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appears borne out by the same annalists, who, when recording the death of Donnchadh, son of Murchadh, already noticed, A. D. 959, style him lord of Hy-Briuin Seola only"'. Towards the close of this century, a fortified residence in Moy-Seola, probably that of its chiefs, was destroyed in a great storm"; soon after which "Maelcereda, King of the Hy-Briuin Seola0," and "Muredhach, son of Cadhla, king of Conmaicne-marap," died. About this time Brian Boroimhe, son of Kennedy, King of Munster, dispatched a body of forces to Iar-Connaught, which committed great depredations. On this occasion Muireadheach (or Murray), son of Conor, King of Connaught, Donnell, son of Rudhraidh or Roderick, son of Cosgrach, presumptive heir to the principality of Iar-Connaught, and others of its nobles, were slainq.

Connaught was at this time harassed by internal wars and dissensions. About the beginning of the eleventh century the O'Conors, of the Sil Murray race, made hostile incursions into the western districts of the province, where they sought to establish themselves in several localities, some of which they succeeded in wresting, for a time, from the ancient possessors. Among the Irish chieftains, even to a late period, it was considered a sacred duty which they owed themselves and their ancestors to preserve their rights and hereditary possessions inviolate and entire against all aggressors; hence these encroachments of the O'Conors occasioned violent disputes and conflicts between them and the Muintir Murchadha or O'Flaherties, which continued for more than a century after this period. To similar territorial aggressions may be attributed many of the unexplained local outrages which stain our annals.

In A. D. 1014, the prince of the Muintir Murchadha and Murtagh O'Cadhla, chief of Conmhaicne-mara, joined the standard of Brian Borumha, and both fell in the

celebrated

m Four Masters. Sec those Annals, at A. D. 971, for the devastations committed in Connaught by Murcha O'Flaherty, i. e. Glunillar, King of Aileach, Care must here be taken not to confound the O'Flaherties of Connaught with those of the same name in the North of Ireland, who were of the Ily-Niall race. In A. D. 1206, Flaherty O'Flaherty, of this family, was prior of Dungiven, in the present county of

Deny Four Masters. The descendants of the name

are now invariably called Lafferty or Laverty, in the
North of Ireland, where they were numerous.

■ This is related by the Four Masters, as follows:
"A. D. 990, Grv^aer 00 flocao Inpi loco
Oimbe co hobanc in aon uaip, con cl-
one ic ajur> ponnac, .1. rpicar rpaijeo.

A great wind swallowed the island of Lough Kim. suddenly in one hour, with its habitation and circular wall, which was thirty feet" This lake is now called Lough Hackett. It is situate in the county of Galway, between the towns of Headford and Shruel.

0 Tigemach, ad an. 994—Maolcarerd, Four Mast. A. D. 993.

P Ann. Inisf., by Doctor O'Conor, at A. D. 993.

1 Sec the "Annals of Innisfallen," compiled bv John Conry, and preserved in the Library of Trinity College, Dublin, at A. D. 988. These Annals are of modern compilation; and their chronology varies considerably from the common era, particularly about this period.

celebrated battle of Clontarf1. Muiredhach O'Flaherty was slain by the Connacianst, and his son Murchadh soon after died'. The island of Lough Kime, the principal residence of the Muintir Murchadha, was taken and destroyed by the King of Connaught"; and Muredach O'Flaherty, prince of Hy-Briuin Seola*, Murchadh an chapaill O'Flaherty, and Niall, son of Murges, presumptive heirs of Iar-Connaught, were slain". A. D. 1051, Amhailgadh, son of Cathal, son of Rory, the then prince, had his eyes put out by Aodh, or Hugh, surnamed an jac Beapnaij, or of the broken spear, King of Connaught, who thereupon established his rule over these western districts"; but he was soon after expelled by the Muintir Murchadha, who regained Lough Orbsen, which was then considered of importance by the contending parties. This petty but destructive warfare continued with unabated virulence for many years, during which several chiefs were put to death on both sides; at length Ruaidhri, or Roderick, surnamed na poije buioe, of the yellow hound, King of Connaught, was taken prisoner by Flaherty O'Flaherty, who treacherously and unjustly, say the Annalists, caused the king's eyes to be put out', upon which he was dethroned. Flaherty then conferred the sovereignty of Connaught on Hugh O'Conor, from whom he received back his own hereditary possessions of Moy-Seola". But he did not long enjoy the fruits of his success, for he fell soon after by the hand of the assassin, in revenge for his cruel treatment of King Roderick. His death is thus recorded by the Four Masters: "Qoip Cp. 1098, plaicBepcac ua plaicBepcaicc, cijepna pl TTluipea6aij ajup iapcaip-Connacc, 00 mapBao 00 TTlhaouoan ua Cuanna, i ccionaio oallca Ruaiopi ui ConcoBaip, .i. Ruampi na poioe buioe, pij Connacc. Qpoo blia6ain baip plaicbepcaicc aopuBpa6." Flaherty O'Flaherty, lord of Sil Murray and Iar-Connaught,

was

r Id. Neither the Four Masters, nor the older An- against the laws of hospitality, when the victim was

nalists, enumerate the above chiefs among the slain his guest, and under the protection of his roof, a crime

in this battle. inexpiable in Ireland. This barbarous custom was,

'Id. however, frequent here, and in the neigbouring coun

* Ann. Inisf., by O'Conor. tries. See addition to Hist. of Wales, by Caradoc of ° Id. Llancarvan, at A. D. 1125.

