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that they would resist the retaliatory mea| repealed by the American Government : sares of Great Britain. Although the that they were not repealed in conformity repeal of the French Decrees thus announc- with a proposition simultaneously ibade to ed was evidently contingent, either on con- both Belligerents, but that in consequence cessions to be made by Great Britain, (con- of a previous Act on the part of the Amecessions tỷ which it was obvious Great rican Government, they were repealed in Britain could not submit',) or on measures favour of one Belligerent, to the prejudice to be adopted by the United States of Ame- of the other : that the American Governrica; the American President at once con- ment having adopted measures restrictive sidered the repeal as absolute. Under upon the commerce of both Belligerents, that pretence, the Non-Importation Act in consequence of Edicts issued by both, was strictly enforced against Great Britain, rescinded these measures, as they effected whilst the ships of war, and merchant that power, which was the aggressor, ships of the enemy were received into the whilst they put then in full operation against harbours of America. - The American the party aggrieved; although the Edicts Government, assuming the repeal of the of both powers continued in force ; and French Decrees to be absolute, and effec-lastly, that they excluded the ships of war, túal, most unjustly required Great Britain, belonging to one Belligerent, whilst they in conformity to her declarations, tó revoke admitted into their ports and harbours the her Orders in Council. The British Go- ships of war belonging to the other, in vernment denied that the repeal, which violation of one of the plainest and most was announced in the letter of the French essential duties of a neutral nation. AlMinister for Foreign Affairs, was such as though the instrument thus produced was ought to satisfy Great Britain ; and in by no means that general and unqualified order to ascertain the true character of the revocation of the Berlin and Milan Decrees, measures adopted by France, the Govern. which Great Britain had continually dement of the United States was called upon manded, and had a full right to claim ; to produce the instrument, by which the and although this instrument, under all alleged repeal of the French Decrees had the circumstances of its appearance at that been effected. If these Decrees were moment, for the first time, was open to really revoked, such an instrument must the strongest suspicions of its authenticity; exist, and no satisfactory reason could be yet, as the Minister of the United States given for withholding it.—At length, produced it, as purporting to be a copy of on the 21st of May 1812, and not before, the instrument of revocation, the Governthe American Minister in London did pro- ment of Great Britain, desirous of reverting, duce a copy, or at least what purported to if possible, to the ancient and accustomed be a copy, of such an instrument. -It principles of maritime
determined prosessed to bear date the 28th of April upon revoking conditionally the Orders in 1911, long subsequent to the dispatch of Council. Accordingly, in the month, of the French Minister of Foreign Affairs of June last, his Royal Highness the Prince the 5th of August 1810, or even the day Regent was pleased to declare in Council, nained therein, viz. the 1st of November in the name and on the behalf of His Ma.. following, when the operation of the French jesty, that the Orders in Council should Decrees was to cease. This instrument be revoked, as far as respected the ships expressly declared that these French De- and property of the United States, from the crées were repealed in consequence of the 1st of August following. This revocation American Legislature having, by their was to continue in force, provided the GoAct of the 1st of March 1811, provided, vernment of the Uuited States should, within that British ships and merchandize should a time to be limited, repeal their restrictive be excluded from the ports and harbours laws against British commerce. His Maof the United States.
jesty's Minister in America was expressly By this instrument, the only document ordered to declare to the Government of produced by América, as a repeal of the the United States, that " this measure had French Decrees, it appears beyond a pos- “ been adopted by the Prince Regent in sibility of doubt or cavil, that the alleged the earnest wish and hope, either that the jepeal of the French Decrees was condi- • Government of France, by further relaxtional, as Great Britain had asserted; and “ ations of its system, might render persenot absolute or final, as had been maintain-" verance on the part of Great Britain in ed by America: that they were not re “ retaliatory measures unnecessary, or if pealed at the time they were stated to be " this hope should prove delusive, that His
“ Majesty's Government might be enabled, ( Treaty of Utrecht, and were therefore " in the absence of all irritating and re-binding upon all States. From the penals strictive regulations on either side, to enter ties of this Code no nation was to be " with the Government of the United States exempt, which did not accept it, not only " into amicable explanations, for the pur- as the rule of its own conduct, but as a law, pose
of ascertaining whether, if the ne- the observance of which it was also recessity of retaliatory measures should un- quired to enforce upon Great Britain.
