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politan of Ardmagh over the three others; as in the politick government, the Monarch was over the provincial KK. But it cannot be denyed, that there were no Bishops of Canterbury for to ordein Irish Bishops for above 8 score years after S. Patrick's arrival in Ireland to S. Augustin's mission from Rome, A°- 597, and his foundation of Canterbury.
"S. Augustin's successours, and the British, Irish, and Pictish churches were at great odds and debate for several centuries of years, about the time of holding Easter, and other ceremonies, tho' not repugnant to the salvation of soules (Bed. Histor. passim), but as we now in like case differ som years by weekes from the new Gregorian Easter time; the English Saxons, of S. Augustin's conversion, holding Easter according to the reformed Dionysian paschal cycle of 532 years, practis'd in the church at their becoming christians, and the 3 other Nations together with the Northern English Saxons converted by Irish Scots, obstinately adhering to the old cycle of lxxxiv years, prescribed to them by their first DoctTM of christianity, as at their first conversion practised by the church. (Usser: de Brit. Eccl. Primord: pag. 925. Fleming, in vita S. Columbani.) During which controversy the Northern English, and Walsh, or British Bishops were often consecrated by Irish-Scot Bishops, and IrishScots by them, (Vard: Rumold: pag. 386. vita S. Kentigerni apttd Capgravium) without dependency of Canterbury, made decrees against such as were ordein'd by Bishops observant of the old Paschal manner of Eastertime. (v. Bed: Histor. passim.) This national controversy was so vehement, that it was but by degrees the dissenting Nations conformed themselves at last to the canonical Roman observance. So highly they were concerned in this, and other ceremonial points, whereof this of Easter was the greatest difference (Bed. Histor. lib. 2. cap. 2.), that of three successive Irish Bishops of Lindisfarn in Northumb: (and Metropolitans of the North of England, the see of York then vacant) the last Bishop Colman, in a Synod at Whitby in the North riding of York, about the same controversy, A" 664, abdicated his Bishoprick sooner than he would swarve from the ancient rites of his predecessors, and coming to Ireland his native soile, founded an Abbey at Bofinn Island in the West Ocean of Connaght, and another at Mayo for the English Saxons com along with him (Bed. Ibd. lib. 3. cap. 25. fy 26.) The abbey of the holy Island of Hy, (where the said three successive Bishops of Lindisfarn first profess'd), one of the Hebrid Isles of modern Scotland, chief head of all the Abbeyes of S. Columb's order in Ireland, Scotland, and England, planted by S. Columb with a seminary of monks, supplyed out of Ireland for many ages after, was induc'd to conform, A" 716, by the procurement of S. Egbert, a holy English Priest of religious austerity, among many more of his countrymen brought up in Ireland, where he liv'd at least 52 years till his going thither (Bed. Ibd. lib. 3. c. 27. lib. 4. c. 3. lib. 5. c. 10. t$- 23.) of whom V. Bede (lib. 5. c. 23.) upon his reducing S. Columb's order to the reformed Paschal form, makes this remark: Mira divinac constat factum dispensatione pietatis, ut quoniam gens illa, quae noverat scientiam divinae cognitionis (meaning the Irish Nation, and especially the Religious of S. Columb's order, by whom the most part of England recovered from paganism, as the same Bede, Usser. and Richard Broghton priest his writtings, published A° 1650, doe witness), Libenter, ac sine invidia populis Anglorum eam communicare curavit ipsa quoque postmodum per gentem Anglorum in cis, quae minus habuerat ad perfectam vivendi normam pervenirent. The same V. Bede (Bed. ibd. lib. 3, cap. 25, 26.) recounts that in Northumberland K. Oswy (devoted to the doctrin of the Irish, as was his brother K. Oswald) kept Easter-Sunday som years, on the same day that his Queen, brought up in Kent, celebrated Palm-Sunday, according to the Roman account observed by the church of Canterbury.
"Dr. Stillingfleet (Stittfl. Origines Brif pag. 355) recites an old canon of the church ordeining, that if a Province were divided into two, each of 'em was to have a Metropolitan. Much more requisit it was, that two distinct Kingdoms should have distinct Metropolitans; between which it was preposterous, that the yonger, both for Monarchy and Primacy, should have pre-eminence of Jurisdiction over the older; without acquiring it by force of arms, or Judicial sentence, neither of which appears before the year 1152.
