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into by the deff., for the deff. did never at any tyme withhold or kepe any thinge from him that of right he ought to have. And the said deff. saieth further, that if he were, as in dede he is not, to answer or satisffie the compl. for any wronge, domadges, chardges, reparacons, or other demaundes what soever, that nowe he is clerely dischardged thereof, by reason that it was fully agreed betwixt the said Soger and Moroghe na doe, that the said Roger should clcerly forgive all manner of wronges, enjuries and demaundes whatsoever he had against the said Moroghe, in consideracon that he, the said Morogh, should give leave and permitt the pi. to build the castle of Mockullin, and that the said Moroghe should lickwise release and forgive all manner of demandes that he had against the compl., save onely such right he lawfullie hath to the said castle, as by good and sufficient prouf shall apere before your honnor."

"Referred to Sir Richarde Binghame, Knt., to take order thereon. Jo. Perrott." —Or iff.

The foregoing documents are preserved in the old collegiate library of Galway. The following testimony, afterwards given between the contending parties, has been abstracted from the Patent Roll, de anno 29° Elizr.

"Depositions taken adperpetuam rei memoriam the xx" Aug. 1585. "Teige Ne Bully O'flaherty', of the Arde, in the county of Galway, esq., of the adge of threescore years or there-aboutes, saieth, that Gnobegg was the auncient enheretance of Gilleduff O'Flahertie; that he had it to him and to his children; and that he died seized thereof and his heires had it after him. Also saith there was an elder brother that had no parte or portion of Gnobegg, but had his porcon in another place, called Gnomore. Gnobegg doth conteyne the townes of Moycullen, and is the chief towne in the same, and also the chief towne of Clonduff, the townes of Ballynaegillevay, Theowre, Killeahin, Curraghduff, the town of Cosshoone, the towne or great quarter of Barney, the towne of Forbaugh, the quarter of Spiddell, the Kcylleroe, Moyaskrogh and Bocnua, the towne of Ogharry, the towne of Tulkian, the towne of Mulgorme, the towne of Ballequirke, the towne of Curcullen, the parcelles of land called Lettermillanie and Germana, the islande called Inish Mc a trire, with the lands of Connomarra, Airdbeara, Baillenlemy, Baile-I-wile, and Runvyleohway. Gnobegg is bounded from Srwan I gravan hard to Galway, saveinge the liberties, and so alonge the ryver of Donkeylie' to Galway aforesaid by easte. Hughe More M' Gylleduff was son and heire to Gilleduff, and his best son, and was possessed of all Gnobegg. Hugh Oge O'Flahertie, grandfather to Roger O'Flahertie, was son to the said Hugh more, and the premisses dissended to him, and that the said Hugh oge was seised of Moycullen to him and his heirs, and died seized of the same. Saith, that

Moriertagh r Rolls Office, Dublin. 'Gen. Table, II. No. 35. 'See ante, p. 62, note '.

Moriertagh O'Fflahertie, father to the said Roger, was son and heire unto the said Hugh oge, and he never knew any of that nacon to clayme anie thinge of the premisses but he; that there is no other sonnes to the said Roger, and that he is his right and lawfull son and heire. For cause of knowledge saith, that he knew the said Murtagh to be married to Evelin ny Kirevan, during which mariadge the said Roger was borne. That O'Flahertie did use to eate meate amongst them, and monie paied to him. That he herd the secte of the parcelles, now inhibitors of the said landes, confesse that there was due to the secte of Gilleduff 40 pence sterlinge of annuall rent, but nowe of late Morogh ne do waxing stronge, took the rent he herd saie.

"connor Conny O'dowran (Duane) of Bonoen, agreth with the said Teigein matter and substance. Saith, that he is Serjeant of O'Fflaherties countrie, and so was his father before him; and that he heard the premisses of his father and other auncient men, and thereoff in his own tyme did see verye muche.

"John Bley, priest, of the adge of 70 yeares or thereaboutes, saith, that for Gilleduff he did not knowe him, but he sawe and knewe his sept to have and enjoy the foresaid Gnobegg. The cause of his knowledge is, that he was parish priest of the said Gnobegg all that time, being about fortie yeres agoe, and amongest the benefactors of the churche did finde him written, and did pray for him accordinge their customs. Agreeeth with the first precontest in all points, and touching all the townes and landes aforesaid, savinge Leytermylian, Garmana, Connomarra, and Inche mc Atrire. Saith, that Mortagh O'Fflahertie, son to the said Hugh Oge, and father to the sayd Roger, was slayn in the said castle of Moycullen; & ther is no doubt but that the said Roger O'Flahertie is the right and legittimate son and heire to the said Murtagh, for he saieth, that the said Mortagh and Evelin Kirevan, his wife, were maried, and, as he remembreth, yt was himself that baptized the said Roger.

