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He may be a very hospitable archdeacon; but noth-1 Mr. Lewis will excuse us for the liberty we take in ing short of a positive miracle can make him an acute commenting on a few passages in his play which apreasoner.
pear to us rather exceptionable. The only information , which Cæsario, imagining his father to have been dead
for many years, receives of his existence, is in the fol. MATTHEW LEWIS. (EDINBURGH REVIEW. 1803.) I lowing short speech of Melchior.
MELCH. The Count San Lucar, long thought dead, but sa Alfonso King of Castile. A Tragedy, in five Acts. By M.
ved, G. Lewis. Price 2s. 6d.
It seems, by Amelrosa's care.-Time presses ALFONSO, king of Castile, had, many years previ.
I must away: farewell.' ous to the supposed epoch of the play, left his mini- To this laconic, but important information, Cæsario ster and general, Orsino, to perish in prison, from a makes no reply, but merely desires Melchior to meet false accusation of treason. "Cæsario, son to Orsino, him at one o'clock, under the Royal Tower, and for (who by accident had liberated Amelrosa, daughter some other purposes. of Alfonso, from the Moors, and who is married to In the few cases which have fallen under our obserher, unknown to the father,) becomes a great favour. vation, of fathers restored to life after a supposed death ite with the King, and avails himself of the command of twenty years, the parties concerned have, on the of the armies with which he is intrusted, to gratify first information, appeared a little surprised, and genehis revenge for his father's misfortunes, to forward rally asked a few questions--though we do not go the his own ambitious views, and to lay a plot by which length of saying it is natural to do so. This same Co. he may deprive Alfonso of his throne and his life. sario, (whose love of his father is a principal cause of Marquis Guzman, poisoned by his wife Ottilia in love his conspiracy against the King) begins criticising the with Cæsario, confesses to the King that the papers old warrior, upon his first seeing him again, much as a upon which the suspicion of Orsino's guilt was found. virtuoso would criticise an old statue that wanted an ed, were forged by him: and the King, learning from arm or a leg. his daughter Amelrosa that Orsino is still alive, re.
Orsino enters from the cave. pairs to his retreat in the forest, is received with the CÆSARIO.
Now by my life most implacable hauteur and resentment, and in vain
- A noble ruin! implores forgiveness of his injured minister. To the Amelrosa, who imagines her father to have banished same forest, Cæsario, informed of the existence of his her from his presence for ever, in the first transports of father, repairs, and reveals his intended plot against pardon, obtained by earnest intercessions, thus exthe King. Orsino, convinced of Alfonso's goodness claims :to his subjects, though incapable of forgiving him for
Lend thy doves, dear Venus, his unintentional injuries to himself, in vain dissuades
That I may send them where Cæsario strays: his son from the conspiracy; and at last, ignorant of And while he smooths their silver wings, and gives them their marriage, acquaints Amelrosa with the plot Tor drink the honey of his lips, I'll bid them formed by her husband against her father. Amel. Coo in his ear, bis Amelrosa's happy! rosa, already poisoned by Ottilia, in vain attempts to What judge of human feelings does not recognize in prevent Cæsario from blowing up a mine laid under these images of silver wings, doves and honey, the ge. the royal palace ; information of which she had renuine language of the passions ? ceived from Ottilia, stabbed by Cæsario to avoid her If Mr. Lewis is really in earnest in pointing out the Importunity. In the mean time, the King ha.! been coincidence between his own dramatic sentiments, and removed from the palace by Orsino, to his ancient the Gospel of St. Matthew, such a reference (wide as retreat in the forest : the people rise against the we know this assertion to be) evinces a want of judgusurper Cæsario; a battle takes place : Orsino stabs ment of which we did not think him capable. If it prn his own son, at the moment the King is in his son's ceeded from irreligious levity, we pity the man who power ; falls down from the wounds he bas received has bad taste enough not to prefer honest dulness to in battle; and dies in the usual dramatic style, re- such paltry celebrity. peating twenty-two hexameter verses. Mr. Lewis We beg leave to submit to Mr. Lewis, if Alfonso, says in his preface
considering the great interest he has in the decision, "To the assertion, that my way is stupid. I have nothing might not interfere a little in the long argument carried to object; if it be found so, even let it be so said ; but if on between Cæsario and Orsino, upon the propriety of (as was most falsely asserted of Adelmorn) any anonymous putting him to death. To have expressed any decisive writer should advance that this Tragedy is immoral, I ex- opinion upon the subject, might perhaps have been pect him to prove his assertion Dy quoting the objectionable incorrect; but a few gentle hints as to that side of the passages. This I demand as an act of justice.'
