looks for a bird's nest, or jumps backthe candour to allow, that the hospitality which Mr. wards and forwards over a ditch. In the same man. Fierée experienced, seems to arford some pretext for ner, this nimble and digressive gentleman is away after this assertion.
every object which crosses his mind. If you leave One of the principal objects of Mr. Fievée's book, is him at the end of a comma, in a steady pursuit of his to combat the Angiomania, which has raged so long subject, you are sure to tind him, before the next full among his countrymen, and which prevailed at Paris stop, a hundred yards to the right or left, frisking, to such an excess, that'even Mr. Neckar, a foreigner capering, and grinning in a high paroxyism of merri. (incredible as it may seem) after haring been tuice ment and agility. Mr. Edgeworth seems to possess minister of France, retained a considerable share of the sentiments of an accomplished gentleman, the in. admiration for the English government. This is quite formation of a scholar, and the vivacity of a first-rate inexplicable. But this is nothing to the treason of the hariequin. He is fuddled with animal spirits, giddy Encyclopedists, who, instead of attributing the merit of with constitutional joy; in such a state he must have the experimental philosophy and the reasoning by in. written on, or burst. A discharge of ink was an eva. duction to a Frenchman, have shown themselves so lost cuation absolutely necessary, to avoid fatal and pleto all sense of duty which they owed to their country, thoric congestion. that they have attributed it to an Englishman,* of the The object of the book is to prove, that the practice nanie of Bacon, and this for no better reason, than that of making bulls is not more imputable to the Irish he really was the author of it. The whole of this pas. than to any other people; and the manner in which sage, is written so entirely in the genius of Mr. Fievée, he sets about it, is to quote examples of bulls produced and so completely exemplifies that very caricature spe- in other countries. But this is surely a singular way of cies of Frenchmen from which our gross and popular reasoning the question; for there are goitres out of notions of the whole people are taken, that we shall Valais, extortioners who do not worship Moses, oat give the whole passage at full length, cautiously ab- cakes out of the Tweed, and balm beyond the pre. staining from the sin of translating it.
cincts of Gilead. If nothing can be said to exist jre. Quand je reproche aux philosophes d'avoir vanté l' An: exists at all in another, theň Frenchmen are not gay,
eminently and emphatically in one country, which gleterre, par haine pour les institutions qui soutenoient la France, je ne hasarle rien, et je fournirai une nouvelle nor Spaniards grave, nor are gentlemen of the Mile. preuve de cette assertion, en citan les encyclopedistes, chef's sian race remarkable for their disinteresied con. avoués de la philosophie moderne.
tempt of wealth in their connubial relations. It is • Comment nous ont-ils présenté l'Encyclopédie? Comme probable there is some foundation for a character un monument iinmortel, comme le vlépôt précieux de so generally diffused; though it is also probable that toutes les connoissances humains. l'ont ils élevé ce monument immortel? Est ce sous l'égide there were no foundation for the common opinion,
Sous quel patronage such foundation is extremely enlarged by fame. If des écrivains dont la France s'honoroit? Non, ils ont choisi pour mâitre et pour idole un Anglais, Bacon ; ils lui we must surpose national characters formed by on fait dire tout ce qu'ils ont voulu, parce que cet auteur chance; and that the Irish might, by accident, have extraordinairement volumineus, n'étoit pas connu en been laughed at as bashful and sheepish; which France, et ne l'est guère en Angleterre que de quelques is impossible. The author puzzles himself a good hommes studieux; mais les philosophes sentoient que leur deal about the nature of buils, without coming to succes, pour introduire des nouveautés, tenoit à faire croire any decision about the matter. Though the ques. qu'elles n'étoient pas neuves pour les grands esprits; et com. tion is not a very easy one, we shall venture to me les grands esprits Français, trop connus, ne ce prétoient pas a un pareil dessein, les philosophes ont eu recours a say, that a bull is an apparent congruity, and real 'Angleterre. Ainsi, un ouvrage fait en France, et otiert à incongruity, of ideas, suddenly discovered. And if l'admiration de l'Europe comme l'ouvrage par excellence, this account of bulls be just, they are (as might hare fut mis par des Français sous la protection du génie Anglais. been supposed) the very reverse of wit; for as wit O honte! Et les philosophes se sont dit patriotes, et la discovers real relations, that are not apparent, bulls France, peur prix de sa dégradation, leur a élevé des statues! admit apparent relations that are not real. The plea. La siddle qui commence, plus juste, parce qu'il a le senti- sure arising from wit proceeds from our surprise at ment de la véritable grandeur, líassera ces statues et l'Ency- suddenly discovering two things to be similar, in which clopédie s'ensevelir sous la ménie poussière.'
