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ness from the beginning to the end of the week, and a line and control, but who are sent to learn it in the little merry bustling clergyman, largely concerned in bitter school of adversity. And when this medicine the sale of“rum, and brisk at a bargain for barley. Mr. produces its proper effect-when sufficient time has Bigge's evidence, however, is very much in favour of been given to show a thorough change in character and Mr. Marsden. He seems to think him a man of highly disposition-a young colony really cannot afford to respectable character and superior understanding, and dispense with the services of any person of superior that he has been dismissed from the magistracy by talents. Activity, resolution, and acuteness, are of Governor Macquarrie, in a very rash, unjustifiable, such immense importance in the hard circumstances and eveu tyrannical inanner; and in these opinions, of a new state, that they must be eagerly caught at, we must say, the facts seem to bear out the report of and employed as soon as they are discovered. Though the commissioner.

all may not be quite so unobjectionable as could be Colonel Macquarrie not only dismisses honest and wishedirreproachable men in a country where their existence is scarce, ayd their services inestimable, but he ad.

Ros dura, et regni novitas me talia cogunt

Moliri'vances convicts to the situation and dignity of magis. trates. Mr. Bennet lays great stress upon this, and as Colonel Macquarrie probably quoted to Mr. Commakes it one of his strongest charges against the co- missioner Bigge. As for the conduct of those extravernor; and the commissioner also takes part against moralists, who come to settle in a land of crime, and it. But we confess we have great doubts on the sub- refuse to associate with a convict legally pardoned, ject; and are by no means satisfied, that the system however light his original offence, however perfect of the governor was not, upon the whole, the wisest his subsequent conduct--we have no toleration for and best adapted to the situation of the colony. Men such tolly and foppery. To sit down to dinner with are governed by words; and by the infamous term men who have not been tried for their lives is a luxury convict, are comprehended crimes of the most differs which cannot be enjoyed in such a country: It is en. ent degrees and species of guilt. One man is trans- tirely out of the question; and persons so dainty, and ported for stealing three hams and a pot of sausages; so truly admirable, had better settle at Claphani Comand in the next berth to him on board the transport is mon than at Botany Bay, Our trade in Australasia is a young surgeon, who has been engaged in the mutiny to turn scoundrels into honest men. If you come at the Nore; the third man is for extorting money; among us, and bring with you a good character, and the fourth was in a respectable situation of life at the will lend us your society, as a stimulus and reward to time of the Irish rebellion, and was so ill read in men recovering from degradation, you will confer the history, as to imagine that Ireland had been ill treated greatest possible benefit upon the colony; but if you by England, and so bad a reasoner as to suppose, that turn up your nose at repentance, insult those ushappy nine Catholics ought not to pay tithes to one Protes- people with your character, and fiercely stand up as a tant. Then comes a man who set his house on fire, moral bully, and a virtuous braggadoció, it would have to cheat the Phænix office; and lastly, that most been far better for us if Providence had directed you glaring of all human villains, a poacher, driven from to any other part of the globe than 10 Botany BayEurope, wife and child, by thirty lords of manors, at which was colonized, not to gratify the insolence of the Quarter Sessions, for killing a partridge. Now, Pharisees, but to heal the contrite spirit of repentant all these are crimes no doubt-particularly the last; sinners. Mr. Marsden, who has no happiness from but they are surely crimes of very different degrees of six o'clock Monday morning, till the same hour the intensity, to which different degrees of contempt and week following, will not meet pardoned convicts in horror are attached-and from which those who have society. We have no doubt Mr. Marsden is a very committed them may, by subsequent morality, emnnci. respectable clergyman ; but is there not something pate themselves, with different degrees of difficulty, very different froin this in the Gospel? The most reand with more or less of success. A warrant granted solute and inflexible persons in the rejection of pardon. by a reformed bacon stealer would be absurd; but ed convicts were some of the marching regiments there is hardly any reason why a toolish hot-brained stationed at Botany Bay-men, of course, who had young blockhead, who chose to favour the mutineers uniformiy shunned, in the Old World, the society of at the Nore, when he was sixteen years of age, may gamesters, prostitutes, drunkards, and blasphemersnot make a very loyal subject, and a very respectable who had ruined no tailors, corrupted no wives, and and respected magistrate when he is forty years of had entitled themselves, by a long course of solemni. age, and has cast his Jacobine teeth, and fallen into ty and decorum, to indulge in all the insolence of the practieal jobbing and loyal baseness which so purity and virtuc. commonly developes itself about that period of life. In ihis point, then, of restoring convicts to society, Therefore, to say that a man must be placed in no we side, as far as the principle goes, with the gorer. situation of trust or elevation, as a magistrate, merely nor; but we are far from undertaking to say that his because he is a convict, is to govern mankind with a application of the principle has been on all occasions dictionary, and to surrender sense and usefulness to prudent and judicious. Upon the absurdity of his consound. Take the following case, for instance, from duct in attempting to force the society of the pardonMr. Bigge:

ed convicts upon the undetected part of the colony,

there can be no doubt. These are points upon which The next person from the same class, that was so distin- every body must be allowed to judge for themselves. guished by Gov. Macquarrie, was the Rev. Mr. Fulton. He The greatest monarchs in Europe cannot control opi. was transported by the sentence of a court martial in Ireland, nion upon those points-sovereigns tar exceeding Co. during the Rebellion; and on his arrival in New South Wales lonel Lachlan Macquarrie, in the antiquity of their in the year 1800, was sent to Norfolk Island to officiate as chaplain. He returned to New South Wales in the year 1904, dynasty, and the extent, wealth, and importance of and performed the duties of chaplain at Sydney and Para- their empire. In the divisions that prevailed in the colony preyious to the

• It was in vain to assemble them' (the pardoned convicts) arrest of Governor Bligh, Mr. Fulton took no part; but hap- even on public occasions, at Government House, and to point pening to form one of his family when the person of the them out to the especial notice and favour of strangers, or to governor was menaced with violence, he courageously opposed favour them with particular marks of his own attention upon himself to the military party that entered the house, and gave these occasions, if they still continued to be shunned, or disrean example of courage and devotion to Governor Bligh, which, garded by the rest of the company. if partaken either by the officer or his few adherents, would With the exception of the Rev. Mr. Fulton, and, on some have spared him the humiliation of a personal arrest, and

occasions, of Mr. Redfern, I never observed that the other rescued his authority from open and violent suspension.'— persons of this class participated in the general attentions of Report, pp. 83, 84.

the company; and the evidence of Mr. Judge Advocate Wylde

and Major Bell both prove the embarrassment in which they The particular nature of the place too must be re.

were left on occasions that came within their notice. membered. It is seldom, we suspect, that absolute

* Nor has the distinction that has been conferred upon them dunces go to the Bay, but commonly men of active by Governor Macquarrie produced any effect in subduing the minds, and considerable taleuts in their various lines eiate with them. Oue instance only has occurred, in which the

prejudices or objections of the class of free inhabitants to asst -who have not learnt, indeed, the art of self-discip.' wife of a respectable individual, and a magistrate, has been


risited by the wives of the officers of the garrison, and by a Governor Macquarrie had always understood, and strongly few of the married ladies of the colony. It is an instance that wished, that in asking for the co-operation of all classes of the reflects equal credit upon the individual herself, as upon the community in the formation of the bank, a sh re in its direcfeelings and motives of those by whom she has been noticed ; tion and management should also be communicated to them.' but the circumstances of her case were very peculiar, and those - Report, p. 130. that led to her introduction to society were very much of a personal kind. It has generally been thought that such in

In the discussion of this question, we became acstances would have been more numerous if Governor Mac- quainted with a piece of military etiquette, of which quarrie had allowed every person to follow the dictates of their we were previously ignorant. An officer, invited to own judgment upon a subject, which, of all others, men are dinner by the governor, cannot refuse, unless in case least disposed to be dictated to, and most disposed to judge for of sickness. This is the most complete tyranny we themselves.'

ever heard of. If the officer comes out to his duty at Although the emancipated convicts, whom he has selected from their class, are persons who generally bearha good cha: and epaulettes, what matters it to the governor or any

the proper minute, with his proper number of butions racter in New South Wales, yet that opinion of them is by no means universal. Those, lowever, who entertained a good body else, where he dines ? He may as well be or. opinion of them would have proved it by their notice, as Mr. dered what to eat, as where to dine-be contined to M'Arthur has been in the habit of doing, by the kind and the upper or under side of the meat-be denied graty, marked notice that he took of Mr. Fitzgerald; and those who or retused melted butter. But there is no end to the entertained a different opinion, would not have contracted an small tyranny, and puerile vexations of a military aversion to the principle of their introduction, from being life. obliged to imens what they considered to be an indiscreet and erroneous application of it.'-Report, p. 150.