question to which he leaned, might be fairly allowed to We confess ourselves to have been highly delighted be no very unnatural incident. with these symptoms of returning, or perhaps nascent This tragedy delights in explosions. Alfonso's em. purity in the mind of Mr. Lewis--a délight somewhat pire is destroyed by a blast of gunpowder, and reimpaired, to be sure, at the opening of the play, by the stored by a clap of thunder. After the death of Cæ. following explanation which Ottilia gives of her early sario, and a short exhortation to that purpose by rising.
Orsino, all the conspirators fall down in a Thunder
clap, ask pardon of the king, and are forgiven. This *ACT I. SCENE I.-The palace garden. ---Day-break. mixture of physical and moral power is beaut OTTILIA enters in a night-dress: her hair flows dishevelled. How interesting a water-spout would appear among OTTIL. Dews of the morn descend! Breathe, summer Mr. Lewis's kings and queens! We anxiously look gales:
forward, in his next tragedy, to'a fall of snow three or My flushed cheeks woo ye! Play, sweet wantons, play four feet deep; or expect that a plot shall gradually 'Mid my loose tresses, fon my panting breast,
It by means of neral thaw. Quench my blood's burning fever! Vain, vain prayer!! All is not so bad in this play. There is some strong Not Winter throned 'midst Alpine snows, whose will Can with one breath, one touch. congenl' whole realmy, painting, which shows, every now and then, the hand And blanch whole seas: not tha tiend's self could ease of a master. The agitation which Cæsario exhibits This heart, this gulf of flames, his purple kingdom, upon his first joining the conspirators in a cave, preWhere passion rules and rages!
vious to the blowing up of the mine, and immediately Ottilia at last becomes quite furious, from the convic. a
anvie. after stabbing Ottilia, is very fine. tion that Cæsario has been sleeping with a second lady, 'CESARIO. “Ay, shout, shout, called Estella ; whereas be has really been sleeping i
And kneeling greet your blood-annointed king, with a third lady, called Amelrosa. Passing across the
This steel his sceptre ! Tremble, dwarfs in guilt, stage, this gallant gentleman takes an opportunity of
And own your master! Thou art proof, Henriquez,
'Gainst pity; I once saw thec stab in battle mentioning to the audience that he has been passing
A page who clasped thy knees: And Melchoir there his time very agreeably, meets (utilia, quarrels, makes Made quick work with a brother whom he hated. it up; and so end the first two or three scenes.
But what did I this night? Hear, hear, and reverence !
There was a breast on which my head had rested sure of novelty has ceased. For these reasons, it is
mankind the civilization of barbarous countries may wine there? For my soul's joyous !'--p. 86.
be, in this particular instance of it, the interest ot
Great Britain would seem to have been very little con. The resistance which Amelrosa opposes to the firing sulted. With fancitul schemes of universal good we of the mine, is well wrought out ; and there is some have no business to meddle. Why are we to erect good poetry scattered up and down the play, of which penitentiary houses and prisons at the distance of we should very willingly make extracts if our limits half the diameter of the globe, and to incur the enor. would permit. The ill success which it has justly mous expense of transporting their inhabitants to and experienced, is owing, we have no doubt, to the want at such a distance, it is extremely difficult to discover. of nature in the characters, and of probability and It certainly is not from any deficiency of barren is. good arrangement in the incidents ; objections of some lands on our own coast, nor of uncultivated wastes in force.
the interior ; and if we were sufficiently fortunate to be wanting in such species of accomodation, we might
discover in Canada, or the West Indies, or on the AUSTRALIA. (EDINBURGH REVIEW, 1803.) coast of Africa, a climate inalignant enough, or a soil
sufficiently sterile, to revenge all the injuries which Account of the English Colony of New South Wales. Lieutenant-Colonel Collins of the Royal Marines. Vol. I have beo
vo. have been inflicted on society by pick-pockets, lar. II. 4to. Cadell and Davies, London.