susvect no similarity. The pleusure arising from When to this are added the commendations that bulls proceeds from discovering two things to be dis. have been bestowed upon Newton, the magnitude and sunilar, in which a resemblance might have been sus. the originality of the discoveries which have been pected. The same doctrine will apply to wit, and to attributed to him, the admiration which the words of bulls in action. Practical wit discovers connection or Locke have excited, and the homage that has been relation between actions, in which duller understand. paid to Milton and Shakspeare, the treason which ings discover none; and practical bulls originate from lurks at the bottom of it all will not escape the pene. an apparent relation between two actions, which more trating glance of Mr. Fievée; and he will discem that correct understandings immediately perceive to have same cause, from which every good Frenchman knows no relation at all. the defeat of Aboukir and of the first of June to have Louis XIV. being extremely harrassed by the re. proceeded--the monster Pitt, and his English guineas. peated solicitations of a veteran officer for promotion,
said one day, loud enough to be heard,' That genile. man is the most troublesome officer I have in my
service. That is precisely the charge (said the old EDGEWORTH ON BULLS. (EDINBURGH Review, man) which your Majesty's enemies bring against
1803.) Essay on Irish Bulls. By Richard Lovell Edgeworth and * An English gentleman,' (says Mr. Edgeworth, in a story Maria Edgeworth. London, 1802.
cited from Joe Millar,) was writing a letter in a coffee. We hardly know what to say about this rambling, lim was taking that liberty which Parmenio used with his
house; and perceiving that an Irishman stationed bebind scrambling book; but that we are quite sure the author, friend Alexander, instead of putting his seal upon the lips when he began any sentence in it, had not the smallest of the curious impertinent, the English gentleman thought suspicion of what it was about to contain. We say the proper to reprove the Hibernian, if not with delicacy, at author; because, in spite of the mixture of sexes in the least with
poetical justice. He concluded writing his letter title-page, we are strongly inclined to suspect that the Irishman is reading over my shoulder every word I write.”
in these words : “I would say more, but a damned tall male contributions exceed the female in a very great de. ** You lie, you scoundrel,” said the self-convicted Hibergree. The essay on Bulls is written much with the same nian.:-(p. 29.) mind, and in the same manner, as a schoolboy takes
The pleasure derived rom the first of these stories, Gaul was conquered by a person of the name of Julius proceeds from the discovery of the relation that subsists Cæsar,' is the first phrase in one of Mr. Newberry's little between the object he had in view, and
the assent of the books.
officer to an observation so unfriendly to that end. In
Whether the Irish make more bulls than their the first rapid glance which the mind throws upon his neighbours, is, as we have before remarked, not a words, he appears, by his acquiescence, to be pleading point of much importance; but it is of considerable against himself. There seems to be no relation be importance that the character of a nation should not tween what he says, and what he wishes to etfeet by be degraded; and Mr. Edgeworth has greui merit in speaking.
his very benevolent intention of doing justice to the Ia the second story, the pleasure is directly the re excellent qualities of the Irish. It is not possible to
The lie given apparently the readiest read his book without feeling a strong and new dispo. means of proving his innocence, and really the most sition in their favour. Whether the imitation of the actuni way of establishing his guilt. There seems for Irish manner be correct in his little stories, we can. a moment to be a strong relation between the means not determine; but we feel the same confidence in the and the object; while, in fact, no irrelation can be so accuracy of the imitation, that is often felt in the complete.
