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remembered by the name of Emuinn mac Morogha na moor. In the troubles which followed, A. D. 1641, these brothers, unfortunately for themselves and their posterity, took a prominent part'. The former fitted out his long-boats or galleys, with which he commanded the western coasts of Ireland during the hostilities. In A. D. 1642, they both joined their kinsman, Morough we doe of Aghnenure, and marched with a force of 1800 men to besiege the fort at Galway. On that occasion their men, who were called by the Marquis of Clanricarde "the rude kearns of Irr-Conaght" (Memoirs, pa. 176), were charged with having committed several outrages, and some murders, in the town'. Pending the hostilities there, Edmond O'Flaherty proceeded,

with with a company of one hundred men, to the islands of Aran, and from thenoe he directed his course to the west of the County of Clare. There he laid siege to a castle called Tromra, which was situated close to the sea-shore, in the barony of lbrickan. This castle was inhabited by an Englishman of the name of Ward and his family. After a desperate defence of nearly four days the place was carried by storm. The brave owner and the principal part of his family were slain, and the castle was plundered and burned to the ground. After this exploit, the perpetrator returned home with his booty. He afterwards joined the confederate forces of Connaught, and continued in action during the remainder of the war.

granted to him for the sum of £40 Irish lint.

Pat. 8 Car. I. 2. p. d.

'The Memoirs of the Marquis of Clanricarde, and Carte's Life of Lord Ormonde, detail many of the proceedings of the O'Flaherties of Iar-Connaught during the troubles. The most active of the leaders were, Lieut.-Col. Morrough 71a doe (Gen. Table, II. No. 39), of Corr or Lemonfleld, near Aghenure, (great-grandson of Sir Murrough na d-tuadk), Sir Morogh na marl, and Col. Edmund, his brother. Of the proceedings of the latter some particulars are given above and in the ensuing notes; from curious original documents, of which some notice will be found in the sequel.

* The following extracts, taken from the famous Depositions relating to the rebellion, A. D. 1641, preserved in the MS. Library of Trinity College, Dublin (F. 2, 3), have reference to those outrages: "thomas Scott, 23rd Dec. 1653, saith, That at the beginning of the rebellion, he saw in the street of Galway one Morrogh O'Flaherty, stiled colonel, of Eer-Connagh (being a tall, swarthy young man), marching down the street, with about 300 Irish rebels following him: that they broke into a house, and five of the soldiers stabbed, with their skenes,

Mrs. Collins."—"johnTurner, 1642, saith.

That the Irish people of Ere-Connaught robbed the English inhabitants, and killed and murthered several of them; amongst which, they cut off the heads of one John Fox and his wife, and murthered a Mrs. Collins, as she was kneeling at her prayers,

and tumbled the heads of Fox and his wife about the streets; yet the mayor or aldermen did not in anyway punish the offenders."—" John Sheelt, of Galway, baker, 25 May, 1644, saith, That in Galway the very children, according to their powers, exceeded the men, insomuch as their very frie, or young children, would with skeanes, wherewith generally they were armed, come to the English women, and say, with their skeanes presented, 'You English jades, or doggs, I will cut your throats!' and none durst so much as contradict any of those graceles impes."—" Lieut. John Gell, 7 March, 1653, saith, That it was commonly spoken in Galway, that the O'Flaherties of Ire-Connaught were brought into the towne purposely to murther all the English; and he believeth they would have murthered them all accordingly, had not some priests hindered them, by going out in their vestments,' with tapers and a crucifix earned before them, commanding the said murtherers to surcease. And where some goods had been plundered, they commanded restitution to be made, as the examinant, being then in the Fort of Galway, was credibly informed."—" Marv Bowlek, spinster, aged 21 years, servant to Lieut. John Gell. 7th March, 1653, saith, That she heard by several of the towne-people that it was the Major and council of the town that had brought in the said Ire-Connaught people to kill and murther all the English Protestants, because their own hands should not be embrued in their blood. That she herself saw the priests of the towne, and other priests, being

