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Henry in an expedition to Wales, whence they returned victorious. Soon after which, Morogh O'Flaherty, and his brother Roderic", laid their complaint before the King, stating, that their ancestors and themselves, though mere Irish, always shewed their fealty and service to him and his predecessors, by assisting the English to reduce the Irish. That they had, notwithstanding, been unjustly expelled from their territory, to which they humbly prayed to be restored. This appeal was favourably received by the King, who directed his letters to John Fitz-Geoffry, the Lord Justice, in the following words: "Rex Justiciario Hibern. Salutem: Monstravit nobis Mamorch Offerthierum' et Rothericus Frater ejus, quod antecessores sui, et ipsi (licet Hibernenses), semper tamen firmiter fuerunt ad fidem et servitium nostrum, et predecessorum nostrum [it should be nostrorum], Regum Angl. ad conquestum una cum Anglicis faciendum super Hibernenses, et ideo vobis mandamus quod si ita est, tunc non permittas ipsos M. et R. repelli, quin possint terras vindicare in quibus jus habent, sicut quilibet Anglicus, quia si ipsi et antecessores sui sic se habuerunt cum Anglicis, quamvis Hibernenses, injustum esset licet Hibernenses sint quod exceptione qua repelluntur Hibernenses, a vindicatione terrarum et aliis repellantur."—Prynne, 255. Upon this writ Cox observes, "the King did design that all the Irish, who would live as subjects, should have the benefit of the English laws"." It is probable that the King did so design, but it is certain that his rulers here designed otherwise. Happy would it have been, had the just feeling expressed in that letter, been always observed in Ireland. But the O'Flaherties derived no benefit from the royal mandate. On the contrary, their new territories, as if in despite of it, were soon plundered by the English. Walter de Burgo marched against them with an army, but was routed with considerable slaughter'. He soon after made another excursion against Roderic O'Flaherty; plundered his territory of Gnomore and Gnobeg (now called the barony of Moycullen), and seized upon Lough Orbsen with its islands". The persecuted chief was, at length,


and in Leland, Vol. I. 220 ; but O'Flaherty doe» not history of that city—Vol. II. p. 294.

appear in either. Sir William Betham, however, "Cox, loc. cit.

refers to a " Close Roll in the Tower of London." 'Four Masters, A. D. 1248.

* See Gen. Table, II. No. 27. Neither this Morogh "Id. A. D. 1256. In this year, the same An

nor his brother is named in it. nalists relate, that the son of Somairle (AWy) Mac

1 This writ is given at A. D. 1253 by Cox, I. 66, Donnell, sailed with a fleet from the Hebrides,

from Prynne. The orthography shews that the An- (a n-inpib jail) to Conmaicne-mara, in Iar

glo-Normans of that day were sad bunglers at Connaught, where he captured a merchant ship,

Celtic surnames. But Offerthitrmn is not farther and plundered its cargo of wine, cloth, copper, and

from O'Flaherty, than VInzaniozer is from Winches- iron. Jordan de Exeter, sheriff of Connaught, pur

ter, (Iftntanceastra) for which see Milner's valuable sued him to a neighbouring island, where his ships forcibly expelled from Iar-Connaught", but his expulsion was only temporary; for he found, by experience, that it was safer to rely on the battle-axes of his bold Galloglas, than on appeals to the sovereign against Anglo-Norman outrage in Ireland. In his time the Joyces, a family of British extraction, settled in the northern part of the territory, by the permission and under the protection of the O'Flaherties.

Before the close of the thirteenth century, the O'Flaherties became masters of the entire territory of Iar-Connaught, extending from the western banks of Lough Orbsen, to the shores of the Atlantic. Separated from the rest of the kingdom, in that peninsulated', and then almost inaccessible district, they interfered but little in the external transactions of the province, and are, therefore, but seldom noticed in our Annals for the two succeeding centuries. With their neighbours, the ancient ClanMailly, or O'Mailleys of Umhaill ( Umallia) or "the Owles,'' they lived on terms of amity and mutual defence. But this friendly, and for both "nations'" necessary alliance, was interrupted by an untoward occurrence. In A. D. 1314, at a meeting or conference between the chiefs of both clans, a dispute took place, in which Owen O'Mailly, Cormac Cruim O'Mailly, and several others, were slain by the people of O'Flaherty*. In some time after, Connor, the son of Owen O'Mailly, made a descent on Iar-Connaught, which he plundered, and loaded his vessel with the spoils and riches he had taken. But on his return home, his ship was cast away "between Ireland and Aran," and all the crew, except one man, perished6. Amongst the O'Flaherties themselves, feuds were frequent and violent during the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries. Many of these will be found detailed in our Annals, where the reader will be enabled to identify several individuals named in the annexed Genealogical Tables'.

Until were at anchor. An engagement took place, in p. 216 which the sheriff and one of his knights were slain; * Four Masters.

and Mac Sorly returned home in triumph with his b Id. A. D. 1396. Our author, RoderieO'Flaherty,

booty. in his MS notes to the Annals of the Four Masters.