reseinblance of a portrait, of which we have never seen What connection is there between pelting stones at the original. It is no very high compliment to Mr. mon keys, and gathering cocoa-nuts from lofty trees ? Edgeworth's creative powers, to say, he could not have Apparently none. Bat monkeys sit upon cocoa-hut- forined anything, which was not real, so like reality ; trees; monkeys are imitative animals'; and if you but such a remark only robs Peter to pay Paul; and pelt a monkey with a stone, he pelts you with a cocoa- gives everything to his powers of observation which it nut in return. This scheme of gathering cocoa-nuts is takes from those of his imagination. In truth, 110. very witty, and would be more so if it did not appear thing can be better than his imitation of the Irish useful : for the idea of utility is always inimical to the manner: it is first-rate painting. idea of wit.* There appears, on the contrary, to be Edgeworth and Co. have another faculty in great some relation between the revenge of the Irish rebels periection. They are eminently inasters of the pathos. against a banker, and the ineens which they took to The Firm drew tears from us in the stories of little gratify it, by burning all his notes wherever they Dominick, and of the Irish beggar who killed his found them ; whereas, they could not have rendered sweetheart: Never was any griet more natural or him a more essential service. In both these cases of simple. The first, however, ends in a very foolish bulls, the one verbal, the other practical, there is an way; apparent congruity, and real incongruity of ideas. In
-formosa superne boin the cases of wit, there is an apparent incongruity
Desinit in piscem. and a real relation. It is clear that a bull cannot depend upon mere
We are extremely glad that our avocation did not incongruity alone ; for if a man were to say that he call us from Bath to London on the day that the Bath would ride to London upon a cocked hat, or that he coach.conversation took place. We except from this would cut his throat with a pound of pickled salmon, wish the story with which the conversation termithis, though completely incongruous, would not be to nates; for as soon as Mr. Edgeworth enters upon a make bulls, but to talk nonsense.
The stronger the story he excels. apparent connection, and the more complete the real
We must confess we have been much more pleased disconnection of the ideas, the greater the surprise, with Mr. Edgeworth in his laughing and in his pathe. and the better the bull. The less apparent, and the tic, than in his grave and reasoning moods. He meant, more complete the relations established by wit, the perhaps, that we should ; and it certainly is not very higher gratification does it afford. A great deal
necessary that a writer should be prosound on the of the pleasure experienced from bulls, proceeds subject of bulls. Whatever be the deficiencies of the from the sense of superiority in ourselves.
Bulls book, they are, in our estimation, amply atoned for by which we invented, or knew to be invented, might its merits; by none more than that lively feeling of please, but in a less degree, for want of this addition compassion which pervades it for the distresses of the al zest.
vild, kind-hearted, blundering poor of Ireland. As there must be apparent connection, and real recongruity, it is seldom that a man of sense and education finds any form of words by which he is conscious that he might have been deceived into a bull. TRIMMER AND LANCASTER.* (EDINBURGH To conceive how the person has been deceived, he
Review, 1806.) must suppose a degree of information very differeni from, and a species of character very heterogeneous to, | A Comparative view of the New Plan of Education promulhis own; a process which diminishes surprise, and
gated by Mr. Joseph Lancaster, in his Tracts concerning consequently pleasure. In the above-mentioned story
the Instruction of the Children of the Labouring Part of the of the Irishman overlooking the man writing, no per.
