Page images

due bounds to show them that to do good requires a nians. But when the attorney-general for the time little more talent and reflection than they are aware being ingratiates himself with the court, by nibbling of,-and, above all, to impress upon them that true at this valuable privilege of the people, it is very easy zeal for virtue knows no distinction between the rich to treat hostility to his measures as a minute and fri. and the poor; and that the cowardly and the mean volous opposition to the government, and to persuade can never be the true friends of morality, and the pro- the mass of mankind that it is so. In fact, when a moters of human happiness. It they attend to these nation has become free, it is extremely difficult to per. Tough doctrines, they will ever find in the writers of suade them that their freedom is only to be preserved this journal their warmest adınirers, and their most by perpetual and minute jealousy. They do not obsincere advocates and friends.

serve that there is a constant, perhaps an unconscious, effort on the part of their governors, to diminish, and so ultimately to destroy, that freedom. They stupid. ly imagine that what is, will always be ; and, con.

I tented with the good they have already gained, are CHARACTERS OF FOX. (EDINBURGH REVIEW,

easily persuaded to suspect and vilify those friends1809.)

the object of whose life it is to preserve that good, Characters of the late Charles James For, By Philopatris and to increase it. Varvicensis. 2 vols. 8vo.

| It was the lot of Mr. Fox to fight this battle for the

greater part of his life; in the course of which time This singular work consists of a collection of all i

he never was seduced by the love of power, wealth, the panegyrics passed upon Mr. Fox, after his de

nor popularity, to sacrifice the happiness of the many cease, in periodical publications, speeches, sermons,

to the interests of the few. He rightly thought, that or elsewhere,-in a panegyric upon Mr. Fox by Philo.

kings, and all public officers, were instituted only for patris himself, -and in a volume of notes by ihe said

the good of those over whom they preside; and he Philopatris upon the said punegyric.

acted as if this conviction was always present to his Of the panegyrics, that by Sir James Mackintosh

mind; disdaining and withstanding that idolatrous appears to us to be by far the best. It is remarkable

tendency of mankind, by which they so often not on. for good sense, acting upon a perfect knowledge of his in

y sutter, but invite run from that power which they subject, for simplicity, and for feeling. Amid the

themselves have wisely created for their own happi. languid or turgid efforts of mediocrity, it is delightful

Iga ness. He loved, too, the happiness of his country. to notice the skill, attention, and resources of a supe. rior man.-of a man, too, who seems to feel what he exhausting the resources, by fiattering the ignorant

men more than their favour; and while others were writes,-who does not aim at conveying his meaning

ning prejudices and foolish passions of the country, Mr. in rhetorical and ornamented phrases, but who uses Fox was content to be odious to the people, so long as plain words to express strong sensations. We cannot

he could be useful also. It will be long before we help wishing, indeed, that Sir James Mackintosh had

witness again such pertinacious opposition to the been more diffuse upon the political character of Mr.

: alarming power of the crown, and to the follies of our Fox, the great feature of whose life was the long

ng public measures, the necessary consequence of that and unwearied opposition which he made to the low

power. That such opposition should ever be united cunning, the profligate extravagance, the sycophant again with such easaordinary talents, it is perhaps, mediocrity, and the stupid obstinacy of the English

in vain to hope. court.

One little exception to the eulogium of Sir James To estimate the merit and the difficulty of this op- Mackintosh uron Mr. Fox, we cannot help making. position, we must remember the enormous influence We are no adınirers of Mr. Fox's poetry. His Vers which the crown, through the medium of its patron.

de Societé appears to us flat and insipid. To write age, exercises in the remotest corners of the kingdom,

gdom, verses was the only thing which Mr. Fox ever at. -the number of subjects whom it pays,-the muchita

tempted to do, without doing it well. In that single greater number whom it keeps in a state of expecta. l instance he seems to have mistaken his talent. tion,--and the ferocious turpitude of those mercena

Immediately after the collection of panegyrics rics whose present prospects and future hopes are which these volumes contain, follows the eulogium threatened by honest, and exposed by cloquent men. of Mr. Fox by Philopatris himself; and then a volume It is the easiest of all things, ton, in this country, to of notes upon a variety of topics which this eulogium make Englishinen believe that those who oppose the has suggested. Of the laudatory talents of this War. governinent wish to ruin the country. The English wie

wickshire patriot, we shall present our readers with a are a very busy people ; and, with all the faults of

specimen. their governors, they are still 'a very happy people. They have, as they ought to have, a perfect confi- Mr. Fox, though not an adept in the use of political dence in the administration of justice. The rights wilex, was very unlikely to be the dupe of them. ] which the different classes of men exercise the one conversant in the ways of man, as well as in the contents over the other are arranged upon equituble principles. of books. He was acquainted with the peculiar language Lile, liberty and property are protected from the vio- of states, their peculiar forms, and the grounds and effects lence and caprice of power.

