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earl of Lauderdale, the earl of Balcarras, lord great sufferings from the gout and dropsy, chief justice Hales, Dr. Tillotson, &c., and which he bore with exemplary patience. beld correspondence with some of the most In 1730 he published in 4to, An Enquiry eminent foreign divines. He wrote above into the Nature of the Human Soul, wherein 120 books, and had above 60 written against its Immateriality is evinced from Reason and him. The former, however, it should seem, Philosophy. This was afterwards prin:ed in were greatly preferable to the latter; since Dr. 8vo, with additions, and replies to some objecBarrow, an excellent judge, says, that “his tions. Soon after this he published Matho: practical writings were never mended, his sive Cosmotheoria puerilis, Dialogus. In quo,, controversial seldom confuted."
prima Elementa de Mundi ordine et ornatu The character given of him by Mr. Granger Proponuntur, &c. This work he translated is too striking to be passed over. “ Richard into English, and enlarged, in 1740, when it Baxter was a man famous for weakness of appeared in 2 vols. 8vo. A little time before body and strength of mind; for having the Mr. Baxter's death he published an Appendix strongest sense of religion himself, and exciting to the first part of the Enquiry into the Nature a sense of it in the thoughtless and profligate; of the Human Soul; in which he combated for preaching more sermons, engaging in more some objections, and vindicated the governcontroversies, and writing more books, than ment of the Deity in the material world. any other nonconformist of his age. He Bishop Warburton speaking of the book on svake, disputed, and wrote with ease; and the soul, says “He who would see the justest discovered the same intrepidity when he re- and precisest notions of God and the soul may proved Cromwell and expostulated with Charles read this book; one of the most finished of II. as when he preached to a congregation of the kind, in my humble opinion, that the mechanics. His zeal for religion was extra- present times, greatly advanced in true philosoordinary; but it seems never to have prompted phy, have produced." In this work the reasonhun w faction, or carried him to enthusiasm. ing is in general profound, yet clear, and (ex. This champion of the Presbyterians was the cept that in one or two instances he has pushed cammon butt of men of every other religion, his principles to conclusions which do not enand of those who were of no religion at all. tirely conimand the assent) it is generally satis Bu this had very little effect upon him: his factory. His Matho is a very ingenious and presence and his firmness of mind on no oc- useful work, though, on account of an wulucky casion forsook him. He was just the same blunder in the astronomical part, it does not man before he went into a prison, while he appear to have obtained so much celebrity and was in it, and when he came out of it; and he public favour as it actually deserves. Mr. maintained an uniformity of character to the Baxter's learning was extensive, and his reasonlast period of life. His enemies have placed ing powers strong and acute: as a mathemabin in hell; but every man who has not ten tician, he was far above mediocrity; but, as a times the bigotry that Mr. Baxter himself had, metaphysician, he has not often been equalled, must cunclude that he is in a better place and seldom indeed excelled: as a man he was This is a very faint and imperfect sketch of beloved and admired. Though very studious, Mr. Baxter's character: men of his sizc are he was of a cheerful and sociable disposition : not to be drawn in miniature. His portrait, he was modest and unassuming ; disinterested in full proportion, is in his Narrative of bis benevolence actuated his conduct; and he was own Life and Times; which, though a rhap- impressed with the most reverential sentiments sodv, composed in the manoer of a diary, con- towards the Deits. tains a great variety of memorable things, and BAXTERIANS, in ecclesiastical listory, is itself, as far as it goes, a history of noncon- those who adopt the doctrinal sentiments of formity." — Among his most famous works Richard Baxter. The opinions maintained by were. 1. The Saints' Everlasting Rest. 2. Call this excellent man were conciliatory, and have to the Unconverted, of which 20,000 were since his time been embraced by many mosold in one year; and it was translated not clerate and candid men, of different sects and only into all the European languages, but into parties. Baxter's sysien was formed not to the Indian tongue. 3. Poor Man's Family inflame the passions and widen the breaches, Bosk. 4. Dying Thoughts; and 5. A Para- but to heal those wounds of the church under plirase on the New Testament. His practical which she had long languishei. Sme conForks have been included in four folio volumes. troversialists, however, were much displeased
BAXTER (Andrew), a very ingenious me- with Baxter's attempi ; and we have I eaid of a taphysician and philosopher, was born in 1087, piece in which supposed inconsistu ojo in biis al' OM Aberdeen; and educated in King's col- doctrines are set in a kind of battlears
dni iost lenge there. In 1741 he went abroad with a each other ;-it is entitled Richard Foring gendzinan to whom he was tutor: Baxter. among other places he visited - Utrecht, and The Baxterian strikes into a middll path, fixed his residence there for some years. While between Arminianism and Calvinism, and abroad he formed an acquaintance with the thus endeavours to unite both schemes. Pitha rebetrated John Wilhes. He returned to Scot- the Calvinist, he professes to be veve that a bod in 1747, and retired to Whittingham in certain number, deiermined upon in the divine East Lothian, where he died in 1750, after councils, will be infallibly saved; and with
the Arminian he joins in rejecting the doctrine arrive, should immediately assist in drawing off of reprobation as absurd and impious; admits the hounds, and save the life of the deer
. that Christ, in a certain sense, died for all, and When the deer takes soil (that is, takes to the supposes that such a portion of grace is allotted water), he will defend himself, and keep the to every man as renders it his own fault if he hounds a long time at bay, provided hc fadoth not attain to eternal life.
