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"Observations on Dr. Borlace's Reduction of Ireland, by Roderic O'Flaherty. [From the Author's autograph, in the possession of the Right Honorable the Earl of Leitrim*]. "Mr. Downing,

"The ensuing observations on Dr. Borlace's Reduction of Ireland you desired from me, I had by me this long time, but had no convenience to transmitt it till now, assuring that if I could serve you better my endevours would not be wanting for you. I am,

"Yr faithfull servant, "Galway, 17, Ja: i68J. "R. O'FLAHERTY*.

"-The Reduction of Ireland, etc.

"The title improper, where is onely a catalogue of the chiefe Governours of Ireland.

"In the preface to the Reader, 140,000 soules in afew tiieekes dislodged by the authority of Sr Jo: Temple's Irish rebellion, is by many thousands further from truth, than the relation of 17 persons onely massacred, as appears by the streight enquiryes made in Cromwell's time; and yet but few of those many thousands could be found to have beene really murthered. For there were not soe many thousands of protestants living then in all Ireland, much less in Ulster, where most of those murthers were said to have been committed. Wherefore the Black booke in Athlone,

upon upon which Sr Jo. Temple's Rebellion was grounded, was so falsifyed in most particulars thereof, as well by the witnesses, who were said to have thereunto deposed, as also by some of the persons then living, who in that booke were sworn to have been murthered, that it was for shame set by, as no evidence. It is also avowed the first massacres were committed on the Irish; and the several murthers in cold bloud committed on them did 20 times exceed what they acted. Besides the Irish nation in generall were soe much unconcerned in those murthers, that at their humble proposalls all murthers were excepted out of the Articles of Peace, A" 1648; and since hisMa'7" Restauration, it was their request by their Agents, to except all murthers on both sids out of the Act of Indemnity.

* A copy of these Observations is preserved in the MS. library of Trinity College, Dublin, I. 1,3, No. 32. BorUue's "Reduction" was published in London, 1675, 8vo. See Harris's Ware, ii. 351, for Borlase; and Dr. Nalson's severe remarks on him; wherein he is charged with plagiarism, "that may well render him suspected not to be overstocked with Honesty and Justice." The following is extracted from the Depositions A. D. 1641, in Trinity College, Dublin. before referred to:

"Francis Haselope, late of Bally haraghane, in the parish of Disert, barony of Inchiquine, gent., siitli. that about 29 Dec. last, he being in company at Ballyheraghane, with one Connor O'Hogan, fryer of the Convent of AgheiseQ) and John O'Hogan his brother, demanded of them the reason of this suddaine rising againste the English, and the forcible

takeinge away of their goode; who, severally of them, answered, that it was the King's fault in setting such meane and base governors to rule over them, then and there nominating Sir William [Sir William interlined] Parsons, now one of his Majesjesties Lords Justices of the Kingdom, and Sir Richard [Sir Richard interlined] the Lo. Chancellor, to be men of basc degree, and such as heretofore they would have to solicitt their cause from Cort to Cort, during the whole Teanne, for rive shillings a peece; and that Burlace y* other Lord [Lard interlined] Justice, quoth the fryer, and the said John averring the same, was but a base pynnmaker, or a header of pynnes; all which words were spoken in most bitter and invective manner.TM—Jurat. 9 June, 1642.

* See Faesimile at the beginning of this volume.

"In the Introduction. The darke side of the cloud was still towards the author, as to the originall of the Irish and their chronicles, of which he could not participate, but what seemed fabulous and vaine. There is a more exact account of the chiefe Governours of Ireland for above 2000 [years] before, then that of the authors for this last 500 yeares. The first invasion of the Scots (not Goths) a thousand yeares before Christ, a Scythian nation out of Spaine, is more certainely knowen, then that of the English into England 400 years after Christ, of which time are severall different opinions, as also there is of K. Lucius his Christianity, whereunto 20 different yeares are assigned, whereas the time of the Gospell's preaching to us by the arrivall of S. Patrick, is without controversy, that of Grace 432. This I say, as to the exactnesse of time in answer to his taunting our chronicles. As for his virulent expressions of a nation meerdy Pyraies, Barbarous and inhuman, with much more of the like through all his booke, I passe it by for a hereditary malice. Some body perhaps will hit him with it after his and my death.