Community; end of the System of Christian Education son of ordinary sagacity can suppose himseif betrayed
founded by our pious Forefathers for the Initiation of the
Young Members of the Established Church in the Principles into such a mistake; but he can easily represent to of the Reformed Řeligion. By Mrs. Trimmer. hijnself a kind of character that might have been so betrayed. There are some bulls so extremely falla
Tuis is a book written by a lady who has gained cious, that any man may imagine himself to have considerable reputation at the corner of St. Paul's been betrayed into thern ; but these are rare : and, in Churchyard; who fames in the van of Mr. Newbury's general, it is a poor, contemptible species of amuse
shop ; and is, upon the whole, dearer to mothers and ment, a delight in which evinces a very bad taste in wit. into the mouths of babes and sucklings. Tired at last
aunts than any other who pours the milk of science many other ieelings, extinguish the relish for wit. Thus she has now written a book for
grown-up peopic, and It must be observed, that all the great passions, and of scribbling for children, and getting ripe in ambition, kympha pidica Deum vidit et erebuit, would be witty, were it selected for her antagonist as stiff a controversialist as not bordering on the sublime. The resemblance between the whole field of dispute could well have supplied. the sandal tree imparting (while it falls) its aromantic fla- Her opponent is Mr. Lancaster, a Quaker, who has vour to the edge of the axe, and the benevolent man re- lately given to the world new and striking lights upon warding evil with good, would be witty, did it not excite the subject of Education, and come forward to the ances which excite sensations very similar to wit; but the notice of his country by spreading order, knowledge, attention is absorbed by their utility. Some of 'Merlin's and innocence among the lowest of mankind, machines, which have no utility at all, are quite similar to Mr. Lancaster, she says, wants method in his book ; wit. A small model of a steam-engine, or mere squirt, is wit to a child. A man speculates on the causes of the first, * Lancaster invented the new method of cducation. The or in its consequences, and so loses the feelings of wit: with Church was sorely vexed at his succese, endeavvured to set the latter, he is too familiar to be surprised. In short, the up Dr. Bell as the discoverer, and to run down poor Lanessence of every species of wit is surprise; which vi termini, caster. George the Third was irritated by this shabby conmust be sudden ; and the sensations which wit has a ten- duct, and always protected Lancaster. He was delighted dency to excite, are impaired or destroyed as often as they with this Review, and made Sir Herbert Taylor read it * are mingled with much thought or passion,
second time to him
and therefore her answer to him is without any ar. (of vice ; if the associates of youth pour contempt on rangement The same excuse must suffice for the the liar; he will soon hide his head with shame, and dcsultory observations we shall make upon this lady's most likely leave off the practice.'-(p. 24, 25.) publication.
The objection which Mrs. Trimmer makes to this The first sensation of disgust we experienced at Mrs. passage, is that it is exalting the fear of man above the Trimmer's book, was from the patronizing and pro- fear of God. This observation is as mischievous as it tecting air with which she speaks of some small part of is unfounded., Undoubtedly the fear of God ought to Mr. Lancaster's plan. She seems to suppose, because be the paramount principle from the very beginning of she has dedicated her mind to the subject, that her life, if it were possible to make it so; but it is a feel. opinion must necessarily be valuable upon it ; forget. ing which can only be built up by degrees. The awe túng it to be barely possible that her application may and respect which a child entertains for its parent and have made her more wrong, instead of more right. If instructor, is the first scaffolding upon which the sa. she can make out her case, that Mr. Lancaster is do- cred edifice of religion is reared. A child begins to ing mischief in so important a point as that of nation. pray, to act, and to abstain, not to please God, but to al education, she has a right, in common with every please the parent, who tells him that such is the will one else, to lay her complaint before the public; but a of God. The religious principle gains ground from the right to publish praises must be earned by something power of association and the improvement of reason ; more difficult than the writing sixpenny books for chil- but without the fear of man,-the desire of pleasing, dren. This may be very good; though we never re. and the dread of offending those with whom he lives, inember to have seen any one of them; but if they it would be extremely difficult, if not impossible, to be no more remarkable for judgment and discretion cherish it at all in the minds of the children. If you than parts of the work before us, there are many tell (says Mr. Lancaster) a child pot to swear, be. thriving children quite capable of repaying the obli- cause it is forbidden by God, and he finds everybody gations they owe to their amiable instructress, and of whom he lives with addicted to that vice, the mere teaching, with grateful retaliation, the old idea how precept will soon be obliterated ; which would acquire to shoot.
