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martial, or to what other remedy those who had suf- general had inflicted merited no such severe retribufered from his abuse of power could have had recourse. tion as that resorted to by Sir George Barlow. There Colonel Munro had been promised, by General Mac. are no reflections in the paper on the conduct of the dowall, that the court-martial should consist of king's governor or the government. The reprimand is officers: there could not, therefore, have been any grounded entirely upon the breach of that military disrational suspicion that this trial would have been un. cipline which it was undoubtedly the business of Genefair, or his judges unduly influenced.
ral Macdowall to maintain in the most perfect purity Soon after Sir George Barlow had shown this reluc. and vigour. Nor has the paper any one expression in tance to give the complaining officers an opportunity it foreign to this purpose. We were, indeed, not a of re-establishing their injured character, General Mac- little astonished at reading it. We had imagined that dowall sailed for England, and left behind him, for a paper which drew after it such a long train of dismispublication, an order, in which Colonel Munro was sals and suspensions, must have contained a declarareprimanded for a violent breach of military disci- tion of war against the Madras government,-an explíne, in appealing to the governor otherwise than hortation to the troops to throw off their allegiance,ihrough the customary and prescribed channel of the or an advice to the natives to drive their intrusive mas. commander-in-chief. As this paper is very short, and ters away, and become as free as their forefathers had at the same time very necessary to the right compre- left them. Instead of this, we find nothing more than hension of this case, we shall lay it before our readers. a common reprimand from a commander-in-chief to a "G. O. by the Commander-in-chief.
subordinate officer, for transgressing the bounds of his "The immediate departure of Lieutenant-General Macdowall duty. If Sir George Barlow had governed kingdoms from Madras will prevent his pursuing the design of bringing six months longer, we cannot help thinking he would Lieutenant-Colonel Munro, quartermaster-general, to trial, have been a little more moderate. for disrespect to the commander-in-chief, for disobedience of But whatever difference of opinion there may be orders, and for contempt of military authority, in having resorted to the power of the civil government, in defiance of the respecting the punishment of General Macdowall, we judgment of the officer at the head of the army, who had placed can scarcely think there can be any with regard to the him under arrest, on charges preferred against him by a num- conduct observed towards the adjutant-general and his ber of officers commanding native corps, in consequence of deputy. They were the subordinates of the com. which appeal direct to the honourable the president in council, mander-in-chief, and were peremptorily bound to pubLieutenant-General Macdowall has received positive orders lish any general orders which he might command them from the chief secretary to liberate Lieutenant-Colonel Munro to publish. They would have been liable to very Such conduct on the part of Lieutenant-Colonel Munro us the most flagrant outrage against all justice to con
severe punishment if they had not ; and it appears to being destructive of subordination, subversive of military disapline, a violation of the sacred rights of the commander-in- vert their obedience into a fault. It is true, no subor. chief, and holding out a most dangerous example to the ser- dinate officer is bound to obey any order which is vice, Lieutenant-General Macdowall, in support of the dignity plainly, and to any common comprehension, illegal; of the profession, and his own station and character, feels it but then the illegálity must be quite manifest ; the incumbent on him to express his strong disapprobation of Lieu- order must imply such a contradiction to common tenant-Colonel Munro's unexampled proceedings, and considers it a duty imposed upon him to reprimand Lieutenant
sense, and such a violation of duties superior to the Colonel Munro in general orders, and he is hereby repri- duty of military obedience, that there can be scarcely manded accordingly. (Signed) T. BOLES, D. A. G. - Acur. two opinions on the subject. Wherever any fair doubt end Auth. Nar. pp. 68. 69.
can be raised, the obedience of the inferior officer is
to be considered as proper and meritorious. Upon any Sir George Barlow, in consequence of this paper, other principle, his situation is the most cruel imaginimmediately deprived General Macdowall of his situa. able: he is liable to the severest punishment, even to tion of commander-in-chief, which he had not yet instant death, if he refuses to obey; and if he does resigned, though he had quitted the settlement; and, obey, he is exposed to the animadversion of the civil as the official signature of the deputy adjutant-general power, which teaches him that he ought to have canappeared to the paper, that officer also was suspended vassed the order,--to have remonstrated against it,from his situation. Colonel Capper,
the adjutant-ge. and, in case this opposition proved ineffectual, to have neral, in the most honourable manner informed Sir disobeyed it. We have no hesitation in pronouncing George Barlow that he was the culpable and responsi- the imprisonment of Colonel Capper and Major Boles ble person ; and that the name of his deputy only to have been an act of great severity and great indisappeared to the paper in consequence of his positive cretion, and such as might very fairly give great order, and because he himselt happened to be absent offence to an army, who saw themselves exposed to on shipboard with General Macdowall. This gene the same punishments, for the same adherence to their rous conduct on the part of Colonel Capper involved duties. himself in punishment, without extricating the innocent person whom he intended to protect. The Ma * The measure of removing Lieutenant-Colonel Capper and dras government, always swift to condemn, doomed Major Boles,' says Mr. Petrie, was universally condemned by him to the same punishment as Major Boles ; and he the most respectable officers in the army, and not more so by was suspended from his office.