"The title of our Sovereigne Lord King Charles the 2A to the Kingdome of Ireland, as well as to the rest of his Kingdomes and dominions, we with all respect, duty, and allegiance, acknowledge unquestionable, but for that of the first Invadours in favour of an Adulterer, the bulls of Adrian and Alexander popes, and the synod at Cassell, as also a nation meerdy pyrats, barbarous, and inhuman, I refer such as desire satisfaction to Gratianus Lucius his Cambrensis Eversus, against Giraldus Cambrensis, capp. 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26. Mahony was no Jesuite, whose booke was deservedly condemned to fire, by order of the nationall assembly of the Irish Catholicks at Kilkenny. Of which booke and its author some poet then gave this censure:

1 Digitus luce liber, modo flammis luceat ustus,

Et scriptorlibro sit comes ipse suo
Seditionis erat nam fax authorque liberque,

Ambo perire pari sic meruere rogo.'

It is a strange paradox that such as in this, and all other their actions, continually professed their due allegiance to his Majesty (which the author, p. 276, interprets verbally), should be the onely rebells, and not those who openly professed by word and deed to deface all markes of sovereignty, and pluck up by the root Monarchy.

"A° 1171, the 3d yeare after the English invasion, and the 17 of K. Henry 2. (he landed in Ireland 17 October, vid. War. de Antiq. Hib. cap. 22, p. 112, c. 24, p. 149), and not ATM 1172, as others mistake, for S. Thomas of Canterbury suffered 29 Dec., being Tuesday, as Baker and Spondanus noted A" 1170, and Christmasse after King Henry kept at Dublin. Soe far I observe on the Introduction.

"Pag. 1,1171, not 117 2, ut supra; for 25 Oct. 1171 ended the 17th yeare of King Henry 2.

Pag. 2, 1177, Earle Strongbow dyed.

P. 6, 1186, Hugh Lacy murthered.

P. 20, Richard de Burgo, brother's son to Hubert Earle of Kent.

P. 37, Richard de Burgo, Earle of Ulster and Lord of Connaght, was son of Earle

Walter, and grandehild of the above Richard, Hubert Earle of Kent's nephew;

and Edmond de Burgo 2d son of Richard Earle of Ulster, was progenitoure of Castle

conell and Brettas barons. Idm. John, first baron of Leitrim, was son of Rickard Saxanagh, Earle of Clann

rickard. His son Raymund last baron of Letrim. Idm. William Burk custos Hib. was brother's son to Walter Earle of Ulster, and

Cousin-german to Earle Richard; of which William descended Mayo Bourks. P. 40, 1318, 14 of October was Dundalk battle. P. 44, A° 1162, Claona (not Cleonard Synod). P. 45, Jo. Birmingham Earle of Louth, younger brother to Richard, baron of

Athenry, murthered, not by Maegoghegan, but by his owne English, as you may

read in Camden's Irish Annales. P. 48, Sr William Morris. Ufford's death, April the 10th ut p. 49. P. 55, Lional, Duke of Clarence dyed at Albe in Piemont . P. 63, Roger, Earle of March, declared heire to the crowne by K. Richard 2. in right

of his mother, Philip, daughter of Lionell Duke of Clarence, was slaine, not by

O'Brien, but by O'Birn of Wicklow county. His mother, Philip's mother,

was Elizabeth, daughter of William Earle of Ulster, son of the Lord John, son of

Richard Earle of Ulster, de quo supra.
P. 73, Prior of Kilmainam, not Earle.
P. 75, 1423, 4 Ja. Bishop of Meath dyed.

P. 96, 1513, Kildare dying could not keepe Parliament, 7° Hen. 8, A° 1515.
P. 98, 1516, 13 Jun. after 25 Febr. 7" Hen. 8, 15^^.

Irish Arch. SOC. 15. 3 K P. 98

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