The mode of employing convicts upon their arrival

appears to us very objectionable. If a man is skilful We do not think Mr. Bigge exactly seizes the sense as a mechanic, he is added to the government gangs; of Colonel Macquarrie's phrase, when the colonel and in proportion to his skill and diligence, his chance speaks of restoring men to the rank of society they of manumission, or of remission of labour, is lessened. have lost. Men may either be classed by wealth and If he is not skiltul, or not skilful in any trade wanted education, or by character. All honest men, whether by govemment, he is applied for by some settler,-10 counts or cobblers, are of the same rauk, if classed whom he pays from 58. to 108. a-week; and is then by moral distinctions. It is a common phrase to say lett at liberty to go where, and work for whomsoever, that such a man can no longer be ranked among be pleases. In the same manner, a convict who is honest men ; that he has been degraded from the class rich is applied for, and obtains his weekly liberty and of respectable persons; and, therefore, by restoring idleness by the purchased permission of the person to a convict to the rank he has lost, the governor may whom he is consigned. very fairly be supposed to mean the moral rank. In

The greatest possible inattention or ignorance apdiscussing the question of granting offices of trust to pears to have prevailed in manumitting convicts for con victs, the importance of the Sclerati must not be labour-and for such labour ! not for cleansing Augean overlooked. Their numbers are very considerable. stabies, or draining Pontine marshes, or damming out They have one-eigthth or all the granted land in the a vast length of the Adriatic, but for working five colony; and there are among them individuals of very weeks with a single horse and cart in making the road large fortune. Mr. Rediern has 2600 acres, Mr. Lord to Bathurst Plains. Was such labour worth five 4365 acres, and Mr. Samuel Terry 19,000 acres.

As pounds?

And is it to be understood, that liberty is this man's history is a specimen of the mud and dirt to be restored to any man who will do five pounds' out of which great families often arise, let the Terry worth of work in Australasia ? Is this comment upon Filii the future warriors, legislators, and nobility of transportation to be circulated in the cells of New. the Bay, learn from what, and whom, they sprang. gate, or in the haunts of those persons who are doomed The first of these individuals, Samuel Terry, was trans

to inhabit them? ported to the colony when young. He was placed in a gang • Another principle by which Governor Macquarrie has been of stone marons at Paramatta, and assisted the building of the guided in besewing pardons and indulgences, is that of congaol. Mr. Marsden states, that during this period he was sidering them as rewards for any particular labour or enterbrought before him for neglect of duty, and punished; but by prise. It was upon this principle, that the men who were emhis industry in other ways, he was enabled to set up a small ployed in working upon the Bathurst road, in the year 1815, retail shop, in which he continued till the expiration of lus and those who contributed to that operation by the loan of term of service. He then repaired to Sydney, where he ex- their own carts and horses, or of those that they procured, obtended his business, and, by marriage, increased his capital. tained pardons, emancipations, and tickets of leave. To 39 He for many years kept a public house and retail shop, to

men who were employed as labourers in this work, three free which the smaller settlers resorted from the country, and pardons were given, one ticket of leave, and 35 emancipawhere, astar intoxicating themselves with spirits, they signed tions; and two of them only liad held tickets of leave before obligations and powers of attorney to confess judgment, which they commenced their labour. Seven convicts received emanwere always kept ready for execution. By these means, and cipations for supplying horses and carts for the carriage of by an active use of the common arts of overreaching ignorant provisions and stores as the party was proceeding; six out of men, Samuel Terry has been able to accumulate a considerable this number having previously held tickets of leave. capital, and a quantity of land in New South Wales, inferior • Eight other convicts (four of whom held tickets of leave) only to that which is held by Mr. D'Arcy Wentworth. He received emancipations for assisting with carts, and one horse ceased, at the late regulations introduced by the magistrates to each, in the transport of provisions and baggage for the use at Sydney, in February, 1820, to sell spirituous liquors, and he of Governor Macquarrie and his suite, on their journey from is now become one of the principal speculators in the purchase the river Nepean to Bathurst, in the year 1816; a service that of investments at Sydney, and lately established a water-mill did not extend beyond the period of five weeks, and was atin the swampy plains between that town and Botany Bay, tended with no risk, and very little exertion. which did not succeed. Out of the 19,000 acres of land held by * Between the months of January, 1816, and June, 1818, nine Samuel Terry, 140 only are stated to be cleared; but he pos- convicts, of whom six held tickets of leave, obtained emancipa. sesses 1450 head of hörned cattle, and 3800 sheep.'-Report, tions for sending carts and horses to convey provisions and

baggage from Paramatta to Bathurst, for the use of Mr. Oxley,

the surveyor-general, in his two expeditions into the interior Upon the subject of the New South Wales Bank,- of the couutry. And in the same period, 23 convict labourers Mr. Bigge observes

and mechanics obtained emancipations for labour and service *Upon the first of these occasions, it became an object both performed at Bathurst. with Governor Macquarrie and Mr. Judge-Advocate Wyld,