the officers in the Company's service, than by those of his This paper we have read over with great attention ; a most dangerous principle, and setting a pernicious example
majesty's regiments. It was felt by all as the introduction of and we really cannot see wherein its criminality con- of disobedience and insubordination to all the gradations of sists, or on what account it could have drawn down on military rank and authority; teaching inferior officers to quesGeneral Macdowall so severe a punishment as the tion the legality of the orders of their superiors, and bringing privation of the high and dignified office which he into discussion questions which may endanger the very existheld. The censure upon Colonel Munro was for a
ence of government. Our proceedings at the time operated violation of the regular etiquette of the army, in tions, and discussions, pregnant with danger to every consti
like an electric shock, and gave rise to combinations, associaappealing to the governor otherwise than through the tuted authority in India. It was observed that the removal channel of the commander-in-chief. This was an of General Macdowall (admitting the expediency of the meaentirely new offence on the part of Colonel Munro. sure), sufficiently vindicated the authority of government, and Sir George Barlow had given no opinion upon it; it exhibited to the army a memorable proof that the supreme bad not been discussed between him and the com- power is vested in the civil authority. mander-in-chief; and the commander-in-chief was for it; but to suspend from the service the mere instruments
• The offence came from the general, and he was punished clearly at liberty to act in this point as he pleased. of office, for the ordinary transmission of an order to the army, He does not reprimand Colonel Munro for obeying Sir was universally condemned as an act of inapplicable severity, George Barlow's orders-for Sir George had given no which might do infinite mischief, but could not accomplish any orders upon the subject; but he blames him for trans- good or beneficial purpose. It was to court unpopularity, and gressing a well-known and important rule of the ser. adding fuel to the flame, which was ready to burst forth in vice: . We have great doubts if he was not quite right every division of the army; that to vindicate the measure on in giving this reprimand. But at all events, if he was of a most dangerous tendency, capable of being extended in wrong-if Colonel Munro was not guilty of the offence its application to purposes subversive of the foundations of all imputed still the erroneous punishment which the authority, civil as well as military. If subordinate officers are
encouraged to judge of the legality of the orders of their su duced the strongest representations and remonstrances periors, we introduce a precedent of incalculable mischier, from king's officers of the most unquestionable loyalty. neither justified by the spirit nor the practice of the laws. Is it not better to have the responsibility on the head of the au · Lieutenant Colonel Vesey, commanding at Palamcotal, ap. thority which issues the order, except in cases so plain, that prehends the most fatal consequences to the tranquillity of the the most common capacity can judge of their being direct southern provinces, if Colonel Wilkinson makes any hostile violations of the established and acknowledged laws ? Is the movements from Trichinopoly. In different letters he states, intemperance of the expressions, the indiscretion of the that such a step must inevitably throw the company's troops opinions, the intlammatory tendency of the order, so eminently into open revolt. He has ventured to write in the strongest dangerous, so evidently calculated to excite to mutiny and terms to Colonel Wilkinson, entreating him not to march disobedience, 80 strongly marked with the features of crimi- | against the southern troops, and pointing out the ruinous connality, as not to be mistaken? Was the order, I beg leave to
sequences which may he expected from such a measure ask, of this description, of such a nature as to justify the adju Lieutenant Colonel Stuart in Travancore, and Colonel tant-general and his deputy in their refusal to publish it, to Forbes in Malabar, have written, that they are under no appredisobey the order of the commander-in-chief, to revolt from hension for the tranquillity of those provinces, or for the fidelity his authority, and to complain of him to the government of the company's troops, if government does not insist on coSuch were the views I took of that unhappy transaction; and, forcing the orders for the signature of the test; but that, if as I foresaw serious mischief from the measure, not only to this is attempted, the security of the country will be immi. the discipline of the army, but even to the security of the civil nently endangered. These orders are to be enforced; and I government, it was my duty to state iny opinion to Sir G. Bar tremble for the consequences.'