of their peculiar usages. From his earliest youth, he had

The visible and imine investicated tbe science of politics in the greater and the diate stake, therefore. for which politicians play, is smaller scale; he had studied it in the records of history, not large enough to attract the notice of the people, both popular and rare-in the conferences of ambassadors and to call thein off from their daily occupations, to in the archives of royal cabinets-in the minuter detail of investigate thoroughly the character and motives of memoirs and in collected or straggling anecdotes of the men engaged in the business of legislation. The peo-wrangles, intrigues, and cabals, which, springing up in the ple can only understand, and attend to the last results secret recesses of courts, shed their baneful intluence on

the determinations of sovereigns, the fortune of favourites, ot a long series of measures. They are impatient of

and the tranquillity of kingdoms. But that statesmen of the details which lead to these results; and it is the all ages, like priests of all religions, are in all respects alike, easiest of all things to make them believe that those is a doctrine the propagation of which he left, as an ingloriwho insist upon such details are actuated only by fac-ous privilege, to the misanthrope, to the recluse, to the tious motives. We are all now groaning under the factious incendiary, and to the unlettered multitude. For weight of taxes: but how often was Mr. Fox followed himself, he thought it no very extraordinary stretch of

penetration or charity, to admit that human nature is every by the curses of his country for protesting against the

wbere nearly as capable of emulation in good, as in evil. two wars which have loaded us with these taxes He boasted of no very exalted heroism, in opposing the the one of which wars has made America independ calmness and firmness of conscious integrity to the shuffling ent, and the other rendered France omnipotent. The and slippery movements, the feints in retreat, and feints in case is the same with all the branches of public liber advance, the dread of being over-reached, or detected in ty. If the broad and palpable question were, whether attempts to over-reach, and all the other humiliating and

mortifying anxieties of the most accomplished proficients every book which issues from the press should be sub

in the art of diplomacy. He reproached himself for no jected to the license of a general censor, it would be

quilt, when he endeavoured to obtain that respect and conimpossible to blacken the character of any man who, ! fidence which the human heart unavoidably feels in its so called upon, defended the liberty of publishing opi- intercourse with persons who neither wound our pride, nor take aim at our happiness, in a war of hollow and ambigu. show the various methods in which the parts of speech ous words. He was sensible of no weakness in believing I can be marshalled and arra yed. This, which would that politicians who, after all, "know only as they are the tiresame in the ephemeri

"know only as they are I be tiresome in the ephemeral productions of a newspa. known," may, like other human beings, be at first the in- . voluntary creatures of circumstances, and seem incorrigible per

per, is intolerable in two closely printed volumes.“ from the want of opportunities or incitements to correct Again, stralige as it may appear to this author to themselves; that, bereft of the pleas usually urged in vin- say so, he must not fall into the frequent mistake of

en who are fearful of being de- rural politicians, by supposing that the understandings ceived, they, in their othcial dealings with him, would not of all Europe are occupied with him and his opinions. wantonly lavish the stores they had laid up for huckstering His ludicrous self-importance is perpetually destroying in a traffic, which, ceasing to be profitable, would begin to

o the effect of virtuous feeling and just observation, be intamous; and that, possibly, here and there, it encouracel by example, they might learn to prefer the shorter leaving his readers with a disposition to laugh, where process, and surer results of plain dealing, to the delave. I they might otherwise learn and adınire. the vexations, and the uncertain or transient success, both of old-fashioned and new-fangled chicanery.'-(I. 209_211.) I have been asked, why, after pointing out by name the It is impossible to read this singular book without

persons who seemed to me most qualified for reforming our

penal code, I declined mentioning such ecclesiastics &> might being everywhere struck with the lofty and honourable with vropriety be employed in preparing for the use of the feelings, the enlightened benevolence, and sterling churches a grave and impressive discourse on the authority honesty with which it a bounds. Its author is every. I of human laws; and as other men may ask the same ques where the circumspect friend of those moral and reli. tion which my friend did, I have determined, after some gious principles upon which the happiness of society deliberation, to insert the substance of my answer in this rests. Though he is never timnid, nor prejudiced, nor Pl

I place.