• The nature of the services performed by these convicts, who took an active part in the establishment of the bank, to and the manner in which some of them were recommended, unite in its favour the support and contributions of the indi- excited much surprise in the colony, as well as great suspicion viduals of all classes of the colony. Governor Macquarrie felt of the purity of the channels through which the recommendaassured that, without such co-operation, the bank could not be tions passed.'-Report, pp. 122, 123. established; for he was convinced that the emancipated con If we are to judge from the number of jobs detected victs were the most opulent members of the community. A by Mr. Bigge, Botany Bay seems very likely to do rules and regulations of the establishment, in which are to be justice to the mother couniry from whence

it sprang. found the names of George Howe, the printer of the Sydney Mr. Redfern, surgeon, seems to use the public rhubarb Gazette, who was also a retail dealer; Mr. Simon Lord, und for his private practice. Mr. Hutchinson, superinten. Mr. Edward Eager, all emancipated convicts, and the last only dent, makes a very comfortable thing of the assignconditionally.

ment of convicts. Major Druit was found selling their

P. 141.

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own cabbages to government in a very profitable man It might naturally be supposed, that any man sent ner; and many comfortable little practices of this across the globe with a good salary, for the express nature are noticed by Mr. Bigge.

purpose of governing, and, if possible, of reforming Among other sources of profit, the superintendent i convicts, would have preferred the morals of his conof the convicts was the banker; two occupations victs to the accommodation of his horses. Let Mr. which seem to be eminently compatible with each Bigge, a very discreet and moderate man, be heard other, inasmuch as they afford to the superintendent upon these points. the opportunity of evincing his impartiality and load. ing with equal labour every convici, without reference Mr. Marsden, that he justified the delay that occurred, and

Having observed, in Governor Macquarrie's answer to to their banking account, to the profit they afford, was still to take place, in the construction of a proper place or the trouble they create. It appears, however (very of reception for the female convicts, by the want of any strangely), from the report, that the money of con specific instructions from your lordship to undertake such a victs was not always recovered with the same readi. building, and which he states that he solicited at an early ness it was received.

period of nis government, and considered indispensable, I Mr. Richard Fitzgerald, in September, 1819, was felt it to be my duty to call to the recollection of Governor comptroller of Provisions in Emu Plains, storekeeper much less urgent necessity than the factory at Paramatta, at Windsor, and superintendent of government works without waiting for any such indispensable authority: and at the same place. 'He was also a proprietor of land i now find that the construction of it was announced by and stock in the neighbourhood, and kept a public him to your lordship in the year 1817, as then in his contemhouse in Windsor, of which an emancipated Jew was plation, without making any specific allusion to the evils the ostensible manager, upon whom Fitzgerald gave which the want of it had so long occasioned ; that the conorders for goods and spirits in payment for labour on

tract for building it was announced to the public on the 21st the public works. These two places are fifteen miles May, 1918, and that your lordship's approval of it was not distant from each other, and convicts are to be watch reached Governor Macquarrie's hands until nearly a year

signified until the 24th August, 1618, and could not have ed and managed at both. It cannot be imagined that after thework had been undertaken. It appears, thereiore, the convicts are slow in observing or following these that if want of authority had been the sole cause of delay in laudable examples; and their conduct will add an- building the factory at Paramatta, that cause would not only other instance of the vigilance of Macquarrie's govern. have operated in the month of March, 1818, but it woulu ment.

have continued to operate until the want of authority had

been formerly supplied. Governor Macquarri, however, The stores and materials used in the different buildings at must be conscious, that after he had stated to Mr. Marsdek Sydney are kept in a magazine in the lumber yard, and are in the year 1815, and with an appearance of regret, that the distributed according to the written requisitions of the differ- want of authority prevented him from undertaking the conent overseers that are made during the day, and that are ad-struction of a building of such undeniable necessity and imdressed to the storekeeper in the lumber yard. They are con- portance as the factory at Paramatta, he had undertaken veyed from thence to the buildings by the convict mechanics; 1 several buildings, which, though useful in themselves, were and no account of the expenditure or employment of the stores of less comparative importance; and had commenced, in the is kept by the overseers, or rendered to the store-keeper. It month of August, 1817, the laborious and expensive construcwas only in the early part of the year 1820 that an account tion of his own stables at Sydney, to which I have already aliudwas opened by him of the different materials used in eached, without any previous communication to your lordship, work or building; and in February, 1821, this account was and in direct opposition to an instruction that must have considerably in arrear. The temptation, therefore, that is then reached him, and that forcibly warned him of the conafforded to the convict mechanics who work in the lumber- sequences.'-Report, p. 71. yard, in secreting tools, stores, and implements, and to those who work at the different buildings, is very great, and the loss It is the fashion very much among the tories of the to government is considerable. The tools, moreover, have not House of Commons, and all those who love the effects latterly been