cenists, and petty felons. Upon the foundation of a
new colony, and especially one peopled by criminals, To introduce an European population, and, conse- there is a disposition in Governinent (where any cira quently, the arts and civilization of Europe, into such cumstance in the commission of the crime affords the an untrodden country as New Holland, is to confer a least pretence for the commutation) to convert capital lasting and important benefit upon the world. If man punishment into transportation ; and by these means be destined for perpetual activity, and if the proper to be spetual activity, and if the proper to hold forth a very dangerous. t)
ugh certainly a objects of that activity be the subjugation of physical very unintentional encouragement to offences. And difficulties, and of his own dangerous passions, how when the history of the colony has been attentively absurd ate those systems which proscribe the acquisi. perused in the parish of St. Giles, the ancient aroca. tions of science and the restraints of law, and would tion of picking pockets will certainly not become more arrest the progress of man in the rudest and earliest
that it may evenstages of his existence! Indeed, opinions so very tually lead to the possession of a farm of a thousand extravagant in their nature must be attributed rather acres on the river Hawkesbury. Since the benevolent to the wantonness of paradox, than to sober reflection Howard attacked our prisons, incarceration has not and extended inquiry.
only become healthy but elegant ; and a county jail is To suppose the savage state permanent, we must precisely the place to which any pauper might wish suppose the numbers of those who compose it to be to retire to gratify his taste for magnificence as well stationary, and the various passions by which men as for comfort. Upon the same principle, there is have actually emerged from it to be extinct; and this some risk that transportation will be considered as is to suppose man a very different being from what he one of the surest roads to honour and to wealth ; and really is. To prove such a permanence beneficial, (if that no telon will hear a verdict of not guilty' without it were possible), we must have recourse to matter of considering himself as cut off in the fairest career of fact, and judge of the rude state of society, not from prosperity. It is foolishly believed, that the colony the praises ot tranquil literati, but from the narratives of Botany Bay unites our moral and coinmercial inte. of those who have seen it through a nearer and better rests, and that we shall receive hereafter an ample medium than that of imagination. There is an argu. equivalent, in bales of goods, for all the vices we ex. ment, however, for the continuation of evil, drawn port. Unfortunately, the expenses we have incurred from the ignorance of good ; by which it is contended, in founding the colony, will not retard the natural pro. that to teach men their situation can be better, is to gress of its emancipation, or prevent the attacks of teach them that it is bad, and to destroy that happi. other nations, who will be as desirous of reaping the ness which always results from an ignorance that any fruit, as if they had sown the seed. It is a colony, greater happiness is within our reach. All pains and besides, begun under every possible disadvantage; it is pleasures are clearly by comparison ; but the most de- too distant to be long governed, or well defended ; it plorable savage enjoys a sufficient contrast of good, to is undertaken, not by the voluntary association of in. know that the grosser evils from which civilization dividuals, but by Government, and by means of comrescues him are evils. A New Hollander seldom pas- pulsory labour. A nation must, indeed, be redundant ses a year without suffering from famine; the small. in capital, that will expend it where the hopes of a just pox falls upon him like a plague ; he dreads those return are so very small. calamities, though he does not know how to avert It may be a very curious consideration what we are them; but, doubtless, would find his happiness in. to do with this colony when it comes to years of ". creased, it they were averted. To deny this, is to sup- cretion. Are we to spend another hundred millions pose that men are reconciled to evils because they are of money in discovering its strength, and to humble inevitable ; and yet hurricanes, earthquakes, bodily ourselves again before a fresh set of Washingtons decay, and death, stand highest in the catalogue of and Franklins. The moment after we have suffered human calamities.'