thoms the lake or river so as to keep the BAY. a. (vadius, Latin.) A bay horse is hounds swimming, and yet not go out of his what is inclining to a chesnut. All bay horses own depth; if he lose which, and be obliged have black manes (Farrier's Dict.).
to swim at the time that he is exhausted, he is Bay. s. (laye, Dutch.) An opening into inevitably drowned by his numerous and de. the land, where the water is shui in on all termined foes, in opposition to every exertion sides, except the entrance, as the bay of Biscay, that can be made to save him. Hudson's bay, &c.
In fox-hunting, when the fox is supposed BAY. s. (alboi, French.) 1. The state of to have gone to earth, the fact can only be any thing surrounded by enemies (Denham.) ascertained in many cases by the excellence of 2. 'Distance beyond which no approach could the terrier attending the pack, who has in be made (Dryden).
general strength and speed sufficient to keep Bay, in building, any opening in walls, as him from being far behind. Upon entering for a door, a window, and the like.
the earth, discovery is soon maçle of the cerBay, in botany. (from ßreros, the spadix of tainty of the fox's retreat, by the terrier's the palm,whence in Latin it is called spadiceus.) “laying well at him," provided the fox has A well known colour common to various plants, not turned in the earth: if he have so done, «leriving its name from a resemblance to this and they are face to face, they are both baying part of the palm.
or keeping each other at bay till the controverBay, in botany. See LAURUS.
sy ends in digging out the fox, and Jering in BAY (Loblolly): Sec GORDONIA. the hounds for their share of the entertainment, Bay (Rose). See NERIUM.
when the animal is soon dispatched among Bay (Dwarf rose). See RHODODEN- them. DRUM.
To Bay. v. n. (albajer, French.) 1. To Bay (Mountain rose). See RHODODEN. bark, as a dog at a thief (Spenser). 2. To
shut in (Shakspeare). Bay (Sweet Aowering). See MAGNOLIA. To Bay. v. a. To follow with barking BAY (Plum). See PsIDUM.
(Shakspeare.) Bay, a colour in horses, so called from its BAYA, in ornithology, Indian grosbeak or resembling the colour of a dried bay-leaf. loxia Indica. There are various degrees of this colour from BAYEN (Peter), a celebrated chemist, was the lightest bay to the dark, which approaches born at Chalons in the department of la Marne, nearly to the brown, but is always more gay in 1725. He was educated at the college of and shining. The bright bay is an exceedingly Troyes, which he left with a tolerable stock of beautiful colour, because the bright bay horse knowledge, and repaired to Paris, where he has generally a reddish hue, with a gilder aspect, resided with an eminent apothecary, a friend hvis mane and tail black, with a black or 'dark of the celebrated Chasras. Here he was treated list down his back. The middle colours of with great liberality and kindness by the apobay have also frequently the lack list, with thecary: upder his auspices he applied for black mane and tail. And the dark bays have several years to all the labours of pharmacy, and almost always their knees and pasterns black ; acquired so much skill, that before he was 30 and we meet with several sorts of bays that years of age he was appointed chief apothecary have their whole limbs black from their knees to the army in Germany. After the peace he and hocks downwards. The bays that have returned to Paris, and was employed in conno list on their backs are, for the most part, junction with Veneu to make an analysis of black over their reins, which goes off by an all the mineral waters in France: the greater imperceptible gradation from dark to light to- part of this business devolved upon Bayen; he, wards the belly and Aanks. Some of these therefore, applied to it with great assiduity, incline to a brown, and are more or less dap: and successively published various works conpled. The bay is one of the best colours, and taining very extensive information respecting horses of all the different kinds of bay are com- these mineral waters. Baven was one of the monly good, unless when accidents lappen to first who doubted of the existence of Suhl's spoil ihem while they are colts.