its just influence if aided by the effect of example.In remarking upon the work before us, we shall ex. Mr. Lancaster does not say that the fear of man ever actly follow the plan of the authoress, and prefix, as ought to be a stronger motive than the fear of God, or she does, the titles of those subjects on which her ob- that, in a thoroughly formed character, it ever is : he servations are made; doing her the justice to presume merely says, that the fear of man may be made the that her quotations are fairly taken from Mr. Lancas. most powerful mean to raise up the fear of God; and ter's book.
nothing, in our opinion, can be more plain, more sen. 1. Mr. Lancaster's Preface.-Mrs. Trimmer here sible, or better expressed, than his opinions upon these contends, in opposition to Mr. Lancaster, that ever subjects. In corroboration of this sentiment, Mr. Lan. since the establishment of the Protestant Church, the caster tells the following story :education of the poor has been a national concern in this country; and the only argument she produces in
A benevolent friend of mine," says he, who resides at a support of this extravagant assertion, is an appeal to Village near London, where he has a school of the class
called Sunday Schools, recommended several lads to me for the act of uniformity. If there are millions of Eng. education. He is a pious man, and these children had the lishmen who cannot spell their own names, or read a advantage of good precepts under his instruction in an ensign-post which bids them turn to the right or left, is inent degree, but had reduced them to very little practice. t any answer to this deplorable ignorance to say, as they came to my school from some distance, they were there is an act of Parliament for public instruction ?
-permitted to bring their dinners; and, in the interval beto show the very line and chapter where the King, with a number of lads under similar circumstances in a play.
iween morning and afternoon school hours, spent their time Lords, and Commons, in Parliament assembled, or- ground adjoining the school-room. In this play round the lained the universality of reading and writing, when, boys usually enjoy an hour's recreation; tops, balls, races, .enturies afterwards, the ploughman is no more capa or what best suits their inclination or the season of the ble of the one or the other than the beast which he year; but with this charge, “Let all be kept in innocence." trives? In point of fact, there is no Protestant coun. These lads thought themselves very happy at play with kry in the world where the education of the poor has their new associates; but on a sudden they were seized and been so grossly and infamously neglected as in Eng. overcome by numbers, were brought into school just as kand. Mr. Lancaster has the high merit of calling the people in the street would seize a pick-pocket, and bring
him to the police office. Happening at that time to be public attention to this evil, and of calling it in the within, I inquired, “Well, boys, what is all this bustle best way, by new and active remedies; and this im- about ?"-"Wby, sir," was the general reply, “these laes andid and feeble lady, instead of using the influence have been swearing.". This was announced with as much the has obtained over the anility of these realms, to emphasis and solemnity as a judge would use in passing oin that useful remonstrance which Mr. Lancaster has sentence upon a criminal. The culprits were, as may be
After the examination of wit. begun, pretends to deny that the evil exists; and when supposed, in much terror. you ask where are the schools, rods, pedagogues, to the offence; and, on promise of better hehaviour, were
nesses and proof of the facts, they received admonition as primors, histories of Jack the Giant-killer, and all the disinissed. No more was ever heard of their swearing ; yet asual apparatus for education, the only things he can it was observable, that they were better acquainted with produce is the act of uniformity and common prayer. the theory of Christianity, and could give a more rational
2. The Principles on which Mr. Lancaster's institu- answer to questions from the scripture, than several of the tion is conducted.— Happily for mankind,' says Mr. boys who had thus treated them, on comparison, es consiaLancaster, it is possible to combine precept and bles would do a thief; I call this,' adds Mr. Lancaster, practice together in the education of youth: that pub-practical religious instruction, and could, if needful, give lic spirit, or general opinion, which gives such strength any such anecdotes.'-(. 