such serious mischief from the escape of the old tiger, Where civilization gives new birth to new compari. we are breeding up a young cub, whom we cannot rensons unfavourable to savage life, with the information cer less ferocious or more secure. If we are gradual. that a greater good is possible, it generally connects ly to manumit the colony, as it is more and more ca. the means of attaining it. The savage no sooner be pable of protecting itself, the degrees of emancipation, comes ashamed of his nakedness than the looin is and the periods at which they are to take place, will ready to clothe him ; the forge prepares for him more be judged of very differently by the two nations. But perfect tools, when he is disgusted with the awkward. we confess ourselves not to be so sanguine as to sup. ness of his own; his weakness is strengthened, and his pose, that a spirited and commercial people would, in wants are supplied as soon as they are discovered ; and spite of the example of America, ever consent to aban. the use of the discovery is, that it enables him to derivedon their sovereignty over an important colony wit from comparison the best proof of present happiness. out a struggle. Endless blood and treasure will be A man born blind is ignorant of the pleasures of which exhausted to support a tax on kangaroos' skins ; he is deprived. After the restoration of his sight his faithful Commons will go on voting fresh supplies to happiness will be increased from two causes ;—from support a just and necessary war; and Newgate, then the delight he experiences at the novel accession of become a quarter of the world, will evince a heroism, power, and from the contrast he will always be enabled not unworthy of the great characters by whom she io make between his two situations, long after the plea. I was originally peopled.
! The experiment, however, is not less interesting in womb; which violence not unfrequently occasions the a moral, because it is objectionable in a commercial death of the unnatural mother also. * To this they have repoint of view. It is an object of the highest curiosity, I course to avoid the trouble of carrying the infant about thus to have the growth of a nation subjected to our :
when born, which, when it is very young, or at the breast, examination; to trace it by such faithful records, trom
is the duty of the woman. The operation for this destruc
tive purpose is termed Mee-bra. The burying an infant the first day of its existence; and to gather that (when at the breast) with the mother, if she should die, is knowledge of the progress of human atfairs, from ac. another shocking cause of the thinness of population among tual experience, which is considered to be only ac- them. The fact that such an operation as the Mee-bra was cessible to the conjectural reflections of enlightened practised by these wretched people, was communicated by minds.
one of the natives to the principal surgeon of the settleHuman nature, under very old governments, is some
ment,'-(p. 124, 125.) trimmed, and prined, and ornamented, and led into such a variety of factitious shapes, that we are almost). It is remarkable, that the same paucity of numbers ignorant of the appearance it would assume, if it were has been observed in every part of New Holland which left more to itseli. From such an experiment as that has hitherto been explored; and yet there is not the now before us, we shall be better able to appreciate smallest reason to conjecture that ihe population of it what circumstances of our situation are owing to those has been very recent; nor do the people bear any permanent laws by which all men are influenced, and marks of descent from the inhabitants of the numerous what to the accidental positions in which we have islands by which this great continent is surrounded. been placed. New circumstances will throw new The force of population can only be resisted by some light upon the effects of our religious, political, and great physical evils ; and many of the causes of this economical institutions, if we cause them to be adop. scarcity of human beings which Mr. Collins refers to ted as models in our rising empire ; and if we do not, the ferocity of the natives, are ultimately referable to we shall estimate the effects of their presence, by ob' the difficulty of support. We have always considered serving those which are produced by their non-exist. this phenomenon as a symptom extremely unfavouraence.
ble to the future destinies of this country. It is easy The history of the colony is at present, however, in to launch out into eulogiums of the fertility of nature its least interesting state, on account of the great pre in particular spots; but the most probable reason why ponderance of depraved inhabitants, whose crimes and a country that has been long inhabited, is not well inirregularities give a monotony to the narrative, which habited, is, that it is not calculated to support many it cannot lose, till the respectable part of the com inhabitants without great labour. It is difficult to munity come to bear a greater proportion to the crimi. suppose any other causes powerful enough to resist the nal.
impetuous tendency of man, to obey that mandate for These Memoirs of Colonel Collins resume the history increasc and multiplication, which has certainly been of the colony from the period at which he concluded better observed than any other declaration of the Di. it in his former volume, September, 1796, and conti. vine will ever revealed to us. nue it down to August 1801. They are written in the There appears to be some tendency to civilization, style of a journal, which though noi the most agreeable and some tolerable notions of justice, in a practice very mode of conveying information, is certainly the most similar to our custom of duelling; for duelling, though authentic, and contrives to banish the suspicion, and barbarous in civilized, is a highly civilized institution most probably the reality, of the interference of a book. among barbarous people: and when compared to as. maker-a species of genilemen who are now almost be. sassination, is a prodigious victory gained over human come necessary to deliver paval and military authors passions. Whoever kills another in the neighbourhood in their literary labours, though they do not always of Botany Bay, is compelled to appear at an appointed atone, by orthography and grammar, for the sacrifice of day before the friends of the deceased, and to sustain truth and simplicity. Mr. Collins's book appears to be the attacks of their missile weapons. 'If he is killed, written with great plainness and candour; he appears to he is deemed to have met with a deserved death ; it be a man always meaning well; of good, plain, com- not, he is considered to have expiated the crime for Inon sense ; and composed of those well-wearing mate-| the commission of which he was exposed rials which adapt a person for situations where genius There is in this institution a command over present and refinement would only prove a source of misery and impulses, a prevention of secrecy in the gratification of error.