In the beginning of May, 1653, John Browne, of the isles of Aran, came before the magistrates in Galway, and gave information on oath against Colonel Edmotul O'Flaherty and others, for the murder of Peter Ward of Tromragh, in the County of Clareh. A party of soldiers was accordingly dispatched to Iar-Connaught in pursuit of the accused. After a long and fruitless search, the party was returning, and passing beside a small dark wood near Renvile, their attention was attracted by

the

about eight in number, going about the towne in their vestments, with tapers burning, and the sacrament borne before them, and earnestly exhorting the said Murrough na mart, and his company, for Christ's sake, and our Lady's, and St. Patrick's, that they would shed no more blood, and if they did they would never have mercy. That the said Murrough and one Edmond O'Flahertie were at the committing of the said murthers, and aiding and abetting the same; and that she doth verily believe, that had it not bene for the said priests, the said O'Flahertyes and their company had killed all the English Protestants they had found in Galway.TM—" Martha Love, wife of Capt. Highgate Love, 23rd Feb. 1653, saith, That the town was full of Ireconnaught rogues, in their trowses and broages, all armed with pikes, skeans, and swords." —Pity it is that Mrs. Love did not tell us if these trowses fitted close to the limbs, like those of the old Irish, described by Ware, Ant. cap. xi.: "Defemoralibusillisarctissimis, 7Voio«;tvulgodictis."—" Close britches, commonly called trowses."—Harris. For at the present day the Iar-Connaught " rogues" all wear their trowsers loose and ample, which gives

their lower limbs nearly as much liberty as the Highlanders of Scotland enjoy in the kilt. But this latter curious article of dress itself requires some explanation. The late Major Duff, of Muirtown, near Inverness, editor of the Culloden Papers, n volume of curious and valuable letters, from the year 1 ti'24 to 1745, published from the originals in Culuxlen House, astonished some of his Northern friends by staling, in a note to one of the letters, that the kilt, or phluibeg ("frile bheag," Armstrong's Diet.) was not the ancient Highland garb, but was introduced into the Highlands about 1720, by ono Thomas Itawliusoii an Englishman, who was overseer to a company carrying on Iron Works in Glengarry's country. The convenience of the dress, he added, soon caused it to be universally adopted in tho Highlands. Surely some patriotic Highlander will here rush to the rescue of the martial philabeg from this bold assertion of its mean and modern origin. Pinkerton says, it was "quite unknown.TM—Hist. Scot part Iv. c. vi. See also Whitaker's Hist. Manchester, book I. c. vii. § v.

h This information will be found in the Deposition* of A. D. 1641, T. C. D. vol. xxi.

the unusual noise and croaking of ravens hovering in the air, towards the centre of the wood. On arriving at the spot over which the birds still continued on the wing, the soldiers discovered a cavity in a rock, from which they drew forth a miserablelooking man, who was soon recognized as the unfortunate object of their pursuit'. With him they found a poorly-attired and emaciated female, who afterwards proved to be his wife, the daughter of Sir Christopher Garvey of Lehinch, in the County of Mayo: "And truly who had seen them would have said they had been rayther ghosts than men, for pitifully looked they, pyned awaye for want of foode, and altogether ghastly with feare'." He was immediately brought prisoner to Gal way, and committed to the town gaol, where he was closely examined, as follows:

"The Examination of Colonel Edmond O ' Flaherty, taken before Robert Clarke, esq., one of the Justices of the precinct of Galway, May 24,h 1653. "Being examined how long he was in arms against the Commonwealth of England? Saith he was called hither to this towne of Gallway by the archbishop of Tuam, who was president, and by Francis Blake of Galway, who was then commander in chief of the forces in the said towne of Galway, raised against the fort; and that he came with the company under his command, and assisted the said Francis in beseeching (besieging) the said fort. Saith, that going from the towne of Gallway after the surrender of the said fort, he went with his boats to the islands of Arm, and continued there some fourteen days, until the islanders did complaine of the burthen they were unto them, upon which deponent and his company went in their boats to the countie of Clare, to a castle called Trennrowe, which was possessed by one Mr. Ward, whom he heard was an honest gentleman, and never heard of him before, and neither doth know of what religion or nation he was of; and came to said castle about 1" May, 1642, in the beginning of the night, and came within a musket shot of the said castle, to a house where he and his company kept their court of guard. Before their coming to the said howse, they made some shotts from the castle at him, and continued suteing all night, with which shotts some of his men were wounded. And