26, 27.) to více, may be rendered serviceable to the cause of All that Mrs. Trimmer has to observe against this virtue ; and in thus directing it, the whole secret, the very striking illustration of Mr. Lancaster's doctrine, beauty, and simplicity of national education consists. is, that the monitors behaved to the swearers in a very Suppose, for instance, it be required to train a youth rude and unchristianlike manner. She begins with bė. to strict veracity. He has learned to read at school : ing cruel, and ends with being silly. Her first obserhe there reads the declaration of the Divine will re-vation is calculated to raise the posse comitatus against specting liars: he is there informed of the pernicious Mr. Lancaster, to get him stoned for impiety; and effects that practice produces on society at large; and then, when he produces the most forcible example of he is enjoined, for the fear of God, for the approbation the effect of opinion to encourage religious precept, of his friends, and for the good of his school-fellows, she says such a method of preventing. Wearing is too never to tell an untruth. This is a most excellent pre- rude for the gospel. True, modest, unobulisive reli. cept; but let it be taught, and yet, if the contrary gion-charitable, forgiving, indulgent Christianity, is practice be treated with indifference by parents, the greatest ornament and the greatest blessing that teachers, or associates, it will either weaken or decan dwell in the mind of man. But if there is one stroy all the good that can be derived from it : But if character more base, more infamous, and more shock. the parents or teachers tenderly nip the rising shoots ling than another, it is him who, for the sake of some
paltry distinction in the world, is ever ready to accuse I needful a second time. It is also very seldom that a boy conspicuous persons of irreligiou-to turn common in. deserves both a log and a shackle at the same time. Most former for the church-and io convert the most beau. | bɔys are wise enough, when under one punishment, not to tiful feelings of the human heart to the destruction of transgress immediately, lest it should be doubled.'—(P. 47,
48.) the good and great, by fixing upon talents the indelible stizma of irreligion. It matters not how trifling
This punishment is objected to on the part of Mrs and insignificant the acuser ; cry out that the church Trimmer, because it inculcaies a dislike to Jews, and is in danger, and your object is accomplished ; lurk in an indifference to dying speeches! Toys, she says, the walk ot'hypocrisy, to accuse your enemy of the given as rewards, are worldly things ; children are to crime of Atheism, and his ruin is quite certain ; ac be taught that there are eternal rewards in store for quitted or condemned, is the same thing; it is only them. It is very dangerous to give prints as rewards, sufficient that he be accused, in order thai his destruc- because prints may hereafter be the vehicle of indezion be accomplished. If we could satisiy ourselves cent ideas. It is, above all things, perilous to create that such were the real views of Mrs. Trimmer, and an order of merit in the borough school, because it chat she were capable of such baseness, we would gives the boys an idea of the origin of nobility, have drawn blood from her at every line, and left her especially in times (we use Mrs. Trimmer's own in a state of martyrdom more piteous than that of St. words) which furnish instances of the extinction of a Uba. Let her attribute the milk and mildness she race of ancient nobility, in a neighbouring nation, and meets with in this review of her book, to the convic-the elevation of some of the lowest people to the tion we entertain, that she knew no better-that she highest stations. Boys accustomed to consider themselves really did understand Mr. Lancaster as she pretends to the nobles of the school, may in their future lives, formą understand him—and that if she had been aware of conceit of their own merits (unless they have very sound the extent of the mischief she was doing, she would have tossed the manuscript spelling
bovk'in which she principles), aspire to be nobles of the land, and to take
place of the hereditary nobility.' was engaged into the fire, rather than have done it.
We think these extracts will sufficiently satisfy As a proof that we are in earnest in speaking of Mrs. every reader of common sense, of the merits of this Triminer's simplicity, we must state the objection she publication. For our part, when we saw these ragged makes to one of Mr. Lancaster's punishments.. and interesting little nobles, shining in their tin stars,
When I meet,' says Mr. Lancaster, with a slovenly we only thought it probable that the spirit of emula, boy, I put a label upon his breast, I walk him round tion would make them beiter ushers, tradesmen, and the school with a tin or paper crown upon his head.' mechanics. We did, in truth, imagine we had on. . Surely,' says Mrs. Trimmer, (in reply to this,) 'sure served, in some of their faces, a bold project for pro, ly it should be remembered, that the Saviour of the curing better breeches for keeping out the blast of world was crowned with thorns, in derision, and that heaven, which howled through those garments in this is the reason why crowning is an improper punish. every direction, and of aspiring hereafter to greater ment for a slovenly boy.' !!!