of revenge, and a wholesome correction of that passion We shall proceed to lay before our readers an ana- by the effect of public observation, which evince a sulysis of the most important matter contained in this vo-periority to the mere animal passions of ordinary savalume.
ges, and form such a contrast to the rest of the history The natives in the vicinity of Port Jackson stand ex. of this people, that it may be considered as altogether tremely low, in point of civilization, when compared an anomalous and inexplicable fact. The natives differ with many other savages with whom the discoveries of very much in the progress they have made in the arts Captain Cook have inade us acquainted. Their no. of economy. Those to the north of tions of religion exceed even that degree of absurdity evince a considerable degree of ingenuity and contri. which we are led to expect in the creed of a barbarous vance in the structure of their houses, which are renpeople. In politics they appear to be scarcely advan-dered quite impervious to the weather, while the in. ced beyond family-governinent. Hnts they have none; habitants at Port Jackson have no houses at all. At and, in all their economical inventions, there is a Port Dalrymple, in Van Dieman's Land, there was eve. rudeness and deficiency of ingenuity, unpleasant, when ry reason to believe the natives were unacquainted contrasted with the instances of dexterity with which with the use of canoes; a fact extremely embarrassing the descriptions and importations of our navigators to those who indulge themselves in speculating on the have rendered us so familiar. Their numbers appear genealogy of nations; because it reduces them to the to us to be very small : a fact, at once, indicative necessity of supposing that the progenitors of this in. either of the ferocity of manners in any people, or sular people swam over from the main land, or that more probably, of the sterility of their country ; but they were aboriginal; a species of dilemma, which which, in the present instance proceeds from both effectually bars all conjecturc upon the intermixture of these causes,
nations. It is paintul to learn, that the natives have Gaining every day (says Mr. Collins) some further
begun to plunder and rob in so very alarming a man. knowledge of the inhuman habits and customs of these peo-ner that it has been repeatedly found necessary to lire ple, their being so thinly scattered through the country upon them; and many have, in consequence, fallen ceased to be a matter of surprise. It was almost daily seen, victims to their rashness. that from some trifling cause or other, they were continu- The soil is found to produce coal in vast abundance, ally living in a state of wartarc: to this must be added their salt, lime, very fine iron ore, timber fit for all purposes, brutal treatinent of their women, who are themselves excellent fax' and a tree. the bark of which is admira. equally destructive to the measure of population, by the horrid and cruel custom of endeavouring to cause a miscar
bly adapted for cordage. The discovery of coal riage, which their female acquaintances effect by pressing (which, by the by, we do not believe was ever before the body in such a way, as to destroy the infant in the I discovered so near the line) is probably rather a disad.
vantage than an advantage ; because, as it lies extreme-high eulogiums which have been made on the fertility ly favourable for sea carriage, it may prove to be a of the female sex in the climate of New Holland. cheaper fuel than wood, and thus operate as a discour. The Governor, who appears on all occasions to be agement to the clearing of lands. The soil upon the an extremely well-disposed man, is not quite so con. sea-coast has not been found to be very productive, versant in the best writings on political economy as though it improves in partial spots in the interior. The we could wish : and indeed (though such knowledge climate is healthy, in spite of the prodigious heat of would be extremely serviceable to the interests which the summer months, at which period the thermometer this Romulus of the Southern Pole is superintending,) has been observed to stand in the shade at 107, and it is rather unfair to exact from a superintendent of the leaves of garden vegetables to fall into dust, as if pick-pockets, that he should be a philosopher, In the they had been consumed with fire. But one of the 18th page we have the following information respect. most insuperable defects in New Holland, considered ing the price of labour : as the future country of a great people, is, the want of Some representations having been made to the Go. large rivers penetrating very far into the interior, and vernor from the settlers in different parts of the colony. navigable for small crafts. The Hawkesbury, the purporting that the wages demanded by the free labouring largest river yet discovered, is not accessible to boats people, whom they had occasion to hire, were so exorbitant for more than twenty miles. This same river occa- as to run away with the greatest part of the profit of their sionally rises above its natural level, to the astonishing farms, it was recommended to them to appoint quarterly height of fifty feet ; and has swept away, more than
meetings among themselves, to be held in each district, for
the purpose of settling the rate of wages to labourers in once, the labours and the hopes of the new people exi
every different kind of work; that, to this end, a written led to its banks.