- Statement of Facts, pp. 53, 54 low, and to use every argument which my reason suggested, to prevent the publication of the order. In this I completely The following letter from the Honourable Colonel failed; the suspension took effect; and the match was laid that Stuart, commanding a king's regiment, was soon after has communicated the tame to almost every military mind in received by Sir George Barlow :India. I recorded no dissent; for as a forinal opposition could only tend to exonerate myself from a certain degree of re * The late measures of government, as carried in effect at the sponsibility, without effecting any good public purpose, and Presidency and Trichinopoly, have created a most violent might probably be misconstrued or misconceived by those to ferment among the corps bere. At those places where the whom our proceedings were made known, it was a more European force was so far superior in number to the native honourable discharge of my duty to relinquish this advantage, the measure probably was executed without difficulty ; bat than to comply with the mere letter of the order respecting here, where there are seven battalions of sepoys, and a com dissents. I explained this motive of my conduct to Sir G. pany and a half of artillery, to our one regiment, I found it Barlow.'--Statement of Facts, pp, 20, 23.
totally impossible to carry the business to the same length,
particularly as any tumult among our own corps would cerAfter these proceedings on the part of the Madras tainly bring the people of Travancore upon us. goverament, the disatfection of the troops rapidly • It is in vain, therefore, for me, with the small force I can increased ; absurd and violent manifestoes were pub- depend upon, to attempt to stem the torrent here by any acts lished by the general officers ; goverminent was insult of violence.
* Most sincerely and axiously do I wish that the present thed; and the army soon broke out into open mutiny.
inult may subside, without fatal consequences; which, if the When the mutiny was fairly begun, the conduct of
present violent measures are continued, I much fear will not the Madras government in quelling it, seems nearly as be the case. It' blood is once spilt in the cause, there is no objectionable as that by which it had been excited. knowing where it may end; and the probable consequence The governor, in attempting to be dignified, perpetu- will be, that India will be lost for ever. So many officers of ally fell into the most puerile irritability; and wish. the army have gone to such lengths, that unless a general aming to be firm, was guilty of injustice and violence. nesty is granted, tranquillity can never be restored Invitations to dinner were made an affair of state. impute to me any other motives, for having thus given my
* "I'he lionourable the governor in council will not, I trust, Long negotiatious appear respecting whole corps of opiuion. I am actuated solely by anxiety for the public good officers who refused to dine with Sir George Barlow; and the benefit of my country; and I think it my duty, holding and the first persons in the settlement were employed the responsible station which I now do, to express my seati. to persuade them to eat the repast which his excel- ments at so awful a period. lency had prepared for them. A whole school of Where there are any prospects of success, it might be military lads were sent away, for some trifling dis right to persevere; but where every day's experience proves, play of partiality to the cause of the army; and every that the more coercive the measures adopted, the more violeet unfortunate measure recurred to, which a weak under.
are the consequences, a different and more conciliatory line of
conduct ought to be adopted. I have the honour, &c-State standing and a captious temper could employ to bring ment of Facts, pp. 55, 56. a government into contempt. Officers were disinissed; • A letter from Colonel Forbes, commanding in Malabar, but dismissed without trial, and even without accusa states that, to prevent a revolt in the province, and the probtion. The object seemed to be to punish somebody : able march of the company's troops towards Seringapatam, whether it was the right or the wrong person was
he had accepted of a modification in the test, to be signed by less material. Sometimes the subordinate was select the officers on their parole, to make no hostile movements
until the pleasure of the government was known.-Disaped, where the principal was guilty ; sometimes the proved by the government, and ordered to enforce the foriner superior was sacrificed for the ungovernable conduct orders.'--Statement of Facts, p. 61. of those who were under his charge. The blows were strong enough ; but they came from a man who It can scarcely be credited, that in spite of these shut his eyes, and struck at random ;-conscious that repeated remonstrances from officers, whose loyalty he must do something to repel the danger---but so
and whose knowledge of the subject could not be sus agitated by its proximity that he could not look at it, pected, this test was ordered to be enforced, and the or take a proper aim.