"Dermott Mac Murroughe of Ballymulgromie, in said co., of the adge of 60 years, saieth that Hugh oge was son to Hugh more, aforesaid; and was ' O'Flaherty,' and father unto Murtagh, father unto the said Roger, and was seized of the towne of Moycullen, with the appurtenances aforesaid, before he was O'Flahertie and after, and thereof died seized; and further saith he, to prove the same true, the said Murtagh was slayne by the sect of Edmond O'Flahertie, viz. Bryen O'Flaherty, and Donell Crona, who is yet alyve, and the sect of Moriertagh Reogh, together, and four of his son and that the said Hugh oge, then O'Flahertie, and grandfather to the said Roger, was taken by the .nurderers, and with them detayned without meate and drunke, untill he died by famyn att Moycullen aforesaid. That O'Flahertie, viz. Hugh oge, and his son Murtagh O'Flaherty, had oute of the islands Eddy the annuall rent of ten grotes sterling, as their inheritance. That he is a freeholder in

that that country, and were borne in the said Gnobegg, and hath remembrance thereof these fiftie yeares, and hath kept howse uppon and within the same, cheefe thirteen yeares, and so deposed.

"Teige Mac Fynnine O'halloran of Ohayry in the said countie, gent., of the adge of 70 yeares, sworn, saith, that O'Flahertie had services and duties out of every parte of Gnobegg, and that he himself did paie him duty oute of his own land when he dwelled under him. That the said Roger's auncestors had an annuall rent oute of the Islands Eddy, but what some certaine he knoweth not. The cause of his knowledge in the premisses is, that he was born in the said Gnobegg, att Renveile-Owhoye, and dwelt in Gnobegg many yeres, until aboute 8 or 9 yeres agoe he was driven away and thrust oute of his castles and lands by his kinsmen, Moroghe ne doo, since which time he hath dwelt in Clanricard.

"Owen Mc Teige of ClondufF in the said county, gent., of thadge of 60 yeres, saith, that Hugh oge was son to the sd Hugh more, and 'lord O'Flahertie:' that he herd say that Roger, his predecessor, had as of anuall rent the some of 3'' 4d' oute of the Islands of Eddy; the cause of his knowledge is, that he sawe the said Roger's grandfather, Hugh oge O'Flahertie, aforesaid, to be 'Lord O'Flahertie' in the premisses, and never sawe any man to speake any thinge against him in the same, and was born in the countrie, as in ClondufF, and there hath dwelled all his life.

"Dermott Mc Brien of Tullykean in the said com., gent., of thadge of 50 yeres, saith, that the said Hugh oge was 'O'Flahertie,' and died seized of the premisses as of his inheriteunce, and was son to the said Hugh more; and to verefie the same, he saith that when his son, Mortagh O'Flahertie, was slayn in Moycullen, he himself was taken by the murderers and detayned by them untill he died at Moycullen.

"Owen Mc Dermod O'hallaraine of Barney, gent., of thadge of 50 yeres, saith Hugh more was son to Gilleduff, as he hath hard, and had the premisses, and was chief lord; and Hugh oge was son to the said Hugh more, and was 'O'Fflahertie.'

"Morogh M* Gilleduff Shoyogh (Joyce) of Sean Ballyard gent., of thadge of 40 yeres, saith that Roger's auncestors had 3"' 4*- sterling of annuall rent oute of the Islands Eddy, for he sawe the same paid to the said Roger's father, Moriertagh O'Fflahertie. The cause of his knowledge is, that he was bredd and borne in Gnobegg, and there lyved and dwelt until the said Roger's father and brethern were there slayne, and then they were all thrust oute by Moroghe ny doo.

"Morertagh Mc Donell of the Spiddle gent., of thadge of 60 yeres, saith, that Hugh more Mc Gilleduff was "O'Flaherty," and held all Gnobegg as well before he was 'O'Flaherty' as after, and thereof died seized as of his inheritaunce; that Hugh

IRISH ARCH. 80C. 15. 3 E Oge oge was seised of the premisses as of his inheritaunce; that Moriertagh father to the said Roger was son to the said Hugh oge, and was slayne with four of his sonnes att Moycullen; and that there belongeth to that (Gilleduff's) seet out of Island Eddy 3'' 4d- sterling, for he was with Morertagh, father to the said Roger, in Gallway. drinking wine, when the same was paid to him by the Parcelles."—Orig. Roll.

These disputes were probably arranged, about the time that the Composition was entered into in September, 1585, with Sir John Perrott, for the Queen'. Immediately previous to that measure, and as part of the preparation for it, the degree of knighthood was conferred on Morrough of the battle-axes ; but so far was that long-contemplated arrangement from pacifying the province, that it appears rather to have occasioned the outrages which followedd. The indenture was scarcely signed, when Sir Richard Bingham, himself a party to it, "dispatched seven or eight bands of soldiers" to Iar-Connaught, who plundered and burned the country of Sir Morrough, and slew "men, women, and children" indiscriminately throughout the entire districtc. These proceedings so enraged the ill-treated chieftain, that he at once forgot his new "degree of knight-hode," abandoned all his former deep and cautious policy, and, in an evil