"ATM 1152, on the fourth Sunday of Lent, at Kells in Meath, as our chronicles the same time have exactly recorded, Cardinal Paparo, sent by Pope Eugenius iii. together with Christian O'Conarche Bishop of Lismore, Apostolick Legat of Ireland, in a General Synod of the Prelats of Ireland, solemnly deliver'd a Pall to each of the 4 Metropolitans of Ireland, viz. the Archbishops of Ardmagh, Dublin, Cassil, and Tuam. If a Pall be necessarie for the essential function of a Metropolitan, as was after declared by Pope Innocent iii. In Pallio Pontificalis officii plenitudinem, cum Archiepiscopalis nominis appellatione conferri; and that there was no Archbishop in Ireland till then, you may as well say that there was no Archbishop of Canterbury these 150 years past, since the death of Cardinal Pole, A" 1558. Sr James Ware (War. de Pra*tulib. Hib") speaking of Cassil Prelates, writes, Hos omnes, licet ante usum Palliorum, Historici nostri Archiepiscopos nominant; and likewise were Metropolitans in G. Britain without Palls before S. Agustine erected the Metropolitan See of Canterbury. Quos omni dignitate Archiepiscopali usos fuisse, excepto Pallio, testatur Hovedonius ad an. 1199. (Cambr. Evers. p. 346. Stillingfl. Orig. Brif" p. 339). Without Palls were also ancient Metropolitans in France, and in remote places of the world from Rome (ut patet excapite Quoniam: Distinct. 100), S, Bernard in S. Malachy's life hath,
Metropolisea e Metropolises sedi deerat adhuc, et defuerat ah initio Pallii usus; moaning Ardmagh, where he plainly grants a Metropolitan See from the first erection thereof, as well as the want of a Pall; and tho' most zealous in reproving the vices of Church persons otherwhere, he never check'd that defect of a Pall, but rather in the same life extolls the dignity of that See thus: In tanta ab initio a cunctis veneratione habetur, ut non modo Episcopi et Sacerdotes, et qui de clero sunt, sed etiam Kegum et Principum universitas subjecta sit Metropolitano in omni obedientia, et unus ipse omnibus prresit But the Pall being a holy and most ancient ornament to the Metropolitan dignity, and badge of Apostolical obedience; it was out of their own proper motion that the Clergy of Ireland, sensible of the want of it, employed the same S. Malachy their Primat of Ardmagh, to suplicat for supplying thereof at Rome; who in his journey was prevented by death, in S. Bernard's abbey of Clarevall, A" 1148.
"This errour of no Archbishop in Ireland before 1152, with many more, was first broached by Giraldus Cambrensis (Girahl. Cambr. Topograph. Hib" distinct. 3. cap. 17). And where he, in the same place, admitts Irish Bishops consecrating one another. Doctor Meredith Hanmer, Treasurer of Dublin Cathedral church, to rectify that as uncongruous, must invent that they were consecrated by the Archbishops of Canterbury, and accordingly was followed by others, that cared not to examin further. More modest was Sr Rich. Baker, and more sincere in his Chronicle of the K K. of England, saying (in K. Will, the ii" reign p. 35). In this King's reign, altho he had no command in Ireland, yet their Bishop 0/Dublin was sent over to Anselm, Archbishop of Canterbury, to be consecrated by him, and the citizens of Waterford also desiring to have a Bishop, procured Muredach K. of Ireland to write to Anselm to give his consent. This is very true, and by letters of the same time extant, authentick, yet notwithstanding it is strange how prone people are led to humour their own fancy in so much, that the compiler of the Index of the same book in the letter C. word Canterbury thus misrepresents them words; viz. He (meaning the Archbishop of Canterbury whoever) consecrated all the Bishops of Ireland.
"I doe not deny that in the reign of the two first Norman KK. of England, and K. Stephen, and in the time of S. Lanfranc, S. Anselm, Rodulph, and Theobald Archbishops of Canterbury, the Ostmans of Dublin, Limerick, and Waterford, the Reliques of the pagan Danes or Normans infesting Ireland, becoming Christians, being aliens to the Irish, and originally countrymen to the new Norman conquerours of England, among whom their clergymen were commonly bred, and religiously professed, made it their Interest, by application likely to Rome, upon those motives, and upon consideration of their late conversion, and the Pope's subsequent authority interposing. I therefore conceive this was the reason, that the Irish took no distaste (that we can IRISH ARCH. 80C. 15. 3 L learn) learn) of opposing, or grudging at their introducing foreign Jurisdiction, insomuch, that contrariwise we reade, that Irish Princes and Prelats promoted their foreign advancement, by their influence on the Prelats of Canterbury, and commendation of the persons elected in order to their consecration; as may appear by the letters extant (in Usserii Sylloge veterum Epistolar. Hib"") ofTordelvac O'Brian K. of the Southern moyty of Ireland, and of his son and successour Murchert&ch, both styled Kings of Ireland, and of Ferdomnach Bishop of Kildare and Metropolitan of Leinster (before Dublin was so erected A° 1152). But never a Bishop of any other See in Ireland, nor even of those Ostman Sees, except five of Dublin, the first Bishop of Waterford, and one of Limerick in Archbishop Theobald's time, that ever owned consecration, and canonical obedience to the See of Canterbury.