fortunately continue to operate, the parti. In a Manifesto, accompanying their De“ cular measures to be acted upon by Great claration of hostilities, in addition to the 66 Britain, could be rendered more accept- former complaints against the Orders in “ able to the American Government, than Council, a long list of grievances was brought " those hitherto pursued.” -In order to forward; some crivial in themselves, others provide for the contingency of a Declara- which had been mutually adjusted, but none tion of War on the part of the United States, of them such as were ever before alleged previous to the arrival in America of the by the American Government to be grounds said Order of Revocation, instructions were for war.-As if to throw additional sent to His Majesty's Minister Plenipoten- obstacles in the way of peace, the Ameciary accredited to the United States (the rican Congress at the same time passed a execution of which instructions, in conse- law, prohibiting all intercourse with Great quence of the discontinuance of Mr. Foster's Britain, of such a tenor, as deprived the functions, were at a subsequent period in-Executive Government, according to the trusted to Admiral Sir John Borlase President's own construction of that Act, Warren), directing him to propose a ces- of all power of restoring the relations of sation of hostilities, should they have com- friendly intercourse between the two States, menced; and further to offer a simulta- so far at least as concerned their commercial neous repeal of the Orders in Council on Intercourse, until Congress should re-asthe one side, and of the Restrictive Laws on semble. --The President of the United the British ships and conimerce on the other. States, has, it is true, since proposed to
- They were also respectively empowered Great Britain an Armistice; not, however, to acquaint the American Government, in on the admission, that the cause of war reply to any inquiries with respect to the hitherto relied on was removed: but on blockade of May, 1806, whilst the British condition that Great Britain, as a prelimiGoverninent must continue to maintain its nary step, should do away a cause of war, legality,—" That in point of fact this now brought forward as such for the first
particular Blockade had been discontinued time; namely, that she should abandon " for a length of time, having been merged the exercise of her undoubted right of so in the general retaliatory blockade of search, to take from American merchant or the enemy's ports under the Orders in vessels British seamen, the natural-born “ Council, and that His Majesty's Govern- subjects of His Majesty; and this conces6 ment had no intention of recurring to sion was required upon " this, or to any other of the blockades of that laws would be enacted by the Legisla•ó the enemy's ports, founded upon the or ture of the United States, to prevent such os dinary and accustomed principles of Ma- seamen from entering into their service; - ritime Law, which were in force pre- but independent of the objection to an exos vious to the Orders in Council, without clusive reliance on a Foreign State, for the " a new notice to Neutral Powers in the conservation of so vital an interest, no ex" usual form.'' -The American Go-planation was, or could be afforded by the vernment, before they received intimation Agent who was charged with this Overture, of the course adopted by the British either as to the main principles upon which Government, had in fact proceeded to the such laws were to be founded, or as to the extreme measure of declaring war, and provisions which it was proposed they issuing “ Letters of Marque," notwith- should contain. -This proposition havstanding they were previously in possession ing been objected to, a second proposal of the Report of the French Minister for was made, again offering an Armistice, Foreign Affairs, of the 12th of March, 1812, provided the British Government would promulgating anew the Berlin and Milan secretly stipulate to renounce the exercise Decrees, as fundamental laws of the French of this Right in a Treaty of Peace. An Empire, under the false and extravagant immediate and formal abandonment of its pretext, that the monstrous principles exercise, as a preliminary to a cessation iherein contained were to be found in the of hostilities, was not demanded; but his
Royal Highness the Prince Regent was re- Regulations of a foreign State, as the sole quired, in the name and on the behalf of equivalent for the exercise of a right His Majesty, secretly to abandon what the which she has felt to he essential to itre former Overture had proposed to him pub• support of her maritime power, If licly to concede.---This most offensive America, by demanding this preliminary proposition was also rejected, being ac- concession, intends to deny ihe validity companied, as the former had been, by of that right, in that denial Great Britain other demands of the most exceptionable cannot acquiesce; nor will she give counnature, and especially of indemnity for all tenance to such a pretension, by acceding American vessels detained and condemned to its suspension, much less to its' abanunder the Orders in Council, or under what donment, as a basis on which to treat. were termed illegal blockades-a If the American Government has devised, pliance with which demands, exclusive of or conceives it can devise, regulations, all other objections, would have amounted which may safely be accepted by Great to an absolute surrender of the rights on Britain, as a substitute for the exercise which those Orders and Blockades were of the right in question, it is for them to founded.—Had the American Government bring forward such a plan for considerabeen sincere in representing the Orders in tion. The British Government has never Council, as the only subject of difference attempted to exclude this question front between Great Britain and the United amongst those on which the two States States, calculated to lead to hostilities; it might have to negotiate: It has, on the conmight have been expected, so soon as the trary, uniformly professed its readiness to revocation of those Orders had been offi- receive and discuss any proposition on this cially made known to them, that they would subject, coming from the American Gohave spontaneously recalled their " letters vernment: It has never asserted any