If the public service of our church should ever be dibigoted, his piety, not prudish and full of antiquated

rectly employed in giving effect to the sanctions of ou and atfected tricks, presents itself with an earnest as. I venal code, the office of drawing up such a discourse as I pect, and in a manly forn; obedient to reason, proue have ventured to recommend would, I suppose, be assigned to investigation, and dedicated to honest purposes to more than one person. My ecclesiastical superiors will, The writer, a clergyman, speaks of himself as a very I am sure, make a wise choice. But they will hardly conindependent man, who has always expressed his opin. demn me for saying, that the best sense expressed in the ions without any fear of consequences, or any hope of

best language may be expected from the Bishops of Landaff, bettering his condition.

Lincoln, st. David's, Cloyne, and Norwich, the Dean of We sincerely believe he | Christ Church, and the President of Mindalen College, speaks the truth ; and revere him for the life he has stord. I mean not to throw the slightest reproach upon led. Political independence-discouraged enough in other dignitaries whom I have not mentioned. But ! these times among all classes of men-is sure, in the should imagine that few of my enlightened contemporaries timid profession of the church, to doom a man to eter-hold an opinion ditlerent from my own, upon the masculine nal poverty and obscurity.

understanding of a Watson, the sound judgment of a TomThere are occasionally, in Philopatris, a great vigouri

lin, the extensive erudition of a Burgess, the exquisite taste

and good nature of a Bennet, the calm and enlicbtenei of style and felicity of expression. His display of benevolence of a Bathurst, the various and valuable allain classical learning is quite unrivalled his reading vari-ments of a Cyril Jackson, or the learning, wisdom, integrity, ous and good : and we may obserre, at intervals, a and piety of a Martin Ruth.'-(pp. 524-525.) talent for wit, of which he might have availed himself | to excellent purpose, had it been compatible with the In the name of common modesty, what could it have dignitied style in which he generally conveys his sen- signified whether this author had given a list of eccle timents. With all these excellent qualities of head siasticts whom he thought qualified to preach abots and heart, we have seldom met with a writer more tull human laws? what is his opinion worth? who called of faults than Philopatris. There is an event recorded for it? who wanted it? how many millions will be inin the Bible, which inen who write books should keep fluenced by it --and who, oh gracious Heaven! who constantly in their remembrance. It is there set forth. are a Burgess, Tomlin,-a Dennet, Cyru Jackthat many centuries ago, the earth was covered with son - Martin Routh ?- A Tom--a Jacka Harry, a great flood, by which the whole of the hunan race,-a Peter? All good men enough in their generation with the exception of one family, were destroyed. It doubtless they are. But what have they done for the appears also, that from thence, a great alteration was broad a? what has any one of them perpetrated, which made in the longevity of mankind, who, from a range will make hiin be remembered, out of the sphere of his of seven or eight hundred years, which they enjoyed private virtues, six months after his decease? Surely, hefore the flood, were confined to their present period scholars and gentlemen can drink tea with each other, of seventy or eighty years. This epoch in the history and eat bread and butter, without all this laudatory of man gave birth to the twofold division of the ante-crackling. diluvian and the postdiluvian style of writing, the lat- Philopatris has employed a great deal o ter of which naturally contraciéd itself into those in the subject of capital punishments, and has evinced a ferior limits which were better accommodated to the great deal of very laudable tenderness and humanity in abridged duration of hunan life and literary labour-discussing it. We are scarcely, however, converts to Now, to forget this event to write without the fear that system which would totally abolish the punisiof the deluge before his eyes, and to handle a subject ment of death. That it is much too frequently inflict. as if mankind could loumge over a pamphlet for ten ed in this country, we readily admit; but we suspeel it years, as before their submersion is to be guilty of will be always necessary to reserve it for the most pare the most gricvous error into which a writer can possi- nicious crimes. Death is the most terrible punishme at bly fall. The author of this book should call in the to the common people, and therefore the most preven. aid of some brilliant pencil, and cause the distressing tive, It does not perpetually outrage the feelings of scenes of the deluge to be portrayed in the most lively those who are innocent, and likely to remain innocente colours for his use. He should gaze at Noah and be as would be the case from the spectacle of conticis brier. The ark should constantly remind him of the working in the highroads and public places. Death is little time there is left for reading; and he should

and he should the most irrevocable punishment, which is 111 some learn, as they did in the ark, to crowd a great deal of sense a good; for, however necessary it might be to matter into a very little compass,