mustered as they used to be once a month, ex- of public liberty, without knowing or caring how it is cept where one of the convicts is removed from Sydney to another station.'—Report, pp. 36, 37.

preserved, to attack every person who complains of If it was right to build fine houses in a new colony, sooner'is the name of any public thief, or of any tor

abuses, and to accuse him or gross exaggeration. No common sense seems to point out a control upon

the mentor, or oppressor, mentioned in that honourable expenditure, with such a description of workmen. house, than out bursts the spirit of jobbing eulogium, What must become of that country, where the build and there is not a virtue under heaven which is not as. ings are useless, the governor not wise, the public the cribed to the delinquent in question, and vouched for paymaster, the accounts not in existence, and all the by the most irrefragable testimony.' If Mr. Bennet or artisans thieves? An horrid practice prevailed, of the convicts accept. now been living, how many honourable inembers would

Sir Francis Burdett had attacked ihem, and they had ing a sum of money from the captain, in their voyage have vouched for the honesty of Dudley and Empson, out. in lieu of their regular ration of provisions. This the gentleness of Jeffries, or the genius of Blackmore ought to be restrained by the severest penalties. What is it that can be urged for Governor Macquar. chester gaol possess? Who was not ready to come

What human virtue did not Aris and the governor of Il. rie, after the following picture of the hospital at Para forward to vouch for the attentive humanity of Gover. matta ? It not only justifies his recall, but seems to require (if there are means of reaching such neglect) produced from the treasury bench, if Mr. Bennet had

nor Macquarrie ? What scorn and wit would it hare his severe punishment.

stated the superior advantages of the horses orer the The women, who had become most profligate and hardened convicts ?-and all the horrors and immoralities, the hy habit, were associated in their daily tasks with those who filth and wretcheduess, of the female prison of Para. had very lately arrived, to whom the customs and practices of the colony were yet unknown, and who might have escaped matta? Such a case, proved, as this now is beyond the consequences of such pernicious lessons, if a little care,

the power of contradiction, ought to convince the and a small portion of expense, had been spared in providing most hardy and profligate scoffers, that there is really them with a separate apartment during the hours of labour. a great deal of occasional neglect, and oppression in As a place of employment, the factory at Paramatta was not the conduct of public servants; and that in spite of all only very defective, but very prejudicial. The insufficient ac- the official praise, which is ever ready for the perpecommodation that it afforded to those females who might be trators of crime, there is a great deal of real malverwell disposed, presented an early incitement, if not an excuse, sation which should be dragged to the light of day, evening of their arrival at Paramatta, those who were not de- by the exertions of bold and virtuous men. If we had ploring their state of abandonment and distress, were travers found, from the report of Mr. Biggc, that the charges ing the streets in search of the guilty means of future support. of Mr. Bennet were without any, or without adequate The state in which the place itself was kept, and the state of foundation, it would have given us great pleasure to disgusting filth in which I found it, both on an early visit after have vindicated the governor ; but Mr. Bennet has my arrival, and on one preceding my departure ; the disorder- proved his indictment. It is impossible to read the ed the little degree of control in which the female convicts foregoing quotation, and not to perceive, that the conwere kept, and the little attention that was paid to any thing duct and proceedings of Governor Macquarrie imperi. beyond the mere performance of a certain

portion of labour. ously required the exposure they have received ; and - Report, p. 70.

that it would have been much to the credit of govern

mont if he had been removed long ago from a situation / rials of constant intoxication secured for the rest of which, but for the exertions of Mr. Bennet, we believe, the voyage. he would have held to this day.