saith

'These particulars have been preserved by tradi- O'Flaherty was attributed to the intervention of Pro

tion, and aregiven above as related by the late Francis vidence, to bring him to justice, for the outrage in

Lynch, Esq., of the island of Omey, near Rcnvile the county of Clare.

in Conamara. Mr. Lynch died about twenty years J Extract from Sir Richard Bingham's "Dis

ago, at the age of ninety. He used to add, that the course of his Services in Mayo against the Bourses,

party was headed by a Colonel " Bayman, governor A. D. 1586," preserved in the Cotton Library, Bri

of the island of Bofin ;TM and that the discovery of tish Museum, Titut B. XIII.

saith, they could not find the doore nor windows of the said castle that night, but eleven of his men went to the hale which was jonying of the castle, thinking to get in, whereupon they threw stones from the topp of the castle, by which one of his men was wounded and bruised in his arm, and another in his back, and also they let falle a bundle of strawe upon said halle by which it was burned, and the next morning they sett on to storme the castle, in which storme one of his men was killed, and three wounded. And saith he continued seige to the said castle, from Sunday night until Wednesday morning, at which time conditions were made by John Wardk for his own

life, life, with Teige O'Bryen, and the (par), priest, which said John this examinant employed as a messenger to his father in the said castle, desiring him to take quarter several times, but the answer of Peeter Ward was, that he would nott take the quarter of Bellian or Scueli. \_BeUicke or SrueUf],

k This John was son of Peter Ward. On 25th April, A D. 1643, he gave a deposition on oath, from which the following is an extract:—" Saith, that on or about the 17,h day of Aprill, Anno Dom. 1642, the said PecterWard, Alson Ward (his wife), and George Ward of the same Gentl. (son to the said Peeter), in a most crucll and rebellious manner, were murthered and stripped by the hands and meanes of Edmund O'Fflahertie, Esqr. and others of his confederates, in manner following, that is to say, The said Edmond, about the day and year above mentioned, came by sea from Igher-Conaght, in the Com. Gallway, accompanied with five other boates well manned with armed men, and landing his men at or near Tromroe aforesaid, the said Edmond then and there, in a most rebellious and hostill manner, with collours displaied, assaulted the castle of Tromroe aforesaid, late at night (where this deponent, the said Peeter, George, Alson, and others fled for refuge) but being then resisted by the said Peeter and the rest in there owne defence, the said fllahertie, with the rest of his forces and the country besides, continued siedge to the said castle for three (hues and three nights, during which time, and especially the second day of his said siedge, being the 18lh day of Aprill aforesaid or thereabouts, amonge divers other acts of hostility, don and perpetrated by the said fllahertie and the rest of his associats, he then and there murthered, or caused or consented to murther, the said Alson and George, having shott or caused to shoote with a bullet the said Alson under the right side, whereof she died immediately, and IRISH ARCH. SOC. IJ. 3

likewise gave the said George eighteene woundes, whereof he likewise instantly dyed upon the 20,h day of Aprill afores'1, or thereabouts. Wednesday on the morneing (being the last day of their said siedge) the said Edmond O'Ftlahertie caused the .said castle to be fired, and entering the same that day, the said Peeter Ward was then and there traytorously murthered by the said fllahertie and his company, having recaived divers mortall wounds in his body: whoe together with the said Alson and George, was stripjx'd, and they three buryed in or neer the said castle walls, from whence by directions from Donnell O'Bryen of Dowgh in the said Com. Esq. they were removed, and enterred in the parish church of Killmurry afoesaid. Yeet notwithstanding, Donnell Mr scanlane Mc Gorman of Dunsallagh, in the said Com. Mass-preist, caused their corps to be digged up againe, and buried without in the churchyard, for noe other cause (ns farr as the deponent could lcarne) but that they saidc no unsanctilied or hereticall corps of protestants (as they tearme them) must remaine within their churches.