inflict labour and punishment for life, it would never le Philopatris must not only condense what he says in done. Kings and legislatures would take pity after 1 a narrower compass, but he must say it in a more nat- great lapse of years; the punishment would be remil. gral manner. Some persons can beither stir hand norted, and its preventive etlicacy, therefore, destroyed. foot without making it clear that they are thinking of We agree with Philopatris, that the executions should themselves, and laying little traps for approbation. In be more solemn; but still the English are not of a very the course of two long volumes, the Patriot of War. dramatic turn, and the thing must not be got up too wick is perpetually studying modes and postures :-the finely. Philopatris, and Mr. Jeremy Benthan before subject is the second consideration, and the mode of him, lay a vast stress upon the promulgation of laws, expression the first. Indeed, whole pages together and treat the inaitention of the English governinent to seem to be mere exercises upon the English language, this point is a serious evil. It may be so-but we do to evince the copiousness of our synonymes and to not happen to remember any man pumished for an of

fence which he did not know to be an offence; though, Marchmont, who left him his family papers, with an he might not know exactly the degree in which it was injunction to make use of them, “it it should ever be. punishable. Who are to read the laws to the people ? | come necessary. Among these papers was a narrawho would listen to them if they were read! who tive by Sir Patrick Hume, the earl's grandfather, of would comprehend them if they listened? Ina science the occurrences which berell him and his associates in like law there must be technical phrases known only to the unfortunate expedition undertaken by the Earl of professional men: business could not be carried on Argyle in 1655. Mr. Fox, in detailing a history of without them: and of what avail would it be to repeat that expedition has passed a censure, as Mr. Rose such phrases to the people? Again, what laws are to thinks, on the character of Sir Patrick; and to obvi. be repeated, and in what places! Is a law respecting ale the effects of that censure, he now finds it' neces. the number of' threads on the shuttle of a Spitalfields sary' to publish this volume. weaver to be read to the corn-growers of the Isle of All this sounds very chivalrous and affectionate ; but Thanet? If not, who is to make the selection! It we have three little remarks to make. In the first the law cannot be comprehended by listening to the place, Mr. Fox passes no censure on Sir Patrick Hume. virá roce repetition, is the reader to explain it, and are in the second place, this publication does by no means there to be law lectures all over the kingdom? The obviate the censure of which Mr. Rose complains. fact is, that the evil docs not exist. Those who are And, thirdly, it is utterly absurd, to ascribe Mr. Rose's not likely to commit the offence soon scent out the part of the volume, in which Sir Patrick Hume is newly devised punishments, and have been long tho- scarcely ever mentioned, to any anxiety about his reroughly acquainted with the old ones. Of the nice putation. applications of the law they are indeed ignorant ; but in the first place, it is quite certain that Mr. Fox they purchase the requisite skill of some man whose passes no censure on Sir Patrick Hume. On the conbusiness it is to acquire it; and so they get into less trary he says ot him, that · he had early distinguished

niet by trusting to others than they would do it himselt in the cause of liberty;' and afterwards rato they pretended to intorm themselves. The people, it him so very highly as to think it a sufficient reason for is true, are ignorant of the laws; but they are ignorant construing some doubtrul points in Sir John Cochrane's enly of the laws that do not concern them. A poacher conduct favourably, that he had always acted in conknows nothing of the penalties to which he exposes junction with Sir Patrick Hume, who is proved by the limself by stealing ten ihousand pounds from the pub- subsequent events, and, indeed, by the whole tenour of lic. Commissioners of publie boards are unacquainted his life and conduct, to have been uniformly sincere and with all the decretals of our ancestors respecting the zealous in the cause of his country. Such is the delibe

ing of hares : but the one pockets his extra per rate and unequivocal testimony which Mr. Fox has centage, and the other his leveret, with a perfect borne to the character of this gentleman ; and such the knowledge of the laws-the particular laws which it is historian, whose unjust censures have compelled the his business to elude. Philopatris will excuse us for Right Honourable George Rose to indite 250 quarto dulring from him upon a subject where he seems to pages, out of pure regard to the injured memory of this entertain such strong opinions. We have a real res. ancestor of his deceased patron. pect for all his opinions :-no man could form them Such is Mr. Fox's opinion, then, of Sir Patrick who had not a good heart and a sound understanding. Hume; and the only opinion he any where gives of his If we hare been severe upon his style of writing, it is character. With regard to his conduct, he observes, because we know his weight in the commonwealth : indeed, in one place, that he and the other gentlemen and we wish that the many young persons who justly engaged in the enterprise appear to have paid too little admire and imitate him should be turned to the difti- deference to the opinion of their noble leader; and cult task of imitating his many excellencies, rather narrates, in another that, at the breaking up of their than the useless and easy one of copying his few de- little army, they did not even stay to reason with him, tects.