The following account of pastoral convicts is strikThe sick, from Mr. Bigge's report, appear to have , ing and picturesque :fared as badly as the sinful. Good water was scarce, proper persons to wait upon the patients could not be

•1 observed that a great many of the convicts in Van Die obtained ; and so numerous were the complaints from and sometimes caps of the same material, which they obtain

men's Land wore juckets and trowsers of the kangaroo skin, this quarter, that the governor makes an order for the from the stock-keepers who are employed in the interior of exclusion of all hospital grievances and complaints, the country. The labour of several of them differs, in th's except on one day in the month-dropsy swelling, how respect, from the convicts in New South Wales, and is rather ever, fever burning, and ague shaking, in the mean personal than agricultural. Permission having been given, time, without waiting for the arrangements of Gover. for the last tive ycars, to the settlers to avail themselves of the nor Macquarrie, or consulting the Mollia tempora ranges of open plains and valleys that lie on either side of the andi.

road leading from Austin's Ferry to Launceston, a distance of In permitting individuals to distil their own grain, care of convict vliepherds and stock-keepers, who are sent to

120 miles, their flocks and herde have been committed to the the government of Botany Bay appears to us to be these cattle-ranges, distant sometimes 30 or 40 miles from their quite right. It is impossible, in such a colony, to masters' estates. prevent unlawful distillation to a considerable extent; • The boundaries of these tracts are described in the tickets and it is as well to raise upon spirits (as something of occupation by which they are held, and which are made must be taxed) that slight duty which renders the con renewable every year, on payment of a fee to the lieuteuant. traband trade not worth following. Distillation, too, governor's clerk.. One or more convicts are stationed on always insures a magazine against famine, by which them, to attend to the flocks and

cattle, and are supplied with

wheat, tea, and sugar, at the monthly visits of the owner. New South Wales has more than once been severely They are allowed the use of u njusket and a few cartridges to visited. It opens a market for grain where market's defend themselves against the natives; and they have ulso are very distant, and where redundance and famine dogs, with which they hunt the kangaroos, whose tiesh they seem very often to succeed each other. The cheap. eat, and dispose of their skins to persous passing from Hobart ness of spirits, to such working people as know how Town to Launceston, in exchange for tea and sugar. Thus to use them with moderation, is a great blessing; and they obtain a pleutitul supply of food and sometimes succeed we doubt whether that moderation, after the first burst

cultivating a few vegetables. Their habitations are made of

turf and thatched, as the bark of the dwarf eucalyptus, or of ebriety, is not just as likely to be learnt in plenty, gum-trees of the plains, and the interior, in Van Diemen's as in scarcity.

Land, is not of sufficient expanse to form covering or shelter.' We were a little surprised at the scanty limits al. -Report, pp. 107, 108. lowed to convicts for sleeping on board the transports. Mr. Bigge, (of whose sense and humanity

we really under the bark of the dwart eucalyptus, and keeping

A London thief, clothed in kangaroo's skins, lodged have not the slightest doubt) states eighteen inches to be quite sufficient-twice the length of a small sheet sheep, fourteen thousand miles from Piccadilly, with of letter-paper. The printer's devil, who carries our

a crook bent into the shape of a picklock, is not an works to the press, informs us, that the allowance to uninteresting picture ; and an engraving of it might the demons of the type is double foolscap length, or have a very salutary effect-provided no engraving twenty-four inches. The great city upholsterers ge

were made of his convict master, to whom the sheep nerally consider six feet as barely sufficient for a per

belong. son just rising in business, and assisting occasionally gitive convicts are recovered by the natives.

The Maroon Indians were hunted by dogs-the tu. at official banquets.

Mrs. Fry's* system is well spoken of by Mr. Bigge ; • The native blacks that inhabit the neighbourhood of Port and its useful effect in promoting order and decency Hunter and Port Stepheus have become very active in retaamong floating convicts fully admitted.

king the fugitive convicts. They accompany the soldiers who In a voyage to Botany Bay by Mr. Read, he states are sent in pursuit, and, by the extraordinary strength et sight that, while the convict vessel lay at anchor, about to they possess, improved by their daily exercise of it in pursuit sail, a boat from shore reached the ship, and from it of kangaroos aud opossums, they can trace to a great distance, stepped a clerk of the Bank of England. The convicts Nor are they afraid of meeting the fugitive convicts in the felicitated themselves upon the acquisition of so gen. woods, wben sent in their pursuit, without the soldiers; by tlemanlike a companion; but it soon turned out that their skill in throwing their long and jointed wooden darts, the visitant had no intention of making so long a voy- they wound and disable them, strip them of their clothes, ani age. Finding that they were not to have the pleasure bring them buck as prisoners, by unknown roads and paths, to of his company, the convicts very naturally thought of the Coal river. picking his pockets ; the necessity of which profes- maize and blankets ; and, notwithstanding the apprehensions

* They are rewarded for these enterprizes by presents of sional measure was prevented by a speedy distribution of revenge from the convicts whom they bring back, they conof their contents. Forth from his, this votary tinue to live in Newcastle and its neighbourhood ; but are of Plutus drew his nitid Newlands; all the forgers and observed to prefer the society of the soldiers to that of the utterers were mustered on deck; and to each of them convicts.'- Report, p. 117. was well and truly paid into his hand, a five pound note; less acceptable, perhaps, than if privately re

Of the convicts in New South Wales, Mr. Bigge moved from the person, but still joyfully received. found about eight or nine in an hundred to be persons This was well intended on the part of the directors; of respectable character and conduct, though the evi.