severest rebukes inflicted upon those who had preAmong the other absurd measures resorted to by sumed to doubt of its propriety, or suspend its operathis new eastern emperor, was the notable expedient tion. Nor let any man say that the opinionative per. of imposing a test upon the officers of the army, ex son who persevered in this measure saw more clearly pressive of their loyalty and attachmeni to the go- and deeply into the consequence of his own measures vernment; and as this was done at a time when some than those who were about him ; for unless Mr. Petrie officers were in open rebellion, others fluctuating, and has been guilty, and repeatedly guilty, of a most many almost resolved to adhere to their duty, it had downright and wiltul falsehood, Sir George Barlow the very natural and probable effect of uniting them had not the most distant conception, during all these all in opposition to government. To impose à test, measures, that the army would ever venture upon reor trial of opinions, is at all times an unpopular volt. species of inquisition; and at a period when men were
Government, or rather the head of the government, was hesitating whether they should obey or not, was cer. never correctly informed of the actual state of the army, or I tainly a very dangerous and rash measure. It could think he would have acted otherwise; he was told, and he be no security; for men who would otherwise rebel was willing to believe, that the discontents were confiord lo a against their government, certainly would not be re small portion of the troops; that a great inajority disapproved strained by any verbal barriers of this kind ; and, at
of their proceedings, and were firmly and unalterably altached the same time that it promised no effectual security,
to the government.'-Statement of Facts, pp. 23, 24. it appeared to increase the danger of irritated com In a conversation which Mr. Petrie had with Sir bination. This very rash measure immediately pro- George Barlow upon the subject of the army-and in
the course of which he recommends to that gentleman Against Colonel Capper, General Macdowall, and Mr. more lenient measures, and warns him of the increas. Roebuck, who are now no longer alive to answer for ing disaffection of the troops-he gives us the follow themselves, he is intrepidly severe ; in all these in. ing account of Sir George Barlow's notions of the then stances he gives a full loose to his sense of duty, and state of the army:
inflicts upon them the severest chastisement. În his “Sir G. Barlow assured me I was greatly misinformed; that keep to generals; and so rigidly does he adhere to
attack upon the civilians, he is particulary careful to council the most satisfactory and unequivocal proofs of the this principle, that he does not support his assertion, fidelity of nine-tenths of the army; that the discontents were
that the civil service was disailected as well as the coutined almost exclusively to the southern divison of the military, by one single name, one 'single fact, or by army; that the troops composing the subsidiary force, those any other means whatever, than his own affirmation in the ceded districts, in the centre, and a part of the northern of the fact. The truth (as might be supposed to be division, were all untainted by those principles which had the case from such sort of evidence) is diametrically misled the rest of the arıy.'-Statement of Facts. pp. 27, 28.
opposite. Nothing could be more exemplary, during All those violent measures, then, the spirit and the whole of the rebellion, than the conduct of the wisdom of which have been so much extolled, were civil servants; and though the courts of justice were not measures of the consequences of which their interfered with--though the most respectable servants author had the most distani suspicion. They were of the company were punished for the verdicts they not the acts of a man who knew that he must unavoid had given as juryinen-though many were dismissed ably, in the discharge of his duty, irritate, but that for the slightest opposition to the pleasure of go. he could ultimately evercome that irritation. They verument, even in the discharge of official duties, appear, on the contrary, to have proceeded from a where remonstrance was absolutely necessary, most gross and scandalous ignorance of the opinions though the greatest provocation was given, and the of the army: He expected passive submission, and greatest opportunity afforded to the civil servants for met with universal revolt. So far, then, his want of revolt, there is noi a single instance in which the intelligence and sagacity are unquestionably proved. shadow of disaffection has been proved against any He did not proceed with useful measures, and run the civil servant. This we say, from an accurate examirisk of a revolt, for which he was fully prepared; but nation of all the papers which have been published on he carried these measures into execution, firmly con the subject; and we do not hesitate to affirm, that vinced that they would occasion no revolt at all. there never was a more unjust, unfounded, and profii.