agreement should be entered into, and subscribed by each The laborious acquisition of any good we have long settler, a breach of wbich should be punished by a penalty, enjoyed is apt to be forgotten. 'We walk and talk, to be fixed by the general opinion, and made recoverable in and run and read, without remembering the long and a court of civil judicature. It wus recommended to them to severe labour dedicated to the cultivation of these a
apply this forfeiture to the cornmon benefit; and they were
to transmit to the head-quarters a copy of their agreement, powers, the formidable obstacles opposed to our pro
with the rate of wages which they should from time to time gress, or the infinite satisfaction with which we over
establish, for the Governor's information, holding their first came them. He who lives among a civilized people, meeting as early as possible.' may estimate the labour by which society has been brought into such a state, by reading these annals of And again, at p. 24, the following arrangements on Botany Bay, the account of a whole nation exert. that head are enacted :ing itself to new floor the government-house, repair the "In pursuance of the order which was issued in January hospital, or build a wooden receptacle for stores. Yet last recommending the settlers to appoint meetings, at the time may come, when some Botany Bay Tacitus which they should fix the rate of wages that it might be shall record the crimes of an emperor lineally descend proper to pay for the ditferent kinds of labour which their ed from a London pick-pocket, or paint the valour with farms should require, the settlers had submitted to the Gowhich he has le ew Hollanders into the heart of
vernor the several resolutions that they had entered into,
by which he was enabled to fix a rate that be conceived to China. At that period, when the Grand Lahma is
be fair and equitable between the farmer and the labourer. sending to supplicate alliance; when the spice islands are purchasing peace with nutmegs; when enormous "The following prices of labour were now establishtributes of green tea and nankeen are wafted into Ported. viz. Jackson, and landed on the quays of Sydney, who will ever remember that the sawing of a few planks, and Felling forest timber, per acre . . the knocking together a few nails, were such a serious Ditto in brush ground, ditto . . . 0 10 trial of the energies and resources of the nation.
Burning off open ground, ditto . . . 1 The Government of the colony, after enjoying some' Ditto brush ground, ditto. . little respite from this kind of labour, has begun Breaking up new ground,ditto . . to turn its attention to the coarsest and most neces Chipping fresh ground, "ditto . sary species of manufactures, for which their wool Chipping in whent, ditto . appears to be well adapted. The state of stock in Breaking up stubble or com ground, 11.4d. the whole settlement, in June 1901, was about 7,000
per rod, or
ditto • sheep, 1,300 head of cattle, 250 horses, and 5,000 hogs. Planting Indian com, ditto . There were under cultivation at the same time, be Hilling ditto ditto . . . tween 9 and 10.000 acres of corn. Three years and
Reaping wheat, ditto . . a-halí before this, in December 1797, the numbers Thrashing ditto, per bushel. . were as follows:-Sheep, 2,500 ; cattle, 350 ; horses, Pulling and husking Indian corn,per bushel O o 100; hogs, 4,300; acres of land in cultivation, 4,000. | Splitting paling of seven feet long, per h'd 0 3 0 The temptation to salt pork, and sell it for Govern
Ditto of five feet long, ditto • • • 0 1 ment store, is probably the reason why the breed of Sawing plank, ditto . . hogs has been so much kept under. The increase of Ditching, per rod, three feet wide and three cultivated lands between the two periods is prodigious.
feet deep . . . . . . 0 0 10 It appears (p. 319,) that the whole number of con
Carriage of wheat, per bushel, per mile · 0 0 2 victs imported between January 1788 and June 1801 Ditto Indian corn, neat . : : 0 0 (a period of thirteen years and a half,) has been about Yearly wages for labour, with board . 10 0 0 5,000, of wboin 1,57 were females. The total amount Wages per week, with provisions, consist. of the population on the continent, as well as at Nor ing of 3 lb. of salt pork, or 6 lb. of fresh, folk Island, amounted, June 1801, to 6,500 persons ; and 21 lb. of wheat with vegetables · 0 6 0 of these
cse 766 were children born at Port Jackson. In A day's wages with board. . . .0 the returns from Norfolk Island, children are not dis.