strength of seam, and more perfect continuity of cloth Reitards and Punishments. Mrs. Trimmer objects. But for the safety of the titled orders we had no fear; to the fear of ridicule being made an instrument of nor did we once dream that the black rod which whip: education, because it may be hereafter employed to these dirty little dukes, would one day be borne be shame a boy out of his religion. She might, for the fore them as the emblem of legislative dignity, and same reason, object to the cultivation of the reason, the sign of noble blood. ing faculty, because a boy may hereafter be reasoned
Order.-The order Mr. Lancaster has displayed in out of his religion: she surely does not mean to say the school is quite astonishing. Every boy seems to that she would make boys insensible to ridicule, the be the cog of a wheel—the whole school a perfect ma. fear of which is one curb upon the follies and cccen-chine. This is so far from being a burden or con. tricities of human nature. Such an object it would be straint to the boys, that Mr. Lancaster has made it impossible to effect, even if it were useful : Put an quite pleasant to ihem, by giving to it the air of mili. hundred boys together, and the fear of being laughed tary arrangement; not foreseeing, as Mrs. Trimmer at will always be a strong influencing motive with foresees, that, in times of public dangers, this plan fur. erery individual among them. If a master can turn nishes the disaffected with the immediate means of this principle to his own use, and get boys to laugh at rising an army; for what have they to do but to send vice instead of the old plan of laughing at virtue, is he for all the children educated by Mr. Lancaster, from not doing a very new, a very difficult, and a very lau- the different corners of the kingdom into which they dable thing? When Mr. Lancaster finds a little boy with a very to fall into the same order as they adopted in the
are dispersed, to beg it as a particular favour of them dirty face, he sends for a little girl, and makes her spelling class twenty-five years ago ; and the rest is all wash off the dirt before the whole school: and she is
matter of course directed to accompany her ablutions with a gentle box of the ear. To us, this punishinent appears well
Jamque faces, et Sava volant, adapted to the offence; and in this, and in most other
The main object, however, for which this book is instances of Mr. Lancaster's interference in scholas. tie discipline, we are struck with his good sense, and written, is to prove that the church establishment is delighted that arrangements apparently so trivial,
in danger, from the increase of Mr. Lancaster's insti. really so important, should have fallen under the at: tutions. Mr. Lancaster is, as we have before observed, Lention of so ingenious and so original a man. Mrs. a Quaker... As a Quaker, he says, I cannot teach your Trimmer objects to this practice, that it destroys creeds ; but I pledge myself not to teach my own. I temale modesty, and inculcates in that sex, an habit pledge myself" (and it 1 deceive you, desert me, and
give me up) to confine myself to those points of Chris. of giving boxes on the ear.
tianity in which all Christians agree. To which Mrs. When a boy gets into a singing tone in reading,' says Trimmer replies, that, in the first place, he cannot do Mr. Lancaster, the best mode of cure that I have hitherto this ; and, in the next place, if he did do it, it would found effectual is by the force of ridicule.- Decorate the not be enough. But why, we would ask, cannot Mr. and in this garb send him round the school, with some boy's Lancaster effect his first object? The practical and defore bim crying matches, &c., exactly imitating the dismal the feeling parts of religion are much more likely to tones with which such things are hawked about London attract the attention and provoke the questions of chil. streets, as will readily recur to the reader's memory. I be- dren, than its speculative doctrines. ` A child is not Lieve many boys behave rudely to Jews more on account very likely to put any questions at all to a catechising of the manner in which they cry "old clothes,” than be- master, and still less likely to lead him into subtle and cause they are Jews. I have always found excellent effects profound disquisition. It appears to us not only pracmanner described.' It is sure to turn the laugh of the whole ticable, but very easy, to confine the religious instruc. school upon the delinquent; it provokes risibility, in spite tion of the poor, in the first years of life, to those gen. of every endeavour to check it, in all but the offender. I have eral feelings and principles which are suitable to the seldom known a boy thus punished once, for whom it was established church, and to every sect; afterwards, the