"York was the Metropolitan see of Scotland till the year of Grace 1471, by which title if Canterbury was the Metropolitan of Scotland is beyond my sphere to dispute, but was no more Metropolitan of Ireland than as Edgar K. of England was conquerour of Ireland ATM 964, by letters patent dictated by his secretary; conscious to none els of his time: or as all the learning and sanctity of Ireland abolished by the descent of Egfrid K. of Northumberland's flieet in Ireland A" 684, as Cambden thought, de quibus videsis Ogygiam pag: 39 & pag: 230. Nay Wales nearer home than Ireland was not under the Jurisdiction of Canterbury before the year 1187, in K. Hen. ii' reign, Baldwin being then Archbishop of Canterbury.
"Lastly, I cannot but arraign Doctor Hanmer's partial judgement and forgetfull memory, who saw in his own dayes (A° 1604 deceas'd) Matthew Parker Dean of Lincoln installed Archbishop of Canterbury, by William Barlow Prior of Bisham, John Scory, and Miles Coverdale; and Parker without a stich of a Pall's cross investing 22 Bishopps of as many cathedralls: of which number Barlow was made Bishop of Chichester and Scory of Hereford (Bakers Chronicle in Q, Elizabeth, A° 1559), and yet could not digest, that Irish Bishops in the primitive times of their sanctity, could confer Episcopal orders without one of 'em shouldering a Pall on brest and back.
"In Dr. Chamberlain's 8 chap: Notitiae Angl* by the vast number of Scotish KK. and wast time of their 2000 years continuance, I attribut his mistake to his adhering unaware to the modern Scotish stories. In the same chapter I observe his omission of K. James's long line of extraction from the KK. of Ireland, of whom in a direct masculin line, not controverted, he sprung. Videsis Ogygiam passim, the Genealogy of K Alex. iii. William Slatyr's Pate-Albion, etc.
"Prid. Cal . May, 1709. h: in Albis."
A BBEYS 273, 274
-**- Abbey (Cong;, 18, 24
Abbey of St. Francis, .... 82, ib. n.
Abhainn Tuaidhe 107, n.
Achay, last Belgian King of Ireland, . 18
Aghnenure, 23, ib. n., 24
, castle of, ... . 54, ib. n.
, lands of, . . . . - 416, n.
, manor of, ... . 54, ib. n.
Aircin (see Arhin), 78, n.
Albeus (St.), Bishop of Imly 79
Alexander (Pope) VI., Bulls of, . 161-171
Ally, river of, 62, ib. n.
Alms 40, ib. n.
Ambergreese 94, ib. *., 95
Anabaptists of Galway, 28
Anchu. See Dovarch«.
Ancient maps of Ireland inaccurate, 91, n.
Ancient stone crosses, . . 114, n., 115, n.
Anglo-Normans, 143, 378, 382
Anglo-Norman (early) document, . . 266
Anhin (St.) 54, n.
Annaghdown (see Euaghdun), . . 3, n.
Annals of the Four Masters quoted, . 63, n.,
of Ulster 187
Anselro, Archbishop of Canterbury, . 441
Antrim, County of, 415
Apparitions, 69, ib. n.
Ara, signification of, 90
Ara Sanctorum 79
Ara-Coemhan 75, n., 87, 90
Aran 7, 69, 76, n., 80, 84, 86
, Abbots of, 80
, cliffs and rocks of, . . - . . 13
, half barony of, 6
, isles of, . 7, 10, 15, 37, 43, 65, ib. n.
66. n., 68, 71,78, n., 92 , churches of the, . 74, n.,
, lesser, 69
, middle island of, . . . 119, ib. n.
, saints of, 87, n.
Archbishops' and bishops' palls, . 440, 442
Archisinedrus, 114, n.
Ardberra Haven, . . . 11l, ib. n., 112
Ardes, castle of, 101, n, 102