element of phlogiston : after much examinaBay, in the sporting art, is a term applied to tion and enquiry, he found that every thing stags and foxes. When a stag has been so called metallic oxvd is indebted for the excess lonz pursued that, finding his speed or strength of its weight, its colour, and its state, only to nearly exhausted, he turns round (having the absorption of one of the constituent parts some protection of building or paling in his of atmospheric air. Lavoisier repeated and rear), and facing the hounds, resolutely defends improved the experiments of Bayen, and at himself with his antlers, he is said to keep the length overturned the theory of Stahl: thus hounds at bay. It is the law of the sport in was Bayen instrumental in establishing a methis case that the sportsmen, as soon as they morable epoch in chemistry. Ile likewise made sang di-coreries relating to precipitates of mer- in his Journal, A Scheme for a Critical Diccary, and the different kinds of tin. Bayen tionary: this was the work of Mr. Bayle. The baf an exquisite skill in judging of the come articles of the three first letters of the alphabet prition of ovjects: as an instance, we cannot were already prepared; but a dispute happendzelp mentioning the opinion he gave of a ing betwixt híın and Mr. de Beauval, obliged mrble balustrade in the Pluce de la Revolution: him for some tine to lay aside the work. Nor Nu withstanding its apparent solidity, and con- did he resume it till May 1692, when he pubpoir le polish, he asserted that it would soon de- lished his scheme; but the public not approvcay, and shewed where the decay would first ing of his plan, he threw it into a differeut manifest itself: the event coincided very mi- form; and the first volume was published in mirely with his prophetic statement. This di- August 1995, and the second in October follizeni and laborious man died at the age of 72. lowing: The work was extremely well receivHe was a man of sound judgment, directed ed by ihe public; but'it engaged him in fresh always by the force of reason and experience. disputes, particularly with Mr. Jurieu and the
BAYER (John), a German astronomer of abbé Renaudot. Mr. Jurieu published a piece, the 17th century, who published, i. 1003, an wherein he endeavoured to engage the eccleExcellent work, entitled Uranometria, being şiastical assemblies to condemn the dictionary; a celestial atlas, or folio charts of all the con- he presented it to the senate sitting at Delli, stellations; he first distinguished the stars by bat they took no notice of the affair. The conthe letters of the Greek alphabet, and accord- sistory of Rotterdam granted Mr. Bayle a heariss to the order of the magnitude of the stars in ing; and after having heard his answers to och constellation. This work was republished their remarks on his dictionary, declared themto the author, in 1627, under a new title, viz. selves satisfied, and advised hiin to communicate Celum Stellatum Christianum: here he re. this to the public. Mr. Jurieu made another jected the old figures of the constellations, and attempi with the consistory in 1698; and so inserted others taken from the Scriptures: but far he prevailed with them, that they exhorted this innovation was not much relished; and Mr. Bayle to be more cautious with regard to sccordingly, we find, that in later editions of his principles in the second edition of his dic1654, and 1601, the ancient figures and namestionary; which was published in 1702, with ytre restored again.
many important additions. BAYEUX, a considerable town of France, As a writer, Mr. Bayle was most laborious in the department of Calvados, and late pro- and indefatigable. In one of his letters to since of Normandy. Ils cathedral is reckoned Maizeux, he says, that since his 20th year he kry magnificent. Lat. 49. 16 N. Lon. 0. bardly remembers to have had any leisure. His 43 W.
