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Tracts by Roderic O'Flaherty, now first printed.
(HE territory of West Connaughtb, the antient seigniory of the O'Flaherties, was extended of old beyond Lough Orbsenc, and the river and town of Gallway, to the barronies of Kilmain, Clare, and Dunkellind.
Its cathedrall (as every Irish seigniory had its own, whose diocess runned with the seigniory's bounds) was Enagh
a Roderic CC Flaherty For a biographical notice of this learned individual see the genealogical and historical account of the O'Flaherties, compiled from original documents, in Appendix III.
b West Connaught Accurately so called, says De Burgo in his Hibernia Dominicana, for it is like a peninsula forming
IRISH ARCH. SOC. 15. *B
the West of Connaught, nay, even of all Ireland. "Et merito quidem, est enim ad instar Peninsula; in Occiduo Conacice, immo totius Hibernia?."—p. 308. It is in Irish called lap or lapcap Connacc, but by our author, in his Ogygia, p. 386, latinized "West-connactia;" and was one of the great divisions of the cuijeao, fifth
dune, dedicated to St. Brendan, the 16th of May, Anno Christi, 577, there deceased, in the barony of Clare, on the brink of Lough Orbsen; which, besides the cathedrall, had an abbey of Chanon Regulars, and a nunnery.
or province of Connaught, which was itself, anciently, the most extensive of the five provinces, or cuijeaoa, into which Ireland was originally divided.
e Lough Orbsen.—OrOirb, now corruptly Corrib. For an account of this lake, and of the river and town of Gal way, mentioned immediately after in the text, see further on in this treatise.
d Kilmain, Clare, and DunkeUin.—Kilmain, in Irish, Oil mhea&oin, a barony in the south of the county of Mayo; of which that part lying south of the River Robe was the ancient territory of Conmhaicne cuile toladh, one of the five Conmhaicnes of Connaught, for which see our author's Ogygia, P. iii. ch. xlvi. p. 276. This was the ancient seignory of O'Talcarain. Ctp Conriicncnecuile ac clop, O Calcapam.—CDugan's Topogr. Poem, Stanz. 55. See also Lynch's Cambr. Evers. p. 27; and O'Brien's Diet., in voce Conmhaicne. The race of O'Talcarain has long since become extinct. After them theO'Conors, of the Siol-Muireadhoigh race, seem to have acquired power and possessions in this district. "In A. D. 1155, the church of Kilmain was burned. —Four Matters. The O'Flaherties at an early period acquired some small portions of the southern part of this rich district, which bordered on their own territory of Ui bpuin peola; but the entire was afterwards possessed by the Anglo-Norman adventurers, chiefly the Burkes and their
descendants, who built the castles mentioned in the text. In the thirteenth century, this territory was the scene of great warring and contention, between those adventurers and the native tribes, the
O'Conors and the O'Flaherties See the
Annals of the Four Masters, particularly at A. D. 1225, et sequent. In A.D. 1265, a conference took place at Kilmain, between Tomaltach O'Conor, Archbishop of Tuam, and the Prendergasts, at which many of the Archbishop's people were slain Id. See Ware's account of this dispute, where he incorrectly calls this place Kilmethan. In A. D. 1585, the ancient district of Conmhaicne cuile toladh was created the barony of Kilmain, so culled from the ancient church there. Archdall was unacquainted with the site or name of this foundation.—See Monast. p. 503. In A.D. 1789, Sir John Browne, Bart., was created Baron Kilmain of the Neale, in the county of Mayo.—Ir. Peerage.
Clare.—This was the ancient territory of Ui 6puin Seola, the original inheritance of the O'Flaherties, or Muintir Murchada (from Morogh, the son of Maonach,
who died A. D. 891 Four Masters),
which included the districts of Ui Bruin Ratha and Clann Feargaile, in the latter of which Galway was situate. It was also called Muintir Murchadha, from the tribe name of the possessors. Rickard Earl of Clanrickard, who died 24th July, A. D. 1582, was seized of a chief rent of twenty marks out of the cantred called Moyntermoroghou Inq. Rolls Off. Dub. This territory, excepting a small portion to the south, was created the barony of Clare, in A. D. 1585; and it was so named from the castle of Baile an Chlaire, now Clare-Galway, which lies about five miles N. E. of that town. The O'Flaherties possessed this territory from the fifth to the thirteenth century, when they were driven out by the Anglo-Norman Burkes. They then crossed Lough Orbsen (Corrib) and dispossessed the more ancient owners of the territories of Gnomore, Gnobegg, and Conmhaicnemara, the present baronies of Moycullen and Balinahinch lying west of that lake, as will appear in the sequel.