The fatal nature of this mistake is best exemplified gate charge made against any body of men ; nor have by the means recurred to for its correction. The grand we often witnessed a more complete scene of folly and expedient relied upon was to instigate the natives, violence, than the conduct of the Madras government men and officers, to disobey their European com to its civil servants, exhibited during the whole period manders; an expedient by which present safety was of the mutiny. secured at the expense of every principle upon which Upon the whole, it appears to us, that the Indian the permanence of our Indian empire resis. There army was ultimately driven into revolt by the indisnever was in the world a more singular spectacle than cretion and violence of the Madras government; and to see a few thousand Europeans governing so despo- that every evil which has happened might, with the tically fifty or sixty millions of people, of different greatest possible facility, have been avoided. climate, religion, and habits-forming them into large
We have no sort of doubt that the governor always and well-disciplined armies and leading them out io meant well; but we are equally certain that he almost the further subjugation of the native powers of India. always acted ill; and where incapacity rises to a cer. But can any words be strong enough to paint the rash- tain height, for all practical purposes, the motive is ness of provoking a mutiny, which could only be got of very little consequence. That the late General under by teaching these armies to act against their Macdowall was a weak man, is unquestionable. He European commanders, and to use their actual strength was also irritated (and not without reason), because in overpowering their officers ?-_or, is any man en he was deprived of a seat in council, which the com. titled to the praise of firmness and sagacity, who gets manders before him had commonly enjoyed. A little rid of a present danger by encouraging a principle attention, however, on the part of the governmentwhich renders that danger more frequent and the compliment of consulting him upon subjects conviolent. We will venture to assert, that a more un nected with his profession-any of those little arts wise or a more unstatesmanlike action was never com- which are taught, not by a consummate political skill, mitted by any man in any country; and we are griev. but dictated by common good nature, and by the habit ously mistaken, if any length of time elapse before of mingling with the world, would have produced the the evil consequences of it are felt and deplored by effects of conciliation, and employed the force of Ge. every man who deems the welfare of our Indian neral Macdowall's authority in bringing the army into colonies of any importance to the prosperity of the a better temper of mind. Instead of this, it appears mother country We cannot help contrasting the to have been almost the object, and if not the object, management of t e discontents of the Madras army, certainly the practice, of the Madras government to with the manner in which the same difficulty was got neglect and insult this officer. Changes of the greatest over with the army at Bengal. A little increase of importance were made without his advice, and even attention and emolument to the head of that army, without any communication with him ; and it was too under the management of a man of rank and talents, visible to ihose whom he was to command, that he dissipated appearances which the sceptred pomp of a himself possessed no sort of credit with his superiors. merchant's clerk would have blown up into a rebellion As to the tour which General Macdowall is supposed in three weeks ; and yet the Bengal army is at this to have made for the purpose of spreading disatfection moment in as good a state of discipline, as the Eng. among the troops, and the part which he is representlish fleet in which Lord Howe made such abject con. ed by the agents to have taken in the quarrels of the cessions--and in a state to be much more perinanently civilians with the government, we utterly discredit depended upon than the army which has been so these imputations. They are unsupported by any kind effectually ruined by the inconveniently great soul of of evidence; and we believe them to be mere inven. the present governor of Madras.
tions, circulated by the friends of the Madras govern. Sir George Barlow's agent, though faithful to his ment. General Macdowall appears to us to have been employment of calumniating those who were in any a weak, pompous man ; extremely out of humour; degree opposed to his principal, seldom loses sight of offended with the slights he had experienced; and sound discretion, and confines his invectives to whole whom any man of common address might have ma. bodies of men, except where the dead are concerned. naged with the greatest ease : but we do not see, in * We should have been alarmed to have seen Sir George disallection; and
any part of his conduct, the shadow of disloyalty and
are persuaded, that the assertion Barlow, junior, church wardeu of St. George's, Hauover Square, would never have been made, it he himself had been an office so nobly ndled by Giblet and Leslie; it was an huge afliction to see so incapable a man at the head of the Indian alive to prove its injustice. empire.