intense application contributed perhaps to imBAYJA, in geography. See BAJAH. pair his constitution, for it soon began to de
BAYLE (Peter), a celebrated French writer. cline. He had a decay of the lungs, which He was born at Carla, in the country of Foix, in weakened him considerably; and as this was a 1647. His father was a protestant minister, distemper which had cut off several of his and destined his son for the same profession, family, he judged it to be mortal, and would but he disappointed his expectation, by turning take no remedies. He died the 28th of DecemRoman catholic at Thoulouse, while attending ber 1706, after he had been writing the greatthe lectures at the jesuits' college. However, est part of the day. He wrote several books he did not long continue in that communion besides what we have mentioned, many of when reason came coolly to be exerciscil, and which were in his own defence against atucks in 1670 he departed from Thoulouse, and went he had received from the abbé Renaudot, Mr. w Geneva, where he formed an intimacy with Clerk, M. Jaquelot, and others. -Among the 3. Busnage. In 1675, he went to Paris, productions which do honour to the age of where he was employed as tutor to some gentle- Louis XIV. Mr. Voltaire has not omitted the noen of distincion, but soon afterwards he Critical Dictionary of our author: “It is the xcepter an invitation to go to Sedan, where he first work of the kind (he says) in which a os chosen professor of philosophy. About man may learn to think.” He censures indeed $•x), be pablished a smart piece, in which he those articles which contain only a detail of proved that the principles of Des ?'artes are minute facts, as unworthy either of Bayie, an e treable to the doctrives of Calvin on the understanding reader, or posterity. “In placterarist. lo 1681, the academy of Sedan ing him (continues the same author) aniongst was suppressed by a royal edict, on which Mr. the writers who do honour to the age of Louis Eyle went to Rotterdam, where he was ap- XIV., notwithstanding his being a refugee in Irinted professor of philosophy and history. Holland, I only conform to the decree of the The next year he published his letters concern- parliament of Thoulouse, which, when it dein comets, and an answer to father Maim. clared his will valid in France, notwithstandlourg's History of Calvinism. In 1684, he ing the rigour of the laws, expressly said, that bepan bis Nouvelles de la Republique des such a man could not be considered as a foreignLeire. In 1690, he engaged in a bitter con. isoversy with Mr. Jurieu, in consequence of Saurin says
s of Bayle that he was one of those the latter having charged him with being the extraordinary men, whose opposite qualities author of Avis aux Refugicz, &c.
leave room to doubt whether we ought to look In the year 1690, Mr. de Beauval advertised upon him as the best or the worst of men. On
the one hand, he was a great philosopher, change, &c. The bazars of Ispahan, Tauris, knowing i gw in distinguish truth' from talse- and i 'onstantinople, are reckoned very fine bend, a90 *rceiving it one vicw all the conseque ices of a principle, and their connection ; BDELLIUM. (5072, bdil, Hebr., a separaapi, on the other hand, a great sophist, con- tion or Aowing apart, in consequence of its fundiez truth with falsehool, and deducing oosing from the plant that produces it.) А faise inferences from his assumed principles. gummy, resinous juice, the produce of an On the one hand, a man of learning and know. oriental tree. All we know of it is that it is idee, who had read all that can be read, and imported from Arabia and the East Indies, in re:nembered all that can be remembered; pieces of various sizes ; externally of a dark and, on the other, ignorant, or feigi.ing, igno- reddish brown colour, not unlike myrrh ; inranc:, of the most common topics, proposing ternally clear, and somewhat resembling glue. difficulties which had been a thousand times It is never met with in the shops of this counsolved, and urging objections which a school. try; but is said to possess diuretic and deobboy could not make without biushing. On struent qualities. the one hand, free, at least to appearance, from
T. BE. v. n.
1. To have some certain all the passions which are inconsistent with state, condition, quality, or accident (Shakthe spirit of christianiig ; and on the other, speare). 2. It is the auxiliary verb by which employing all the strength of his genius to the verb passive is formed (Shakspeare). 3. overthrow the foundations of all moral and To exist; to have existence (Dryden). 4. christian virtues.