u This deponent likewise saith, that the said Edmond O'Ftlahertie was abetted, counselled, and assisted in the said rebellious and traytorous designe, by the undernamed persons, namely, by Donnogh O'Brien of Xewtowne, in the said Com. esq.; Mohowne Mc Dermod of Tromroe, aforesaid, gent. Therlagh Mf Dermod and Connor M'' Dermod of the same gent. Kichd Fizpatrick (seneschall of Ibrackane aforesaid, and then and now receaver to the earle of Thomond within the said Ba

"Being further examined, he saith, that on Wednesday about 9 of the clock, there came out of the castle the said Warde's twoe daughters and twoe younger sonnes, and alsoe there came oute an Englishe man and his wife; but upon which day this Examinant remembereth not. And further saith, that the sonne and heire of the said

Peeter

rony) Hugh Mc f'rutton (M'Ciirtin) of in

the said Com. gent. Donnell Mc Scanlane Mc Gorman aforesaid, Teige Fitzpatricke of ffintraghtbegg, in the said Com. gentl. Teige Roe O'Bryen, son to Sr Donnell O'Bryen Knight aforesaid, Mohowne Mc Encarrigy of Flenoremore, in the said Com. yeoman, and divers others whose names this deponent doth not remember. This deponent's cause of knowledge (concerning the said parties their ayding, counsellinge, and assisting the saide fflaherty) is, that first Donogh O'Bryen above mentioned, about the eight [eighteenth?] day of Aprill aforesaid, did entertaine, with meate, drinke, and lodging, the said fflahertie at Newtowne aforesaid, whereby this deponent beleeveth that he was privy to the said rebellious enterprise ; and also that the said Donogh O'Bryen possessed himself of woorth a hundred pounds of the said Peeter's cattle, which he detaineth to this day. He alsoe saith, that he saw and observed the rest of the said parties in amies at the seidge of the said castle, and divers times consulting and advising howe to surprise the same. He also saw and observed that, then and there, the said Teige Roe O'Brien gave out, that if the said castle were not then taken by the said Fflaherty, he himselfe would suddenly coine and besett the same with his forces. He also observed, that during the said siedge, the said Hugh Mc Crutton did use to take a note in writeing of as many of the besiedgers, as were either hurt or killed against the said Castle, openly extolling them for their valour and good service in assaulting the said castle, to noe other pur

pose (as this deponent then understood) but to give intimation to the rest of the country, and to encouradg them to like rebellious actions. These were the motives that induceth this deponent to beleeve, that the said parties were aydinge, counselling, and assisting the said Fflahertie. He further informeth, that he heard it credibly affirmed by severall persons in the said siedge, that they, meaning the Irish, had his Majestye's commission to take the said castle, amonge other castles in this kingdome.

"He, being further examined, saith, that this deponent, about the beginning of January 1641, at a place called Curragh-Catlin, in the said Countie, meetinge with the saide Teige Roe O'Brien, he then and there in the presence of this deponent, one CV>rmac O'Hicky, in or neere Bunratty, in the said County, Surgeon, and divers others, utt*red the words ensuing, or others like them in effect*; for (quoth he) the Irish are reviled by all other nations, because of their remissness in not ayding one another ; but now because it is a generall cause (quoth he) God confound and the Devill take him that will not assist them to his dyeing day; adding further, that in England the King was against the English as much as they heere, and that there was never any hopes of agreement there, and that it was their intent meaning the Irish, to root out the English Nation, affirming that it was his Majesty's express wiB and

pleasure soe to doe John Warde."—Depositions,

Clare, vol. xxi. [The remainder of this Deposition will be found curious. Among other things, it charges the then earl of Thoniond with high treason]

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