'So hostile were the O'Flaherties to the Composition, that not one of the name, except Murrough himself, acknowledged or executed the indenture; they would not even allow any of the other freeholders of the district to appear on the occasion. The clause alluding to " the just dealings of Sir Richard Binghame" (see ante, p. 312), was considered so false and insulting, that they unanimously refused to subscribe to it . That extraordinary man was universally detested by the native Irish. They considered him as a sanguinary monster, and full dearly did he make them pay for the imputation. An account of his proceedings, and there are abundant materials for it, would form a most interesting piece of Irish history.

d Sir Murrough steadfastly adhered to the Composition until he was forced into rebellion, as above. In A. D. 1585, he attended the Parliament which met in Dublin. While there, an information was exhibited against him by one William Sweete, to recover the penalties incurred under the Act 10 Hen. VII., against Retainers: "For that, on the 1st April, in the 27th year of the Queen's reign, the said Morroghe

ne Dowe, knight, at Kilmnynham, in the county of Dublin, retained in bis service William Martyn, Anthony Lynch Fitz-Thomaa, Stephen Ro French, and Cornelius O'Halleran, of the town of Galway, merchants; and gave to them four several cloaks for their livery, to serve him, the said Morroghe na Dowe, knight, as reteyners, against the form of the statute aforesaid; wherefore the aforesaid William Sweete, as well for the said lady the Queen, as for himself, seeks the advice of the Court in the premises, and that the aforesaid Morroghe ne Dowe, knight, shall forfeit £80; viz. for every of the aforesaid persons so by him retained £20, and that the same William a moiety thereof may have, according to the form of the statute," &c—Rot. Mem. in OffieCap. Rem. Scacc. de an. 28° Eliz.

e Among the slain was Owen, the eldest son of Domhnaill an chogaidh (Gen. Table, II.No. 37), who, and his brother, Morogh, were named as contracting parties in the deed of Composition dated a few months before. Their mother was the celebrated Grauna Weale. See ante, p. 309, note c.

moment, joined the confederates, and raised the standard of rebellion against the Queen. In the numerous conflicts which followed, and which will be found detailed in the Annals so often referred to, his losses were immense. His country was repeatedly plundered, and several of his sons (of whom he had twelve) and grandsons were slain and executed. These reverses brought Sir Morrough to his senses. He soon repented of his rashness, suddenly withdrew from the confederacy, repaired to Dublin, submitted, and craved pardon. He then surrendered all his titles and possessions to the Crown, in the following terms:

"Know all men that I Sir Morough ne doe O'Flahertie knight, do hereby surrender all my castles and lands within the baronies of Moycullen, Rosse and Ballynahinchy, in the county of Galway [the castle* and land* are all named], and also that I do disclaim and surrender, for ever, the name and title of chieftain, and the name of O'Flahertie, and all Irish customs to the same name belonging: Provided always that this surrender shall not affect the right of any other person, to any of the premisses aforesaid. Sealed with my seal, the 10th day of January, in the 30th year of the Queen's reign. Mem. quod die et anno supradictis, prefatus Murogh ne doe O'Flahertie, apud domum de Sancto Sepulcro juxta Dublin, scriptum supradictum ut ejus sursum-redditionem cognovit, ac ut factum suum in manibus venerand. &c . Adami Dublin Archiepiscopi', ad visum Domine Regine, ultro et sponte tradebat— MORGHE NE DOE + is marckeV' This surrender was followed by a pardon, and a grant of all his manors, lordships, castles, and lands "in O'Flahertie's country, in the baronies of Moculyne, Ballinehensie and Rosse in the counties of Galway and Mayo, called Iher-Connoght; or otherwise known by the names of Gnomore, Gnobegg, Conomarra and le Joyes' country, to him his heirs and assigns for ever, to be held of the Queen, as of her manor of Arkyn in the great island of Arinh." These


f To induce the Irish chieftains to embrace the Pro- priest, by whom he is seduced" MS. Lib. Trin. testant religion, and go to church, was one of the great Coll. Dub. How far Sir Morrough, when deliverobjects of Queen Elizabeth's government in Ireland. ing his surrender as above to the Archbishop of DubThus, captain Thomas Lee, in his declaration to the lin, one of the most zealous reformers of his time, Queen, A.D. 1594, writes of the Earl of Tyrone: may have proved conformable in religion, has never "When he is with the state, he will accompany the been ascertained.

Lord Deputy to the church, and home again, and will * Fiant. File 81, No. 5945, Rolls' Office, Dublin.

stay and hear service and sermon; they (tin- Eng- h lb. Fiant, 12th Jan. 30th Eliz. This was an

lith of the Pale) as soon as they have brought the extensive grant, or, in the language of its day, a

Lord Deputy to the church door, depart as if they "sweeping" one; for Sir Morrough had no territorial

were wild cats, and are obstinate, but he (in my rights whatever beyond his paternal inheritance of

conscience) with good conference, would be reform- Gnomore. But such grants were common in Ireland.

ed; for he hath only one little cub of an English Many extraordinary instances of the kind are re

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