Butf since the year of Christ, 1238, wherein the baronies of Clare, Kilmain and Kerag were planted with castles" by the English,
Dunkellin In Irish, Oun Caillin.
This barony was created in A. D. 1585, and named from an ancient dun or castle within its boundaries. It formed part of the territory of Ui Fiachrach Aidhne, in the south of the present county of Gal way; and, with the barony of Clare before mentioned, was included in the more modern territory of Clanrickard in that county, acquired by the families of De Burgo after the English invasion. See Appendix I. for a particular account of that territory, in A. D. 1585.
c Enaghdun.—Now Annaghdown. We learn above from our author that the diocese of Enaghdun was conterminate with the "seignory" or territory of the O'Flaherties. The extent of both might, therefore, be satisfactorily ascertained from the ecclesiastical survey and taxation of Ireland, made in the time of Pope Nicholas, A. D. 1291; but that curious record is kept in London, in the department of the Queen's Remembrancer there. The extent of the diocese of Enagh-' dun, at a subsequent period, may be learned from the MS. E. 3, 13, in the Library of Trinity College, Dublin, which contains, "the state of the dioceses of Tuam, Enaghdun, and Kilmacduach," in the reign of Elizabeth, and in the time of Christopher Bodkin, who succeeded archbishop Lally, A. D. 1536—Ware. See also the Regal Visitation of A. D. 1615.
f But—This paragraph seems misplaced. Half of it, viz., as far as the word "Arran," properly belongs to the first, and the remainder to the second paragraph.
8 Kera In Irish Ceapa. The barony
of Carra, or Burriscarra, in the county of Mayo, bordering on the barony of Kilmain; in the same county, was part of the territory of Hy-Fiachrach, the ancient principality of the O'Dowde family. Although
the same [ West Connaught] is confined to the limits of Moycullin and Balynahinsy barony's, and of the half baronies of Ross and
this is one of the richest baronies of Ireland, in point of soil, its present dense population may be classed among the poorest of the kingdom in point of circumstances. But it was not always so. The rich plains of Carra are noticed at an early period of our history; and the inhabitants, emphatically called the "Men of Carra," were formerly distinguished for their bravery, affluence, and hospitality. "^cTl'co calma pip Cecma" (a brave race, the men of Carra). McFirbis describes these "Men of Carra" and their possessions, in his Book of Hy-Fiachrach, preserved in MS. in the •Library of the Royal Irish Academy, Dublin. This is one of the most interesting fragments of Irish history now remaining, and has recently been published by the Irish Archaeological Society. From it we learn that several of the kings of Connaught formerly resided in Carra, and that O'Murry, O'Gormog, and O'Tierney, were its lords under the O'Dowdes, kings of Hy-Fiachrach. In A. D. 1273, Flann O'Tierney, lord of Carra, was slain by the O'Murrys in a contest about the
lordship Four Masters. The English
De Burgos immediately after dispossessed theseold proprietors, and established themselves in the territory. Some of the descendants of the former lords of Carra, particularly the O'Tierneys, may yet be traced within the barony, but most of them reduced to extreme poverty. Robert
Downing, in his Description ofMayo, written about A. D. 1684, and preserved in the MS. Library of Trinity College, Dublin, I. 1, 3, states, that "The barony of Scarra (rede Carra) or Burriscarra, lyeth next to Kilmaine, which standeth upon the brink of a great lough, called Lough Carra, by the ancients Fionn lough Carra, which is said to have been one of the three loughs of Ireland that first sprung. On it is a small abbey, or rather nunnery, called Annagh or Any. It was founded and given by Thomas Burke, the chief of the Burkes of Mayo, to the abbot of Cong, upon condition, that if any woman of his posterity would vow chastity, the abbot of Cong should maintain her during her life, as appears by the several inquisitions after the dissolution of Cong."—See Archdall's Monast. p. 500, Abbey of Cong. In A. D. 1585, Carra was created a barony, retaining its ancient name. For further particulars concerning it, see Mayo Composition, Appendix I.
b Planted with castles This is recorded
by the Four Masters as follows: A. D. 1238, "Caiplena Do Denarii hi muincip lTlupchaoa hi c-Conmaicne Cuile ajup ac-Ceapa, lapna bapunaiB pempaire."— "Castles were built in Muintir Murchadha [the barony of Clare], in Conmaicne Cuile [the barony of Kilmain] and Ceara, by the aforesaid barons;" i. e. by the English adventurers in Ireland. These were,