Besides the contemptuous treatment of General
Macdowall, we have great doubts whether the Mad. mankind, as the reverend prelate has done to abridge ras government ought not to have suffered Colonel them. Monro to be put upon his trial; and to punish the We must begin with denying the main position upofficers who solicited that trial for the purgation of on which the Bishop of Lincoln has built his reason. their own characters, appears to us (whatever the in- ing—The Catholic Religion is not tolerated in England. tention was) to have been an act of mere tyranny. We No man can be fairly said to be permitted to enjoy think, too, that General Macdowall was very hastily his own worship who is punished for exercising that and unadvisedly removed from his situation ; and upon worship. His lordship seems to have wo other idea the unjust treatment of Colonel Capper and Major of punishment, than "lodging a man in the Poultry Boles there can scarcely be two opinions. In the pro- compter, or flogging him at the cart's tail, or fining gress of the mutiny, instead of discovering in the him a sum of money ;-just as if incapacitating a man Madras government any appearances of temper and from enjoying the dignities and emoluments to which wisdom, they appear to us to have been quite as much men of similar condition, and other faith, may fairly irritated, and heated as the army, and to have been be- aspire, was not frequently the most severe and gall. trayed into excesses nearly as criminal, and infinitely ing of all punishments. This limited idea of the namore contemptible and puerile. The head of a great ture of punishment is the more extraordinary, as incakingdom bickering with his officers about invitations pacitation is actually one of the most common punishto dinner-the commander-in-chief of the forces nego-ments in some branches of our law. The sentence of tiating that the dinner should be loyally eaten-the a court-martial frequently purports, that a man is renobstinate absurdity of the test the total want of se- dered for ever incapable of serving his majesty, &c. lection in the objects of punishment—and the wicked- &c.; and a person not in holy orders, who performs ness, or the insanity, of teaching the Sepoy to rise the functions of a clergyman, is rendered for over inagainst his European officer-the contempt of the capable of holding any preferment in the church. decision of juries in civil cases_and the punishment of There are, indeed, many species of offence for which the juries themselves; such a system of conduct as no punishment more apposite and judicious could be this would infallibly doom any individual to punish- devised. It would be rather extraordinary, however, ment, if it did not, fortunately for him, display pre- if the court, in passing such a sentence, were to as cisely that contempt of men's feelings, and that pass. sure the culprit, that such incapacitation was not by ion for insulting multitudes, which is so congenial to them 'considered as a punishment; that it was only our present government at home, and which passes exercising a right inherent in all governments, of de. now so currently for wisdom and courage. By these termining who should be eligible for office and who means, the liberties of great nations are frequently de- ineligặble. His lordship thinks the toleration comstroyed—and destroyed with impunity to the perpe. plete, because he secs a permission in the statutes for trators of the crime. In distant colonies, however, the exercise of the Roman Catholic worship. He sees governors who attempt the same system of tyranny the permission—but he does not choose to see the are in no little danger from the indignation of their consequences to which they are exposed who arail subjects; for though men will often yield up their themselves of this permission. It is the liberality of happiness to kings who have been always kings, they a father who says to his son, Do as you please, my are not inclined to show the same deference to men dear boy; follow your own inclination. "Judge for who have been merchants' clerks yesterday, and are yourselt'; you are as free as air. But remember, if kings to-day. From a danger of this kind, the gover. you marry that lady, I will cut you off with a shilling.' nor of Madras appears to us to have very narrowly We have scarcely ever read a more solemn and frivoescaped. We sincerely hope that he is grateful for his lous statement than the Bishop of Lincoln's antithetigood luck; and that he will now awake from his gor. cal distinction between persecution and the denial of geous dreams of mercantile monarchy, to good nature, political power. moderation, and common sense.
• It is sometimes said, that papists, teing excluded from power, are consequently persecuted; as if exclusion from power and religious persecution were convertible terms.
But surely this is to contound things totally distinct in their BISHOP OF LINCOLN'S CHARGE." (EDINBURGH nature. Persecution inflicts positive punishment upon perREVIEW, 1813.)
sons who hold certain religious tenets, and endeavours to
accomplish the renunciation and extinction of those tenets A Charge delivered to the Clergy of the Diocese of Lincoln, at by forcible means : exclusion from power is entirely neza:
the Triennial Vistation of that Diocese in May, June, and tive in its operation-it only declares, that those who hold July, 1812. By George Tomline, D. D., F. R. S., Lord certain opinions shall not fill certain situations; but it ac Bishop of Lincoln. London. Cadell & Co. 4to.