exclu“ of inarque," and manisested a disposition sive right as to the impressment of British immediately to restore the relations of peace seamen from American vessels, which it and amity between the two Powers. was not prepared to acknowledge as apperBut the conduct of the Government of the taining equally to the Government of the United States by no means corresponded United States, with respect to American with such reasonable expectations. seamen when found on board British The Order in Council of the 23d of June merchant ships :-But i cannot, by acceding being officially cominunicated in America, to such a basis in the first instance, either the Government of the United States, assume, or admit that to be practicable, saw nothing in the repeal of the Orders in which, when attempted on former occaCouncil, which should of itself restore sions, has always been found to be attended · Peace, unless Great Britain were pre- with great difficulties; such difficulties pared, in the first instance, substantially to as the British Commissioners in 1806, relinquish the right of impressing her own expressly declared, after an attentive con. seamen when found on board American sideration of the suggestions brought formerchant ships. The proposal of an ward by the Commissioners on the part of Armistice, and of a simultaneous Repeal America, they were unable to surmount.of the restrictive measures on both sides, Whilst this proposition, transmitted through subsequently made by the commanding the British Admiral, was pending in Ameofficer of His Majesty's naval forces on the rica, another communication on the subject American coast, were received in the same of an armistice was unofficially made to the hostile spirit by the Government of the British Government in this country. The United States. The suspension of the Agent, from whom this proposition was · practice of impressment was insisted upon received, acknowledged that he did not in the Correspondence which passed on consider that he had any authority himself that occasion, as a necessary preliminary to sign an agreement on the part of his Goto a cessation of hostilities :-Negocia- vernment, It was obvious that any stipution, it was stated, might take place lations entered into, in consequence of this without any suspension of the exercise of overture, would have been binding on the this right, and also without any Armistice British Government, whilst the Governbeing concluded; but Great Britain was ment of the United States would have been required previously to agree, without any free to refuse or accept them, according to knowledge of the 'adequacy of the system the circumstances of the moinent: this prowhich could be substituted, to negociate position was therefore necessarily declined. upon the basis of accepting the Legislative After this exposition of the circum
stances which preceded, and which have vious, that to abandon this ancient right of followed the Declaration of War by the Great Britain, and to admit these novel United States, His Royal Highness the pretensions of the United States, would be Prince Regent, acting in the name and on to expose to danger the very foundation of the behalf of His Majesty, feels hinself our maritime strength.--Without entercalled upon to declare the leading principles ing minutely into the other topics, which by which the conduct of Great Britain has have been brought forward by the Governbeen regulated in the transactions connect- ment of the United States, it may be proed with these discussions. ---His Royal per to remark, that whatever the Declara. Highness can never acknowledge any block. tion of the United States may have asserted, ade whatsoever to be illegal, which has Great Britain never did demand that they been duly notified, and is supported by an should force British manufactures into adequate force, merely upon the ground of France; and she formally declared her its extent, or because the ports, or coasts willingness entirely to forego, or modify, in blockaded, are not at the same time invest concert with the United States, the system ed by land. His Royal Highness can by which a commercial intercourse with the never admit that neutral trade with Great enemy had been allowed, under the proBritain can be constituted a public crime, tection of licenses ; provided the United the commission of which can expose the States would act towards her, and towards ships of any power whatever to be dena- France, with real impartiality:--The Gotionalized. — His Royal Highness can ne-vernment of America, if the differences bever admit that Great Britain can be debarred tween States are not interminable, has as of its right of just and necessary retaliation, little right to notice the affair of the Chesathrough the fear of eventually affecting the peak. The aggression in this instance, on interest of a neutral.--His Royal High- the part of a British officer, was acknowness can never admit, that in the exercise ledged, his conduct was disapproved, and of the undoubted and hitherto undisputed a reparation was regularly tendered by Mr. right of searching neutral merchant vessels Foster on the part of His Majesty, and acin time of war, the impressment of British cepted by the Government of the United seamen, when found therein, can be deem- Staçes. It is not less unwarranted in its ed any violation of a neutral flag. Neither allusion to the mission of Mr. Henry; a can he admit, that the taking such seamen mission undertaken without the authority, from on board such vessel, can be consi- or even knowledge of His Majesty's Godered by any Neutral State, as a hostile vernment, and which Mr. Foster was aumeasure, or a justifiable cause of war. thorized formally and officially to disavow. There is no right more clearly established, -The charge of exciting the Indians to than the right which a Sovereigu has to the offensive measures against the United States, allegiance of his subjects, more especially is equally void of foundation. Before the in time of