But but the consequences it is scarcely necessary to enu.

dence respecting them is not quite satisfactory: merate; a large stock of rum was immediately laid the most striking and consolatory passage in the in from the circumambient slop boats; and the mate whole report is the following :

* The marriages of the native-born youths with female con.

victs are very rare--a circumstance that is attributable to tho * We are sorry that it should have been imagined, from general disinclinution to early marriage that is observable some of our late observations on prison discipline, that we amongst thein, and partly to the abandened and dissolute meant to disparage the exertions of Mrs. Fry. For prisoners habits of the female convicts; bu chiefly io a sense of pride in before trial, it is perfect; but where imprisonment is intended the native-boru youths, approaching to contempt for the vices for punishment, and not for detention, it requires, as we have and depravity of the convicts, even when manifested in the endezvoured to siow, a very different system. The Prison persons of thrir own parents.'-Report, p. 105. Society (an excell-at, honourable, and most useful institution of some of the best men in England,) have certainly, in their Every thing is to be expected from these feelings. first numbers, falled into the common mistake of supposing They convey to the mother-country the first proof that the reformation of the culprit, and not the prevention of that the foundations of a mighty empire are laid. the crime, was the main object of imprisoument; and have, in We were somewhat surprised to find Governor Mac. consequence, taken sowe false views of the method of treating quarrie contending with Mr. Bigge, that it was no is bigla nature, what matters who is right ?-the only quas mine, except in particular cases, to whom they are to tesh and blood, makes them a little angry. But, in objects of part of his, the governor's duty, to select and sepa.

fate the useless from the useful convicts, or to deter. tios iz, what is right?

be assigned. In other words, he wishes to effect the not perceive that any is imputed to this gerilleman ; eustomary separation of salary and duty—the grand but he is negligent, expensive, arbitrary, ignorant, and principle which appears to pervade all human institu. clearly deficient in abilities for the task committed to tions, and to be the most invincible of human abuses. his charge. It is our decided opinion, therefore, that Not only are church, king, and state, allured by this Mr. Bennet has rendered a valuable service to the principle of vicarious labour, but the pot boy has a public, in attacking and exposing his conduet. As a lower pot-boy, who, for a small portion of his princi. gentleman and an honcst man, there is not the small. pal, arranges, with inexhaustible sedulity, the subdi. est charge against the governor; but a gentleman and vided portions of drink, and, intensely perspiring, dis- a very honest man, may very easily ruin a very fine perses, in bright pewter, the frothy eleinents of joy. colony. The colony itself, disencumbered of Colonel

There is a very awkward story of a severe flogging Lachlan Macquarrie, will probably become a very fine inflicted upon three freemen by Governor Macquarrie, empire ; but we can scarcely believe it is of any pre. without complaint to, or intervention of, any magis- sent utility as a place of punishment. The history of trate; a fact not denied by the governor, and for emancipated convicts, who have made a great deal of which no adequate apology, nor any thing approach. money by their industry and their speculations, neces. ing to an adequate apology, is offered. These Asiatic sarily reaches this country, and prevents men who and Satrapical procecdings, however, we have reason are goaded by want, and hovering between vice and to think, are exceedingly disrelished by London juries. virtue, from looking upon it as a place of sufferingThe profits of having been unjustly fogged at Botany perhaps leads them to consider it as the land of hope Bay (Scarlett for the plaintili') is good property, and and refuge, to them unattainable, except by the comwould fetch a very considerable sum at the auction mission of crime. And so they litt up their heads at mart. The governor, in many instances, appears to the bar, hoping to be transportedhave confounded diversity of opinion upon particular

"Stabant orantes primi transmittere cursum measures, with systematic opposition to his govern.