but crossed the Clyde with such as would follow them. Now, Sir Patrick's own narrative, so far from contra

dicting either of these statements, confirms them both OBSERVATIONS ON THE HISTORICAL WORK in the most remarkable manner. There is scarcely a

OF THE RIGHT HONOURABLE CHARLES page of it that does not show the jealous and control. JAMES FOX. (EDINLURGH REVIEW, 1809.) lling spirit which was exercised towards their leader;

and with regard to the concluding scene, Sir Patrick's Obsertations on the Historical Work of the Right Honourable

own account makes infinitely more strongly against Charles James For. By the Right Honourable George

himself and Sir John Cochrane, than the general state. Rose: pp. 215. With a Narratire of the Erents ithich occurred in the Enterprise of the Earl of Argyle in 1685. By

Kument of Mr. Fox. So far from staying to argue with Sir Patrick Hume. London, 1809.

their general before parting with him, it appears that This is an extraordinary performance in itself ;-but

Sir Patrick did not so much as see him; and that the reasons assigned for its publication are still more

Cochrane. at whose suggestion he deserted him, had in

a manner ordered that unfortunate nobleman to leave extraordinary. A person of Mr. Rose's consequence, incessantly occupied, as he assures us, with officiall

Silicin their company. The material words of the narrative

are these :duties which take equally,' according to his elegant are expression, 'froin the disembarrassment of the mind On coming down to Kilpatrick, I met Sir John (Cochrane,) and the leisure of tin hinks it absolutely necessary with others accompanicing him; wn

with others accompanicing him; who takeing mee bu the hand, to explain to his country the motives which have led turned mee, saying, My heart, goe you with me? Whither goe him to do so idle a thing as to write a book. He you, said I? Over Clide by boate, said he.-I: Wher is Ar

gyle? I must see him..He: He is gone away to his owne would cot have it supposed, however, that he could be

countrey, you cannot see him.-1: How comes this change of tempted to so questionable an act by any light or ordi resolution, and that wee went not together to Glasgow ?-He. dinary consideration. Mr. Fox and other literary | It is no time to answer questions, but I shall satisfy you afterloungers may write from a love of fame, or a relish forward. To the boates wee came, filled 2, and rowed over,' &c. literature; but the official labours of Mr. Rose can -- An hopest gentleman who was present told mee afterward be suspended by higher calls. All his former publica. the manner of his parting with the Erle. Argyle being in the tons, he informs us, originated in a sense of public roome with Sir John, the gentleman coming in, found confu

sion in the Erle's countenance and speach. In end he said, duty ;' and the present, is é an impulse of private friend.

Sir John, I pray advise mee what shall I doe; shall I goe over ship. An ordinary reader may, perhaps, find some

Clide with you, or shall I goe to my owne countrey ? Sir ehending how Mr. Rose could be John ansve

se could be John answered, My Lord, I have told you my opinion ; you in pelled by private friendship’ to publish a heavy have some Highlanders here about you; it is best you goe to quarto of political observations on Mr. Fox's history: your owne countrey with them, for it is to no purpose for you

and for our own part, we inust confess, that after to go over Clide. My lord, faire you icell. Then call'd the the most diligent perusal of his long explanation. we gentleman, Come aray, Sir; who followed him when I met do not in the least comprehend it yet. The explana.

with him.'—Sir P. Hume's Narrative, pp. 63, 64. tion, however, which is very curious, it is our duty to Such are all the censures which Mr. Fox passes lay before our readers.

upon this departed worthy; and cuch the contradiction Mr. Rose was much patronized by the late Earl of which Mr. Rose now thinks it necessary to exhibit. It