knowledges men to be perfectly free to hold those opinions. It is a melancholy thing to see a man, clothed in soft Persecution compels men to adopt a prescribed faith, or to raiment, lodged in a public palace, endowed with a rich suffer the loss of liberty, property, or even life: exclusin portion of the product of other men's industry, using all from power prescribes no faith ; it allows men to think and the influence of his splendid situation, however conscien. Persecution requires men to worship God in one and in no
believe as they please, without molestation or interference. tiously, to deepen the ignorance, and inflame the fury, of other way ; exclusion from power 'neither commands nor his fellou-creatures. These are the miserable results of forbids any mode of divine worship--it leaves the business thai policy which has been so frequently pursued för of religion, where it ought to be left, to every man's jud : these fifty years past, of placing men of mean, or middling ment and conscience. Persecution proceeds from a bigoted abilities, in high ecclesiastical stations. In ordinary and sanguinary spirit of intolerance; exclusion from power times, it is of less importance who fills them ; but when is founded in the natural and rational principle of self-prothe bitter period arrives, in which the people must give and to individuals. History informs us of the mischievous
tection and self-preservation, equally applicable to nations up some of their darling absurdities ;-when the senseless and fatal ettects of the one, and proves the expediency and clamour, which has been carefully handed down from necessity of the other.'-(PP. 16, 17.) father fool to son fool, can be no longer indulged ;-when it is of incalculable importance to turn the people to a bet.
We will venture to say, there is no one sentence in ter way of thinking ; The greatest impediments to all ame- this extract which does not contain either a contra. lioration are too often found among those to whose coun- diction, or a misstatement. For how can that law ac. cils, al such periods, the country ought to look for wis- knowledge men to be perfectly free to hold an opinidom and peace.
We will suppress, however, the feel on, which excludes from desirable situations all who ings of indignation which such productions, from such hold that opinion? How can that law be said neither men, naturally occasion. We will give the Bishop of to molest, nor interfere, which meets a man in every Lincoln credit for being perfectly sincere; we will sup branch of industry and occupation, to institate an inpose, that every argument he uses has not been used quisition into his religious opinions? And how is the and refuted ten thousand times before ; and we will sit business of religion left to every man's own judgment down as patiently to defend the religious liberties of and conscience, where so powerful a bonus is given to
one set of religious opinions, and such a mark of infa* It is impossible to conceive the mischief which this mean my and degradation fixed upon all other modes of and cunning prelate did at this period.
belief? But this is comparatively a very idle part of
the question. Whether the present condition of the and then treating of them as if they deserved the ac. Catholics is or is not to be denominated a perfect tive and present attention of serious men. But if no state of toleration, is more a controversy of words than measure is to be carried into execution, and if no prothings. That they are subject to some restraints, the vision is safe in which the minute inspection of an inbishop will admit the important question is, whether genious man cannot find the possibility of danger, then or not these restraints are necessary? For his lord. all inhuman action is impeded, and no human instituship will, of course, allow, that every restraint upon tion is safe or commendable. The king has the power human liberty is an evil in itself: and can only be jus- of pardoning, -and so every species of guilt may retified by the superior good which it can be shown to main unpunished: he has a negative upon legislative produce. My lord's fears upon the subject of Catho- acts, and so no law may pass. None but PresbyteriLic emancipation are conveyed in the following para. ans may be returned to ihe House of Commons-and graph:
so the Church of England may be voted down. The * It is a principle of our constitution, that the king should Scottish and Irish members may join together in both
If probability is put have advisers in the discharge of every part of his royal houses, and dissolve both unions functions--and is it to be imagined that Papists would advise out of sight,--and if, in the enumeration of dangers, it measures in support of the cause of Protestantism? A si- is sufficient to state any which, by remote contingenmilar observation may be applied to the two Houses of cy, may happen, then it is time we should begin to Parliament: would Popish peers or Popish members of the provide against all the host of perils which we have House of Commons, enact laws for the security of the Pro
just enumerated, and which are many of them as like. testant government? Would they not rather repeal the ly to happen, as those which the reverend prelate has whole Protestant code, and make Popery again the estab- stated in his charge. His lordship forgets that the lished religion of the country?'-(p. 14.)