Ditto without board : . criminated from adults. Let us add to the imported! A government-man allowed to officers or. pupulation of 5,000 convicts, 500 free people, which
settlers in their own tirne
· · 0 (it' we consider that a regiment of soldiers has been Price of an axe : kept up there) is certainly a very small allowance ; New steeling ditto • then, in thirteen years and a half, the imported popu.
A new hoe
. . 0 i 9 lation has increased only by two-thirteenths. If we
A sickle .
. . 0 1 6 suppose that something more than a fifth of the free
Hire of a boat to carry gruin per day . 0 5 0 people were women, this will make the total of women 1,210; of whom we may fairly presume that 800 were
The settlers were reminded, that, in order to prevent capable of child bearing : and if we suppose the chil. / any kind of dispute between the master and servant. when
they should have occasion to hire a inan for any length of dren of Norfolk Island to bear the same proportion to
time, they would find it most convenient to engaye him the adults as at Port Jackson, their total number at for a quarter, half-year, or year, and to make their agreeboth settlements will be 913-a state of infantine I ment in writing : on which should any dispute arise, an population which certainly does not justify the very appeal to the magistrates would settle it.
This is all very bad; and if the Governor had cher. whom the straits have been named, and who was lcd ished the intention of destroying the colony, he could to a suspicion of their existence by a prodigious swell have done nothing more detrimental to its interests. which he observed to set in from the westward, at the The high price of labour is the very corner-stone on mouth of
which he had reached on a which the prosperity of a new colony depends. It voyage of discovery, prosecuted in a common whale. enables the poor man to live with ease; and is the boat. To verify this suspicion, he proceeded after. strongest incitement to population, by rendering chil. wards in a vessel of 25 tons, accompanied by Mr. dren rather a source of riches than of poverty. If the Flanders, a naval gentleman ; and, entering the straits same difficulty of subsistence existed in new countries between the latitudes of 39° and 40° south, actually as in old, it is plain that the progress of population circumnavigated Van Diemen's Land. Mr. Bass's would be equally slow in each. The very circum- ideas of the importance of this discovery, we shall stances which cause the difference are, that, in the give from his narrative, as reported by Mr. Collins. latter, there is a competition among the labourers to be employed; and, in the former, a competition among “The most prominent advantage which seemed likely to the occupiers of land to obtain labourers. In the one, accrue to the settlement from this discovery was, the exzeland is scarce and men plenty; in the other, men are
diting of the passage from the Cape of Good Hope to Port
Jackson; for, although a line drawn from the Cape to 44o scarce and land is plenty: 10 astuto. this natural of south latitude, and to the longitude of the South Care of order of things (a practice injurious at all times) must | Van Diemen's Land, would not sensibly differ from ona be particularly so where the predominant disposition drawn to the latitude of 40° to the same longitude; yet it of the colonisi is an aversion to labour, produced by a must be allowed, that a ship will be four degrees nearer to long course of dissolute habits. In such cases the Port Jackson in the latter situation than it would be in the high prices of labour, which the Govemor was so de- former. But there is, perhaps, a greater advantage to be sirous of abating, bid fair not only to increase the
gained by making a passage through the strait, than the
mere saving of four degrees of latitude along the coast. agricultural prosperity, but to eftect the moral retor. The major part of the ships that have arrived at Port Jackmation of the colony. We observe the same imfor- son have met with N. E. winds, on opening the sea round tunate ignorance of the elementary principles of com. the South Cape and Cape Pillar; and have been so much merce in the attempts of the Governor to reduce the retarded by them, that à fourteen days passage to the port prices of the European commodities, by bulletins and is reckoned to be a fair one, although the difference of latiauthoritative interference, as if there were any other tude is but ten degrees, and the most prevailing winds at
the latter place are from S. E. to s. in summer, and from mode of lowering the price of an article (while the demand continues the sarne) but by increasing its these N. E. winds can be avoided, which in inany cases
W. S. W. to S. in winter. If, by going through Bass Strait, quantity. The avaricious love of gain, which is so would probably be the case, there is no doubt but a week or feelingly deplored, appears to us a principle which, more would be gained by it; and the expense, with the in able hands, might be guided to the most salutary wear and tear of the ship for one week, are objects to most purposes. The object is to encourage the love of owners, more especially when freighted with convicts by labour, which is best encouraged by the love of money. I the run. We have very great doubts on the policy of reserving
This strait likewise presents another advantage. From
the prevalence of the N. E. and easterly winds off the South the best timber on the estates as government timber. Cap
| Cape, many suppose that a passage may be made from Such a reservation would probably operate as a check thence to the westward, either to the Cape of Good Hose, upon the clearing of lands without attaining the object or to India ; but the fear of the great unknown bight bedesired; for the timber, instead of being immediately tween the South Cape and the s. W. Cape of Lewen's cleared, would be slowly destroyed, by the neglect or Land, lying in about 36° south and 113° east, has hitherto Inulice of the settlers whose lands it encumbered. prevented the trial being made. Now, the strait removes & Timber is such a drug in new countries, that it is at !