N 2

is very true that Mr. Fox, in the course of his narrative, it could not have accounted at all for the publication is under the necessity of mentioning, on the credit of of Mr. Rose's book-the only thing to be accounted all the historians who have created of the subject, that I for. The narrative is given as an appendix of 65 pag. Argyle, after his capture, did express himself in terms es to a volume of upwards of 300. *În publishing the of strong disapprobation both of Sir Patrick Hume and narrative, Mr. Rose did not assume the character of of Sir John Cochrane; and said, that their ignorance ' an author,' and was not called upon, by the responsiand misconduct were, though not designedly, the chief bility of that character, to explain to the world his cause of his failure. Mr. Fox neither adopts nor re- reasons for ó submitting himself to their judgement.' jects this sentiment. He gives his own opinion, as we It is only for his book, then, exclusive o

arrahave already seen, in terms of the highest encomium, tive, that Mr. Rose can be understood to be offering on the character of Sir Patrick Hume, and merely re- any apology; and the apology he offers is, that it peats the expressions of Argyle as he found them in sprung from the impulse of private friendship. When Woodrow and other historians, and as he was under the matter is looked into, however, it turns out, that the necessity of repeating them, it he was to give any though private friendship may, by a great stret account of ihe last words of that unfortunate noble. supposed to have dictated the publication of the apman. It is this censure of Argyle, then, perhaps, and pendix, it can by no possibility account, or help to acnot any censure of Mr. Fox, that Mr. Rose intended to count, for the composition of the book. Nay, the len. obviat

ore us. But, upon this dency and tenour of the book are such as this ardent supposition, how did the appearance of Mr. Fox's book and romantic friendship must necessarily condemn. constitute that necessity which compelled the tender It contains nothing whaiever in praise or in defence of conscience of Lord Marchmont's executor to give to Sir Patrick Hume; but it contains a very keen, and the world this long-lost justification of his ancestor? not a very candid, attack upon his party and his prin. The censure did not appear for the first time in Mr. ciples. Professing to be published from anxiety to Fox's book. It was repeated during Sir Patrick's vindicate and exalt the memory of an insurgent revoown life, in all the papers of the time, and in all the lution whig, it consists almost entirely of an attempt historians since. Sir Patrick lived nearly forty good to depreciate whig principles, and openly to decry years after this accusation of Argyle was made public; and vilify such of Mr. Fox's opinions as Sir Patrick and thirty-six of those years in great credit, honour, Hume constantly exemplified in his actions. There and publicity. If he had thought that the existence of never was an effect, we believe, imputed to so improsuch an accusation constituted a kind of moral necessity bable a cause. for the publication of his narrative, it is evident that Finally, we may ask, if Mr. Rose's view, in this he would himself have published it; and if it was not publication, was merely to vindicate the memory of necessary then, while he was alive, to suffer by the Sir Patrick Hume, why he did not put into Mr. For's censure of his leader, or to profit by its refutation, it hands the information which would have rendered all is not easy to understand how it should be necessary vindication unnecessary ? It was known to all the now, when 130 years have elapsed from the date of it, world, for several years, that Mr. Fox was engaged in and the bones of its author have reposed for nearly a the history of that period ; and if Mr. Rose really century in their peaceful and honoured monument." thought that the papers in his custody gave a differ.

That the narrative never was published before, ent view of Sir Patrick's conduct from that exhibited though the censure, to which it is supposed to be an in the printed authorities, was it not his duty to put anti lote, had been published for more than a century. Mr. Fox upon his guard against being misled by the is a preity satisfactory proof that those who were and to communicate to him those invaluable docu. most interested and best qualified to judge, either did ments to which he could have access in no other way? not consider the censure as very deadly, or the anti. Did he doubt that Mr. Fox would have candour to

eftectual. We are very well contented state the truth, or that he would have stated with to leave it doubtful which of these was the case ; and pleasure any thing that could exalt the character of a we are convinced that all the readers of Mr. Rose's revolution whig? Did he imagine that any statement book will agree that it is still very doubtful. Sir Pal. of his could ever obtain equal notoriety and effect with rick, in his narrative, no doubt, says that Argyle was a statement in Mr. Fox's history ? Or did he poorly ext