Tendebantque inanus, ripe ulteroris amore.' ment, and to have treated as disaffected persons those whom, in favourite measures, he could not persuade It is not possible, in the present state of the law, by his arguments, nor influence by his example, and that these enticing histories of convict prosperity on points where every man has a right to judge for should be prevented, by one uniform system of severi. himself, and where authority has no legitimate right ty exercised in New South Wales, upon all transported to interfere, much less to dictate.

persons. Such different degrees of guilt are included To the charges confirmed by the statement of Mr. under the term of convict, that it would violate every Bigge, Mr. Bennet adds, from the evidence collected feeling of humanity, and every principle of justice, to by the gaol committee, that the fees in the governor's deal out one measure of punishment to all. We strong. court, collected by the authority of the governor, are ly suspect that this is the root of the evil. We want most exorbitant and oppressive; and that illegal taxes new gradations of guilt to be established by law-new are collected under the sole authority of the governor, names for those gradations—and a different measure It has been made, by colonial regulations, a capital of good and evil treatment attached to those deurmioffence io steal the wild cattle ; and, in 1816, three nations. In this manner, the mere convict, the rogue persons were convicted of stealing a wild bull, the and convict, and the incorrigible convict, would expect, property of our sovereign lord the king. Now, our sove upon their landing, to be treated with very different reign lord the king (whatever be his other merits or degrees of severity. The first might be merely de. demerits) is certainly a very good-natured man, and tained in New South Wales without labour or coer. would be the first to lament that an unhappy convict cion ; the second compelled, at all events, to work out was sentenced to death for killing one of his wild bulls two-thirds of his time, without the possibility of reon the other side of the world. The cases of Mr. Moore, mission; and the third be destined at once for the and of William Stewart, as quoted by Mr. Bennet, are Coal River. If these consequences steadily followed very strong. If they are answerable, they should these gradations of conviction, they would soon be unbe answered. The concluding letter to Mr. Stewart is, derstood by the felonious world at home. At present, to us, the most decisive proof of the unfitness of Colo- the prosperity of the best convicts is considered to be nel Macquarrie for the situation in which he was attainable by all ; and transportation to another hemiplaced. The ministry at home, after the authenticity sphere is looked upon as the renovation of fallen for of the letter was proved, should have seized upon the tunes, and the passport to wealth and power. first decent pretext of recalling the governor, of thank Another circumstance, which destroys all idea of ing him, in the name of his sovereign, for his valuable punishment in transportation to New South Wales, is services (not omitting his care of the wild hulls,) and the enormous expense which that settlement would of dismissing him to half pay—and insignificance. occasion, if it really was made a place of punishmeni.

As to the trial by jury, we cannot agree with Mr. A little wicked tailor arrives, of no use to the archi. Bennet, that it would be right to introduce it at pre- tectural projects of the governor. He is turned over sent, for reasons we have given in a previous article, to a settler, who leases this sartorial Borgia his liber. and which we see no reason for altering. The time of ty for five shillings per week, and allows him to steal course will come, when it would be in the highest de- and snip, what, when, and where he can. The excuse gree unjust and absurd to refuse to that settlement for all this mockery of law and justice is, that the erthe benefit of popular institntions. But they are too pense of his maintenance is saved to the government young, too few, and too deficient for such civilized at home. But the expense is not sared to the country machinery at present. I cannot come to serve upon at large. The nefarious needleman writes home that the jury--the waters of the Hawksbury are out, and I he is as comfortable as a finger in a thimble! that have a mile to swim—the kangaroos will break into though a fraction only of a humanity, he has serera! my corn--the convicts have robbed me—my little boy wires, and is filled erery day with rum and kangaroo. has been bitten by an ornithorynchus paradoxus-İ This, of course, is not lost upon the shop-board; and, have sent a man fiity miles with a sack of four to buy for the saving of fitteen pence per day, the foundation a pair of breeches for the assizes, and he has not re- for many criminal tailors is laid. What is true of tai. turned. These are the excuses, which, in new colo- lors, is true of tinkers, and all other trades. The nies, always prevent trial by jury; and make it de chances of escape from labour, and of manumission in sirable for the first half century of their existence, the Bay, we may depend upon it, are accurately rethat they should live under the simplicity and conve: ported, and perfectly understood in the flash-houses of nience of such modified despotism (we 'meau) as a St. Giles : and, whilé Earl Bathurst is full of jokes and British House of Commons, (always containing men joy, public morals are sapped to their foundation. as bold and honest as the member for Shrewsbury) will permit, in the governors of their distant colonies.

* This practice is now resorted to. Such are the opinions formed of the conduct of Go. vernor Macquarrie by Mr. Bigge. Not the slightest in. sinuation is made against the integrity of his character. Though almost every body else has a job, we do'

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