part of this danger, by presenting a certain place of retreat,
should a gale oppose itself to the ship in the first part of the any line to be purchased for little more than the essay: and should the wind comcat .W. she need not labour of cutting. To secure a supply of it by vexa- fear making a good stretch to the W. N. W. which course, tious and invidious laws, is surely a work of superero. if made good, is within a few degrees of going clear of all. gation and danger. The greatest evil which the There is, besides, King George the Third's Sound, discop. government has yet bad to contend with is, the inor-ered by Captain Vancouver, situate in the latitude of 36° 30° dinate use of spirituous liquors: a passion which puts south, and longitude 118° 12' east; and it is to be hoped. the interests of agriculture at variance with those of
that a few years will disclose many others upon the coast, as
well as the confirmation or futility of the conjecture that a morals: for a dram-drinker will consuine as much still larser than Bass Strait dismembers New Holland.' corn in the form of alcohol, in one day, as would (p. 192, 193.) supply him with bread for three; and thus, by his vices, opens an admirable market to the industry of a We learn from a note subjoined to this passage, Rew setilement. The only mode, we believe, öf en that, in order to verify or refute this conjecture, of countering this evil, is by deriving from it such a the existence of other important inlets on the west revenue as will not admit of smuggling. Beyond this coast of New Holland, Captain Flinders has sailed it is almost invincible by authority; and it is probably with two ships under his command, and is said to be to be cured only by the progressive refinement of accompanied by two professional men of considerable manners.
ability. To evince the increasing commerce of the settle. Such are the most important contents of Mr. Col. ment, a list is subjoined of 140 ships, which have lins's book, the style of which we very much approve, arrived there since its first foundation, forty only of because it appears to be written by himself; and we which were from England. The colony at Norfolk must repeat again, that nothing can be more injurious Island is represented to be in a very deplorable situa to the opinion the public will form of the authenticity tion, and will most probably be abandoned for one of a book of this kind, than the suspicion that it has about to be formed on Van Diemen's Land, though been tricked out and embellished by other hands the capital defect of the former settlement has been Such men, to be sure, have existed as Julius Cæsar, partly obviated, by a discovery of the harbour for but, in general, a correct and elegant style is hardly small craft.
attainable by those who have passed their lives in The most important and curious information con- action : and no one has such a pedantic love of good tained in this volume, is the discovery of straits which writing, as to prefer mendacious finery to rough and separate Van Diemen's Land (hitherto considered as ungrammatical truth. The events which Mr. Collins's its southern extremity) from New Holland. For this book records, we have read with great interest. There discovery we are indebted to Mr. Bass, a surgeon, after is a charm in thus seeing villages, and churches, and
farms, rising from a wilderness, where civilized man
has never set his foot since the creation of the world * It is singular that Governments are not more desirous of the contrast between fertility and barrenness, popupushing their settlements rather to the north than the southlation and solitude, activity and indolence, fills the of Port Jackson. The soil and climate would probably improve, in the latitude nearer the equator; and settlements
ta mind with the pleasing images of happiness and incolonies. Jo be more contiguous to our Indian crease. Man seems to move in his
I while he is tbus dedicating the powers of his mind and