nd obstinate ; but it withhold this information, that he might detract from is equally certain, that the earl said to him that he the value of that history, and have to boast to the pubwas jealous, disobedient, and untractable. Both were lic that there was one point upon which he was better men of honour and veracity; and, we doubt not, be informed than that illustrious statesman? As to the lieved what they said. It is even possible that both preposterous apology which seems to be hinted at in may have said truly; but, at this distance of time, the book itself, viz., that it was Mr. Fox's business to and with no new evidence but the averment of one of have asked for these papers, and not Mr. Rose's to the parties, it would be altogether ridiculous to pre- have offered them, we shall only observe, that it tend to decide which may have come nearest to an im. stands on a point of etiquette, which would scarcely partial statement. Before the publication of the pre. be permitted to govern the civilities of tradesmen's sent narrative, it is plain from Woodrow, Burnet, and wives; and that it seems not a little unreasonable to other writers, that considerable blame was generally lay Mr. Fox under the necessity of asking for papers, laid on Argyle for his peremptoriness and obstinacy; the very existence of which he could have no reason and, now that the narrative is published, it is still to expect. This Narrative of Sir Patrick Hume bas more apparent than ever that he had some ground for now lain in the archives of his family for 130 years, the charges he made against his officers. The whole unknown and unsuspected to all but its immediate tenour ot' it shews that they were constantly in the ha proprietor; and, distinguished as Sir Patrick was in bit of checking and thwarting him; and we have al. his day in Scotland, it certainly does not imply any ready seen that it gives a very lame and unsatisfacto extraordinary stupidity in Mr. Fox, not to know, by ry account of their strange desertion of him, when intuition, that there were papers of his existence their fortunes appeared to be desperate.

which might afford him some light on the subject of It is perfectly plain, therefore, we conceive, that his history. the publication of Mr. Fox's book constituted nei. We may appear to have dwelt too long on these ther a necessity nor an intelligible inducement for preliminary considerations, since the intrinsic value the publication of this narrative; and that the nar. of Mr. Rose's observations certainly will not be effect. rative, now that it is published, has no tendency ed by the truth or the fallacy of the motives he has to remove any slight shade of censure that histo- assigned for publishing them. It is impossible, how. ry may have thrown over the temper or prudence ever, not to see that, when a write of Sir Patrick Hume. But, even if all this had motive for his coming forward, he is commonly conbeen otherwise-if Mr. Fox had, for the first time, in- scious that the real one is discreditable ; and that to er. sinuated a censure on this defunct whig, and if the pose the hollowness of such a pretence, is to lay the narrative had contained the most complete refutation foundation of a wholesome distrust of his general fair. of such a censure, this might, indeed, have account. ness and temper. Any body certa

ainly had a right to ed for the publication of Sir Patrick's narrative ; but I publish remarks on Mr. Fox's work and nobody a

better right than Mr. Rose ; and if he had stated open. Rose's habits and connections. As we fear, however, ly, that all the habits and connections of his life had that the same justness and liberality of thinking aré Jed him to wish to see that work discredited, no one by no means general among the more obscure retain. would have been entitled to complain of his exertions ers of party throughout the country, we think it may in the cause. When he chooses to disguise this mo. not be without its use to quote a few of the passages tive, however, and to assign another which does not to which we have alluded, just to let the vulgar tories at all account for the phenomenon, we are so far from in the provinces see how much of their favourite doc. forgetting the existence of the other, that we are intrines has been abjured by their more enlightened ternally convinced of its being much stronger than we chief and leaders in the seat of government. should otherwise have suspected; and that it is only in the first pla

In the first place, there are all the passages (which dissembled, because it exists in a degree that could it would be useless and tedious to recite) in which the not have been decently avowed. For the same reason, patriotism and public virtue of Sir P. Hume are held therefore, of enabling our readers more distinctly to up to the admiration of posterity. Now, Sir P. Hume, appreciate the intellect and temper of this right hon that true and sincere lover of his country, whose tal. ourable author, we must say a word or two more of ents and virtues his sovereign acknowledged and rehis Introduction, before proceeding to the substance of warded,' and 'whose honours have been attended by his remarks.

the suffrage of his country and the approbation of good Besides the edifying history of his motive for wri. men,' was, even in the reign of Charles, concerned in ting, we are favoured, in that singular piece, with a designs analogous to those of number of his opinions upon points no way connected and, very soon after the accession of James, and (as with Mr. Fox or his history; and with a copious ac- Mr. Rose thinks) before that monarch had done any count of his labours and studies in all kinds of juridic. thing in the least degree blamable, rose up openly in al and constitutional leaming In order to confirm an arms, and endeavoured to stir up the people io over. opinion that a minute knowledge of our ancient history throw the existing government. * Even Mr. Fox hesi. is not necessary to understand our actual constitution, tates as to the wisdom and the virtue of those engaged he takes an unintelligible survey of the progress of our in such enterprises ;-and yet Mr. Rose, professing to government, from the days of King Alfred,mand see danger in that writer's excessive zeal for liberty, quotes Lord Coke, Plowden, Doomsday Book, Lord writes a book to extol the patriotism of a premature Ellesmere, Rymer's Fædera, Dugdale's Origines, the insurgent. Rolls of Parliament, Whitelock, and Abbot's Records ; After this, we need not quote our author's warm pan. but, above all, 'a report which I made several years egyrics on the Revolution that glorious event to ago on the state of the records in my custody. He which the measures of James necessarily led,'-or on then goes on, in the most obliging manner, to inform the character of Lord Sommers, whose wisdom, tal. his readers that 'Verto's Account of the Revolutions of ents, political courage and rirtue, would alone have Rome has been found very useful by persons who have been sufficient to insure the success of that measure.' read the Roman History; but the best model that I It may surprise some of his political admirers a little have met with for such a work as appears to me to be more, however, to find him professing that he concurs much wanted, is a short History of Poland, which I with Mr. Fox as to the expediency of the bill of exclu. translated nearly forty years ago, but did not publish ; sion,' (that boldest and most decided of all whig mea. the manuscript of which his majesty at the time did sures); and thinks that the events which took place me the honour to accept; and it probably is still in his in the next reign afford a strong justification of the majesty's library.' -Introduction, pp. xxiv. XXV.