Catholics are not asking for election but for elegibility And these are the apprehensions which the clergy -not to be admitted into the cabinet, but noi to be of the diocese have prayed my lord to make public. excluded from it. A century may elapse before any
Kind Providence never sends an evil without a rem. Catholic actually becomes a member of the cabinet'; edy: -and arithmetic is the natural cure for the pas- and no event can be more utterly destitute of probabil. sion of fear. If a coward can be made to count his ity, than that they should gain an ascendency there, enemies, his terrors may be reasoned with, and he may and direct that ascendency against the Protestant in think of ways and means of counteraction. Now, terest. If the bishop really wishes to know upon what might it not have been expedient that the reverend our security is founded ;—it is upon the prodigious and prelate, before he had alarmed his country clergy with decided superiority of the Protestant interest in the Brit. the idea of so large a measure as the repeal of Protesish nation, and in the United Parliament. No Protesttantism, should have counted up the probable number ant king would select such a cabinet, or countenance of Catholics who would be seated in both houses of such measures ; no man would be mad enough to atParliament ? Does he believe that there would be ten tempt them; the English Parliament and the English Catholic peers, and thirty Catholic commoners? But, people would not endure it for a moment. No man, admit double that number, (and more, Dr. Duigenan indeed, under the tity of the mitre, would have himself would not ask,)- will the Bishop of Lincoln se ventured such an extravagant opinion.-Wo to him, if riously assert, that he thinks the whole Protestant he had been only a dean. But, in spite of his veneracode in danger of repeal from such an admixture of ble office, we must express our decided belief, that his Catholic legislators as this? Does he forget, amid the lordship (by no means adverse to a good bargain) innumerable auswers which may be made to such sort would not pay down five pounds, to receive fifty mil. of apprehensions, what a picture he is drawing of the lion for his posterity, whether the majority of the weakness and versatility of Protestant principles ?- cabinet should be (Catholic emancipation carried) that an handful of Catholics, in the bosom of a Protes. members of the Catholic religion. And yet,
such tant legislature, is to overpower the ancient jealousies, terrors as these, which, when put singły to him, þis the fixed opinions, the inveterate habits of twelve mil. better senses would laugh at, he has thought fit to exlions of people ?—that the king is to apostatize, the cite his clergy to petition, and done all in his power to clergy to be silent, and the Parliament to be taken by increase the inass of hatred against the Catholics. surprise ?-that the nation is to go to bed over night, It is true enough, as his lordship remarks, that and to see the Pope walking arm in arm with Lord events do not depend upon laws alone, but upon the Castlereagh the next morning ?-One would really sup. wishes and intentions of those who administer these pose, from the bishop's fears, that the civil defences laws. But then his lordship totally puts out of sight of mankind were, like their military bulwarks, trans. | two considerations—the improbability of Catholics ferred, by superior skill and courage, in a few hours, ever reaching the highest offices of the state—and from the vanquished to the victor—that the distruc- those fixed Protestant opinions of the country, which tion of a church was like the blowing up of a mine, would render any attack upon the established church deans, prebendaries, churchwardens and overseers, all so hopeless and, therefore, so improbable. Admit a up in the air in an instant. Does his lordship, really supposition (to ús perfectlý ludicrous, but still necesimagine, when the mere dread of the Catholics becom- sary to the bishop's argument), that the cabinet coun. ing legislators has induced him to charge his clergy, cil consisted entirely of Catholics, we should even and his agonized clergy, to extort from their prelate then have no more fear of their making the English the publication of the charge, that the full and mature people Catholics, than we should have of a cabinet of danger will produce less alarm than the distant suspi- butchers making the Hindoos eat beef. The bishop cion of it has done in the present instance ?--that the has not stated the true and great security for any Protestant writers, whose pens are ow up to the fea course of human actions. It is not the word of the ther in ink, will at any future period, yield up their law, nor the spirit of the government, but the general church without passion, pamphlet, or pugnacity? We way of thinking among the people, especially when do not blame the Bishop of Lincon for being afraid ; that way of thinking is ancient, exercised upon high but we blame him for not rendering his fears intelligi interests, and connected with striking passages in hisble and tangible-for not circumscribing and particu- tory. The Protestant church does not rest upon the larizing them by some individual case--for not show- little narrow foundations where the Bishop of Lincoln ing us how it is possible that the Catholics (granting supposes it to be placed : if it did, it would not be their intentions to be as bad as possible) should ever worth saving: It rests upon the general opinion enterbe able to ruin the Church of England. His lordship tained by a free and reflecting people, that the docappears to be in a fog? and as daylight breaks in upon trines of the church are true, her pretensions moderate, him, he will be rather disposed to disown his panic. and her exhortations useful. It is accepted by a peo. The noise he hears is not roaring,—but braying ; the ple who have, from good taste, an abhorrence of sa. teeth and the mane are all imaginary; there is noth. cerdotal mummery; and from good sense, a dread of ing but ears. It is not a lion that stops the way, but sacerdotal ambition. Those feelings, so generally
diffused, and so clearly pronounced on all occasions, One method his lordship takes. in handling this ques. are our real bulwarks against the Catholic religion, and tion, is by pointing out dangers that are barely possible, I the reul cause which makes it so safe for the best