« Id. A. D. 1273. On the Roll of the Pipe, 13, preserved in Trin Col. Lib. Dublin, states, that on this

15, Edw. I. the following entry occurs: "Rothery occasion, the son of Cathal buidhe O'Flaherty was

O'Flaverty reddit x. marcas de fine, pro pace haben- killed; and that thirty-three of the O'Malleys were

da."—Berm. Tower, Dublin. drowned. It would appear that the strife did not end

1 Vide ante, p. 1, note b, and p. 57, note P. with this, for the same Annals further relate, that in

* This term was usually applied by the settlers to A. D. 1418, "Roderie, son of Morogh O'Flaherty

express the Irish clan, tribe, or family. "Chief of (Gen. Table, II. No. 32). Roderie, son of Dermott duff

his nation," which occurs so often in the Anglo-Nor- O'Flaherty (Id. No. 31), and sixteen others of the

man records, meant chief of his clan. It was some- O'Flaherties were drowned in the bay of Umallia,'*

times applied to the settlers themselves. Thus, probably when on a similar plundering excursion.

"William Blake and the rest of his nation."Ante, c See the Annals of the Four Masters, ad an. 1410,

Until late in the sixteenth century, the English knew as little of Iar-Connaught or its people, as did their forefathers, in the days of Sir John Maundevyle, of "the land of Prestre John or the men of Inde." Leonard Lord Gray, towards the end of the reign of Henry VIII., was the first Deputy of Ireland who deigned, or rather ventured, to approach these western regions. Thus he wrote to the King in A. D. 1538, "to the same towne (Galwey) cam to me Hugh Oflart chieff capitayne of his countre called Oyled, and submittyd"." This submission was expressed in the following curious indenture, between His Majesty and the "Chieff," to which the latter affixed his seal, for he could not subscribe his name:—

"Hec Indentura facta xiii° die Julii, apud villam Regis de Galwey, a? xxxm" Illustrissimi Regis Henrici VIII. inter dictum potentissimum Dominum nostrum, Henricum VIII. ex parte una, et Hugonem O'Flarte capitaneum patrie sue, ex parte altera; Testatum, concordatum, concessum, et conventum fore, inter dictum illustrissimum dominum Regem nostrum et prefatum O'Flarte, per presentes, et prefatus O'Flarte concedit pro se heredibus et successoribus suis, quod ipsi et eorum quilibet qui erunt capitanei patrie sue, solvant aut faciant predicto Domino Regi, heredibus et successoribus suis Regibus Anglie, per annum c*. ster. et eosdem denarios, solvend. esse sub-thesaurario dicti domini Regis, regni sui Hiberniae, ad usum dicti domini Regis, semel in anno, ad festum sancti Michaelis archangeli: Et preterea, prefatus Hugo O'Flarte concedit, pro se, heredibus et successoribus suis, quod ipsi et quilibet eorum qui erunt capitanei, invenire debent Regis deputato, pro tempore existente, ad omne commune viagium, quod erit constitutum per Regis deputatum, xl. turbarios bene ordinatos, secundum formam belli, sumptibus suis propriis. In cujus rei testimonium, prefatus capitaneus presentibus sigillum suum apposuit, die, loco, et anno supradictis."

Irrot. in offic. Vice-thesaurar. Dub.


1415, 1422, 1439, 1503. One of our author's MS. of Enachduin. But this is doubtful, for I have not

notes to the Four Masters (see last note, h) is as fol- found it verified by any other authority. This chief

lows: "Brianus 65 O'FIaherty, (.i. Brian na is No. 30 in Gen. Table, II. Morogh (31), son of

noinscacK) occidentalis Connaciae heres, a Rickardo Brien (30), died A. D. 1419. Four Masters. Gil

6j de Burgo captus.—MS. L. Mac Firb. 68." Hugh duff, his brother (31), died A. D. 1442 Id.

Afor O'FIaherty nach glacadh airgead, who would A From this it is evident that the Lord Deputy

not take money (supposed to have been so called per did not know even the name of Hugh O'Flahertv's

antiprarim; see Sir Henry Piers' description of country; but finding that a river called Aillc, ran

West Meath, in Vallancey's Collect. voL I. p. 114, through it (which river is now called the Ally,

Ed. 1770), who was the chief of the name in A. D. aBcnn na h-Qllle, see map, et ante T,. 62

1400, is stated in the Book of Pedigrees, Office of note1), he gave the name of the river to the district .

Arms, Dublin, to have in that year built the church ° State Papers, Lond. 1834, Vol. iii. p. iii. p. 61.