conduct of the promoters of that measure. When his Truly all this is very interesting, and very much to tory friends have digested that sentiment, they may the purpose :--but scarcely more so than eight or nine look at his patriotic invectives against the degrading pages that follow, conlaining a long account of the connection of the two last of the Stuart princes with conversations which Lord Marchmont had with Lord the court of France ; and the scandalous profligacy by

broke, about the politics of Queen Anne's min. which Charles and his successor betrayed the best in. isters, and which Mr. Rose now gives to the world terests of their country for miserable stipends. There from his recollection of various conversations between is something very edifying, indeed, though we should himself and Lord Marchmont. He tells us, moreover, fear a little alarming to courtly tempers, in the warmth that accustomed as he has been to official accuracy in with which our author winds up h is diatribe on this statement,' he had naturally a quick eye for mistakes interesting subject. Every one,' he observes, 'who in fact or in deduction ;-that having Jong enjoyed carries on a clandestine correspondence with a foreign the confidence and affectionate friendship of Mr. Pitt,' power, in matters touching the interests o: Great he has been more scrupulous than he would otherwise Britain, is prima facie guilty of a great moral, as well have been in ascertaining the grounds of his animadas political, crime. If a subject, he is a traitor to his versions on the work of his great rival;—and that, king and his country; and it a monarch he is a traitor notwithstanding all this anxiety, and the want of dis- to the crown which he wears, and to the empire which embarrassment of mind' and leisure of time,' he has he governs. There may, by possibility, be circumcompiled this volume in about as many weeks as Mr. stances to extenuate the former; there can be none to Fox took years to the work on which it comments ! lessen our detestation of the latter.'-(pp. 149, 150.)

For the Observations themselves, we must say that Conformably to these sentiments, Mr. Rose expresswe have perused them with considerable pleasure-les his concurrence with all that Mr. Fox says of the not certainly from any extraordinary gratification arbitrary and oppressive measures which distinguish. which we derived from the justness of the sentiments, ed the latter part of Charles's reign ;-declares that or the elegance of the style, but from a certain agree he has manifested great temperance and forbearance able surprise which we experienced on finding how in the character which he gives of Jefferies ;-and un. few parts of Mr. Fox's doctrine were considered as derstated the enormity of the cruel and detestable provulnerable, even by Mr. Rose; and in how large a proceedings of the Scottish government, in its unheard of portion of his freest and strongest observations that acts of power, and the miseries and persecutions jealous observer has expressed his most cordial con- which it inflicted ;-admits that Mr. Fox's work treat. currence. The Right Honourable George Rose, we ed of a period in which the tyranny of the sovereign at rather believe, is commonly considered as one of the home was not redeemed by any glory or success least whiggish or democratical of all the public char. I abroad; and speaks of the Revolu acters who have lived in our times; and he has him when the full measure of the monarch's tyrannical self acknowledged, that a long babit of political oppo. usurpations made resistance a duty paramount to every sition to Mr. Fox' had perhaps given him a stronger consideration of personal or public danger.' bias against his favourite doctrines than he might It is scarcely possible, we conceive, to read these, otherwise have entertained. It was, therefore, no and many other passages which might be quoted slight consolation to us to find that the true principles from the work before us, without taking the author of English liberty had made so great a progress in the for a whig; and it certainly is not easy to comprehend opinions of all men in upper lite, as to extort such an how the writer of them could quarrel with any thing ample admission of them, even from a person of Mr. in Mr. Fox's history, for want of deference and vener.


« PreviousContinue »