To have something by appointment or rule BAYONET, in the military art, a short (Locke). broail sagger, formerly with a round handle BEACH. s. The shore ; the strand (Milfitted for the bore of a firelock, to be fixed ton). there afi; the soldier had fired; but they are BE'ACHED. a. (from beach). Exposed to now made with iron handles and rings, that the waves. go over the muzzle of the firelock, and remain BE'ACHY. a. (from beach). Having fast, so that the soldier fires with his bayonet beaches (Shakspeare). on the muzzle of his piece, and is ready to act BEACHY HEAD, a promontory in Sussex, against the horse. This use of the bayonet between Hastings and 'Shoreham. Lat. 50. fastened on the muzzle of the firelock was a 44. N. Long. 0. 20 E. great improvement in the art of war, first in- BE'ACON. s. (beacon, Saxon). 1. Sometroduced by the French, and to which, ac- thing raised on an eminence, to be fired on cording to M. Folard, they owed a great num. the approach of an enemy (Gay). 2. Marks ber of iheir victories in the last century; and erected to direct navigators. to the neglect of this in the next succeeding The corporation of tlie Trinity-house are war, and irusting to their fire, the same author empowered to set up beacons wherever they attributes most of the losses they sustained. shall think necessary; and if any destroy or
BAYONNE, a small, but compact, rich, take them down, he shall forfeit 1001. or be populous, and Aourishing commercial city of ipso facto outlawed. There are other bea. France, in the department of the Lower Py- cons put up to give warning of the approach renees and late province of Gascony. It is of an enemy; these are made by putting pitch seated wear the mouth of the river Adour, barrels upon a long pole, to be set upon an which forms a good harbour. The Dutch ex- eminence so as they may he seen afar off'; for change spices for wine with the inhabitants of the barrels being fired, ihe fame in the nightBayonne. The hams and chocolate of Bay. time, and the smoke in the day, give notice, ovne are famous. The military weapon, the and in a few hours may alarm the whole bayonet, was invented in this city, as its name kingdom upon an approaching invasion, &c. imporis. Lat. 43. 29 N. Long. 1.30 W. BEACONAGE. S. money paid towards the
BAYS, in commerce, a sort of open woollen maintenance of a beacon. stuti, baving a long knap, soineiiines frized, BEACONSFIELD, a town of Buckingand sometimes not. It is without any wale, hamshire, with a market on Thursdays. Lat. and wrought in a loom with two treddles like 51.36 N. Long. 0. 30 W. fannel.
BEAD. s. (beade, prayer, Saxon). 1. Bays are chiefly manufactured at Colchester Small balls strung upon a thread, and used by and Bocking in Essex. It is exporter! in great the Romanists to count their prayers Pope). quantities to Spain and Portugal, and even to 2. Little balls worn about the neck for orna. Italy. The chief use is for clothing the monks ment (Shukspeare). 3. Any globular bodies and nuus, and for lining the soldiers clothes. (Boyle). The breadth of bays is commonly from a yard Bead, in assaying, the small lump or and a half to two yards, and the length from pure metal, separated from the scoria, fortv-two in forty-cight.
and seen in the middle of the cupel while in BAZAR, a denomination, among the Turks the fire. and Persians, given to a kind of exchange or BEAD, in architecture, a round moulding market, where their finest' stuffs and other va- carved in short embossments, like beads in juable wares are sold. Some of these bazars necklaces. are open like the market-places in Europe ; BEAD-PROOF, a phrase used by the distillers cle ? covered in the manner of Exeter to express that sort of proof of the standard
srezath of spiritnous liquors, which consists less than a mode of poaching ander the sanc. in their having, when shaken in a phial, ortion of legal authority. Many packs of these poarel froin on high into a glass, a crown of small beagles were formerly kept by country bubbles, which stand on the surface some gentlemen at a very trifling expence, and with time after. This is esteemed a proof that the no small share of ainusement to their less subspirit consists of equal parts of rectified spirits stantial neighbours ; for, although those who and phlegm. This is a fallacious rule as 10 joined in the chase might be numerous, yet the degree of strength in the liquor; because not inore than two or three horsemen were any thing that will increase the tenacity of the seen in the field, so easy was it to keep up spirit will give it this proof, though it be with these hounds on foot. They were in gea under the due strength. Our malt-distillers neral so well matched that they did not exspoil the greater part of their goods by leaving ceed eleven inches in height; and ran so well