At this time a young chief was growing up in the west, who was destined to perform a conspicuous part in the affairs of Iar-Connaught, for nearly the remainder of the sixteenth century. This was the celebrated and still remembered Morogh na d-tuadh [Murrough of the battle-axes'] O'Flaherty*, who was hereditary chieftain of the territory of Gnomore, which formed the northern portion of the present barony of Moycullen in the county of Galway. This individual became the most distinguished and powerful of his name, having been appointed by Queen Elizabeth chieftain or head of all the O'Flaherties, although he was not of the senior branch. On succeeding to his inheritance, he made the castle of Fuathaidhh (Fough) his principal residence; and from thence he made frequent incursions on the territory of Thomond, and on the possessions of the English in the vicinity of Lough Orbsen. At length, Conor O'Brien, the third Earl of Thomond, provoked by his aggressions, marched against him, in A D. 1560, with an army. The Earl proceeded from Thomond through the territory of Clanrickard, until he came to the ford of Tir-oilean (TireUan), now corruptly {Terryland), near Galway. Here he was opposed by some of the citizens, who endeavoured to prevent his passage, but, having been supported by others, he crossed the ford, and continued his course through the country of the Joyces, by the castle of Fuathaidh, and Bonbonan mountain. Morrough retreated before him towards the western mountains, and the Earl, unable to come up with him, was forced to return, without having achieved any action worthy of so perilous an expedition'.

Soon after this, the Earl of Clanrickard undertook an expedition against Morrough, as well to prevent his incursions on the Earl's territory of Muintir Murchadha, (now the barony of Clare) as to put the country of Iar-Connaught under contribution. He accordingly, in A. D. 1564, dispatched a considerable body of troops to Iar-Connaught Morrough, as before, retired to his fastnesses; whereupon the Earl took the prey of the whole country, consisting of numerous herds of cattle, which his people drove on towards the pass at Galway, on their way to Clanrickard. These were pursued by Morrough with a chosen party, who overtook them at Trabane (the white strand), about two miles west of Galway; and an engagement took place, in which the Earl's troops were entirely defeated. An account of this occurence, written at the time, states, that "the Earl's people were forced to turn their backs, and the most part of them


< According to tradition, he was so called from the ancient Irish, having obtained a great victory over a superior « Gen. Table, II. Ho. 36.

force, with a small body of galloglasses, armed only h This castle was situate near the present town

with battle-axes.—See Ware's Antiq. by Harris, ch, of Oughterard—See ante, p. 63, note ». xxi., for the use of this formidable weapon amongst 'Four Masters.

were drowned in the sea and river of Galway;" derisively adding, that "some got over the river, but such was their apprehension of death, that they knew not how. Timor pedibus addidit aW." This affair was of too serious a nature to be overlooked by the Government. It was debated whether the turbulent chieftain should be overcome by force, which, considering the difficulty of access to his country, would be attended with considerable trouble; or whether he ought not to be gained over by conciliation, and be thereby made a fitting instrument to keep the remainder of his name and kindred in subjection. Happily for Morrough and his descendants, the latter course was determined on. He was proffered a free and general pardon for all his offences; and that he should, moreover, be appointed by the Queen to the rule or chieftainship of the whole country of Iar-Connaught. He accepted the terms; and, accordingly, a pardon issued under the great seal, to "Morgho ne doo O'Flarte of Mogh (Fouffh) in the province of Connaght, gent, for all murders, homicides, killings, &c by him at any time heretofore committed;" in consideration whereof, he promised to "observe the Queen's peace, to appear and answer at all sessions within the province whenever called upon, and to satisfy the demands of all the Queen's subjects, according to justice and equity*." This pardon was accompanied by letters patent, constituting him chieftain of Iar-Connaught. The curious instrument by which that mere Irish jurisdiction was, through necessity, countenanced and legalized by the Queen, is here given from the original:—

"Elizabetha Dei gratia, Anglie, Francie et Hibernie Regina, fidei defensor, &c. omnibus ad quos presentes littere pervenerint, salutem. Sciatis quod nos, de vera obe


i See p. 60, ante ; also Dutton's Statistical Survey co. Galway, p. 241. About this time a horrible scene of outrage occurred in Iar-Connaught among the O'Flaherties. Hugh og (Gen. Table, II. No 33), chief of the territory of Gnobeg, which comprised the southern portion of the present barony of Moycullen), being old and infirm, his son, Mortagh (Id. No. 34), assumed the chieftainship. Some differences having arisen between him and Donall Crone (Id. No. 34), then chief of all the O'Flaherties, and the septs of Edmond O'Flaherty (Id. No. 34), and of Moriertagh reagh; these all conspired against Mortagh of Gnobeg, and murdered him and four of his children. They then took the old chief, Hugh, and him they imprisoned in his castle of Moycullen, where they "detained him without meat or IHISH ARCH. SOC. I J.

drinke until he died by famyn." These malefactors
were at the time branded with the name of "mur-
derers." Their avowed object was to wrest the terri-
tory of Gnobeg from the descendants of Gilduff,
(Id. No. 31), by cutting off the entire race; but in
that they failed, for an infant child of Mortagh,
viz. Bory or Roderic (Id. No. 35), was preserved,
and succeeded to the inheritance. It will be seen in
the Geneaological Table, that this Rory was grand-
father of our author (Id. No. 37). It does not ap-
pear that Morrough of the battle-axes had any hand
in this transaction; but that he had formed designs
on Gnobeg will appear in the sequel.

k Original Fiant of Queen Elizabeth, preserved in
the Rolls' Office, Dublin, File xvii. No. 1134.


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