war. Their allegiance is no op: war begin, a policy the most opposite had tual duty, which they can decline, and been uniformly pursued, and proof of this resume at pleasure. It is a call which they was tendered by Mr. Foster to the Ameriare bound to obey: it began with their can Government. Such are the causes birth, and can ouly terminate with their of war which have been put forward by the existence. If a similarity of language Government of the United States. But the and manners may make the exercise of this real origin of the present contest will be right more liable to partial mistakes, and found in that spirit, which has long unhapoccasional abuse, when practised towards pily actuated the Councils of the United vessels of the United States, the same cir. Suates ; their marked partiality in palliating cumstances make it also a right, with the ex-' and assisting the aggressive tyranny of ercise of which, in regard to such vessels, it France ; their systematic endeavours to inis more difficult to dispense. But if, to the Hame their people against the defensive practice of the United States, to harbour measures of Great Britain; their ungeneBritish seamen, be added their assumed rous conduct towards Spain, the intimate riglat to transfer the allegiance of British ally of Great Britain ; aud their unworthy subjects, and thus to cancel the jurisdiction desertion of the cause of viher neutral naof their legitimate sovereigu, by acts of na- tions. It is through the prevalence of such turalization and certificates of citizenship, councils that America has been associated in which they pretend to be as valid out of policy with France ; and committed in war their owu territory, as within it, it is ub- against Great Britain. —And under what
conduct on the part of France has the Go RUSSIAN BULLETINS. vernment of the United States thus lent itself to the enemy? The contemptuous vio- Report from General Count Willgenstein to lation of the Commercial Treaty of the year
His Imperial Majesty, dated Berisow,
Nov. 28. 1800 between France and the United States; the treacherous seizure of all Ame
(Continued from page 64.) rican vessels and cargoes in every harbour feet. The loss on our side is not great. I subject to the control of the French arms; am to-day going to attack Napoleon at the the tyrannical principles of the Berlin and town of Studentzy. Admiral TschitschaMilan Decrees, and the confiscations under gow and Count Platow will attack him on them"; the subsequent condemnations under the other side of the river Berisena. the Rambouillet Decree, antedated or con The same General reports, under date of cealed to render it the more effectual; the 12th (24th) November, from the village of French commercial regulations, which ren- Tschvuga, as follows: der the traffic of the United States with
Admiral Tschitschagow arrived on the France almost illusory; the burning of their 22d at Berisow, from whence the General merchant ships at sea, long after the al- of infantry, Langeron, reports to me in leged repeal of the French Decrees-all two letters of the 10th (220) instant, that these acts of violence on the part of France, Adjutant-General Count Lambert took posproduce from the Government of the United session of Berisow on the 9th (21st) and States, only such complaints as end in ac- there defeated the whole of Dombrowski's quiescence and submission, or are accompa-corps, taking six cannon and two stands of nied by suggestions for enabling France to colours, and making 3,000 prisoners ; the give the semblance of a legal form to her remainder of this beaten corps marched off usurpations, by converting them into muni- on the road to Orscha.--Count Lambert cipal regulations. This disposition of the also took two pieces of artillery at Kaidenow, Government of the United States—this com- and made about 3,000 prisoners, and had plete subserviency to the Ruler of France in all, in the course of eight days, made this hostile temper towards Great Britain about 11,000 prisoners, including the sick are evident in almost every page of the offi. chat were found in the hospitals at Minsk, cial correspondence of the American with and taken 24' cannón. Victor and Oudithe French Government.Against this not are retreating before me towards Bericourse of conduct, the real cause of the pre- sow. I am in pursuit of them, and yessent war, the Prince Regent solemnly pro- terday took upwards of 800 prisoners and tests. Whilst contending against France, a number of baggage waggous. The Gein defence not only of the liberties of Great neral of cavalry, Count Platow, is already Britain, but of the world, His Royal High- in pursuit of the enemy's grand army toness was entitled to look for a far different wards Totoschin. Your Imperial Majesresult. From their common origin–from ty will please to perceive by this statetheir common interest—from their professed ment, that we are compressing the enemy principles of freedom and independence, the on three sides. General Count Platow purUnited States were the last power in which sues them on the rear; I act on their flank; Great Britain could have expected to find a and Admiral Tschitschagow will receive willing instrument, and abettor of French him at Berisow.-Petersburgh Gazette, tyranny.Disappointed in this bis just Dec. 1. expectation, the Prince Regent will still
The same Paper contains a dispatch from pursue the policy which the British Govern- Prince Kutusow, dated Lanniku, 230 Noment has so long, and invariably maintain-vember, stating that Napoleon left Orscha ed, in repelling injustice, and in support on the 20th November, and detailing the ing the general rights of nations ; and, un means he had adopted for pursuing him. der the favour of Providence, relying on the justice of his cause, and the tried loyalty and firmness of the British nation, His
Petersburgh, Dec, 1. Royal Highness confidently looks forward to a successful issue to the contest, in which Intercepled Letter from the Prince of Neufhe has thus been compelled most reluctant
chalel to Marshal Davoust, Prince of
Eckmuhl. ly to engage.
It is the wish of the Emperor, that you Westminster, Jan. 9, 1913.
support the Duke of Elchingen in the re