too much of the tainted oil of the malt in together, that (to speak technically) they their spirit, in order to give it this proof when might be covered with a sheet. Though they somewhat under the standard strength. But wore slow, they were sure ; for if the scent this is a great deceit on the purchasers of malt lay well, a hare could seldom escape them spirits, as they have them by this means not and this, to the object of pursuit, mostly only weaker than they ought to be, but taint- proved a lingering although a certain death : ed with an oil that they are not easily cleared for as, in the early parts of the chase, they of afterwards. On the other hand, ihe deal. could never get near enough to press her, they es in brandy, who usually have the art of so- were frequently two or three hours in killing. phisticating it to a great nicety, are in the In proportion as the spirit of slow hunting rizbe when they buy it by the strongest bead- has declined, beagles of this kind have grown proof, as the grand mark of the best ; for being into disrepute. The numerous crosses in the a proof of the brandy containing a large quan- breed of both beagles and other hounds, actity of its oil, it is, at the same time, a token cording to the wishes and inclinations of those of its high favour, and of its being capable of who keep them, have so multiplied the vabearing a rery large addition of the common rieties, that a volume might be produced in a sisies of our own produce, without betraying description of the different sorts and sizes adapttheir flavour, or losing its own. We value ed to the soil and surface where they hunt; the French brandy for the quantity of this es- from the old heavy, deep-tongued, dew-lapped sential oil of the grape which it contains ; and southern hound of Manchester (where ine that with good reason, as it is with us prin- huntsman with his long pole goes on foot), to ripally used for drinking as an agrecably fla- the highest crossed harriers of the present day, mured corial : but the French themselves, who kill the stoutest hares in thirty and forty when they want it for any curious purposes, minutes with a speed not much inferior io are as careful in the rectifications of ii, and coursing. Beagles, in the modern acceptation tahe as much pains to clear it from this oil, as of the term, imply hounds who huni hares we do to free our malt spirit from that nau. only, in contradistinction 10 those who hunt senus and fetid oil which it originally con- either stag or fox. Harriers have been protains, and which renders it so inferior to duced from the crosses between the beagle and brandy.
the fox-hound, for the advantage of speed; BEAD TREE. See Meja.
but harriers are not, in sporting acceptation, BEADLE (from the Saxon videl, a mes. to be considered synonymously with beagles, senger), a crier or messenger of a court, who to whom they are very superior in size. For cies persons to appear and answer. Called the rest, see Canis and HaRE-HUNTING. also a summoner or apparitor.--Beadle is also BEAK. s. (lec, French.) 1. The bill or an officer at an university or public company, horned mouth of a bird (Milton). 2. A piece whose chief business is to walk before the of brass like a beak, fixed at the head of the malers with a mace, at all their processions, ancient gallevs (Dryden). 3. Any thing endattend at the door, &c.—There are likewise ing in a point like a beak (Carew). church beadles, whose office is well understood. BE'AKED. a. (from beak). Having a
BE'ADROLL. s. (from bead and roll). A beak; having the form of a beak (Milton). catalogue of those who are to be inentioned at BEAKED. (rostratus). In bruiny, termin praves (Bacon).
nated by a process resembling the beak (rosBE'ADSMAN. s. (from lead and man). A trum) of a bird ; applied to fruits. See Pos. man employed in praying for another (Spen- TRATE. der).
BE’AKER. 8. (from beak). A cap with a BEAGLES. This
, in earlier eras of sporting, spout in the form of a bird's beak (Pope), tras a term confined to the tanned or pied BEAL. s. (lolla, Ital.) A whelk or hound of small size, with a brace or two of pimple. which the sportsnian used to pick and chop TO BEAL. v. n. (from the noun). To rithe trail of a hare to her form, for a subse- pen; to gather matter, or come to a head. giene course with his greyhounds. As, how- BEALE (Mary), an English painter. She dier, they were found so constantly useful in was the daughter of Mr. Cradock, minister of provering the hare after a first course, and Walton-upon-Thames, and copied with great bringing her to view for a second, this prac- exactness the works of sir Peter Lely and uce became gradually stigmatized by sports. Vandyke. Her colouring was clear and strong, men in general, and is now considered as little with a great look of naiure. She had also a