• Ann. Inisf. by Conry. Tigernach adds, "by * Four Mast . A. D. 1097; who add "ajupcentreachery." nup TTluipeaoaij 00 jabBail 00 pioipi,

"Four Masters, A. D. 1036. and he again obtained the principality of Sil Mui

1 Tigernach. readhaigh.TM This, although repeated more than once,

J Ann. Ulton., A. D. 1092. The Annals of Inisf., is supposed to be a mistake of the Annalists. Mac

by Conry, utintpra, inveigh severely against O'Fla- Geoghegan, in his translation of the Annals ofClon

herty for this barbarous act, committed against his macnoise, styles this Flaherty " Prince of Silmorey."

sovereign lord, who was sponsor for four of O'Flaher- But the Annals of Ulster call him "King of West

ty's children; but, above all, that it was perpetrated Connaught" only; and state that he was put to was killed by Madudan Madden O'Cuana, in revenge for his foster-child1 Roderick O Conor, i. e. Roderick of the yellow hound, King of Connaught. Of the year of his death the poet sung as follows:—

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Eight years, ninety and one thousand,
From the birth of the son of God, all

strengthening,
It is no vain story, but is truly certain,
'Till the death of the faithful Flahertach.

Ni pj6l pap occ ip oepb oeirhin,
Co bap peioil plaicbepcaicc."

This chieftain appears to have acquired considerable power and influence, and to have taken a leading part in the affairs of Connaught. He effectually resisted the O'Conors, and put an end to their incursions on his territory. To his time has been assigned the following description of Hy-Briuin Seola, which contains an account of the chiefs subordinate to O'Flaherty, and their possessions, with the principal officers of his establishment, and the lands which they held for the performance of their several duties. This historical fragment is preserved in a manuscript of ancient vellum, in the library of Trinity College, Dublin, H. 2. 17, p. 188.

"Cpicaipeacc cineoaoh n-ouchapa

TTIuinncipi TTIupcaoa, ajup cloin

oe pepjaile, 7 meaopai je, 7 hua

6piuin eola, 7 hua m-bpuin paca,

7 mmnncipi pacaijja caipeac, 7

a n-apo mac n-ojlac, 7 a n-oU

loman.

.1. O h-Cfllmup6n caipeac cecpi m

baile picec Cloinoi pepjaili; 7 oipein hi

Cfnculi, 7 hi pepjupa popa-caim. JTlac

Cinnjamain 7 mac Qcapnaij, oa caipeac

ITIeaopaiji, cona ppemaiB pip ouccDpa

pein

death by the SU Muireadhaigh. The above, however, requires explanation.

Territories of the hereditary proprietors of Muintir Murchadha of Clanfergail, and Meadruidhe, and HyBriuin Seola, and Hy-Briuin ratha, and Muintir Fahy; their chieftains, and Mac Oglachs, and Ollaves.

O'Halloran is the chief of the twentyfour ballys [townlands] of Clanfergail; and of these are O'Antuileh and O'Fergus of Roscam. Mac Cingamain and Mac Catharnaigh arethetwotaoiseachs of Maary',

having

tural father.TM—Mac Geoghegan.

• " O'Antuile .1.6pu jam (a public victual. '"-) cloinne Peapjaile."—Mac Firbu.

• " The manner in these days was to bring up noblemen's children, espetiallic their friends or princes and great men's houses, and for ever after would call them fosters, and love them as well as their own rta

c For Clanfergail, Roscam, and Maary, see antt. p. 253.

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'()■Dathlaoich, "O'OalaiJJ."—BookofBullymote, fo. 54.

'Cnoc tuadh, now Knuckdoe, 8ee page 147 supra.

'Ui Laidhenain, pronounced O'Lynan.

« Lackagh, teacaijj, now Lackagh, a townland containing the ruins of a castle in a parish of the same name in the barony of Clare, and a short distance south-east of the conspicious hill of Knockdoe.—Sec Ordnance map of Galway, sheet 70.

h Kilcahil, Clll Carail, i. e. the church of St. Cathal. This is the name of an old church in a townland of the same name in the parish of Annaghdown, in the same barony, situated immediately to the left of the road as you go from Galway to Tuam. The ruins of the church shew that it was very small. See Ordnance map of the County of Galway, sheet 57, where the position of the ruins of this church is shewn, under the name " St. Cathaldus' church."

'0' Canatan, &c. According to the tradition in the country, the families of O'Canavan and O'Lee were hereditary physicians to O'Flaherty. There IRISH ARCH. BOC. 15. 3

having their own tribe subject to them. 01Dathlaoichd is the taiseach of the fourteen ballys of the Hy-Briuin ratha; and of these are the O'Kennedies, and the O'Duinns, and the O'Innogs of Cnoctuadh*, and O'Laighin' of Lackagh', and O'Callanan, comharbaofKillcahill". O'Canavan', medical ollamh of O'Flaherty, in Tuath na d-Toibrineadh, but others say thatO'Laighidh [O'Zee5]. Thechiefsof HyBriuin-Seola, with their correlatives, are O'Fechin, O'Balbhain, O'Duff, and O'Madudhain,MacGilla Gannain of Moyleaslainn is master of the horse of O'Flaherty. The O'Colgans of Bally-Colgan* are the standard-bearers of O'Flaherty. MacGinnainis

the

was a Dr. Canavan, the lineal descendant of 0'Flaherty's physicians, in constant attendance on the house of Lemonfield about sixty years ago.

J O'Lee. For an eccentric physician of this name, see p. 78, supra. In Duald Mac Firbis's copy of this tract the reading is, Hua ceanDuBuin 7 hua £.aiji& leuja iTluincipe ITIupcnoa 7 Ua Qilella, 7 00 Cunic na ocoibpineao lao; uoeip leabap ele Ui plaicBeapeai j, i. c. "O'Canavan and O'Lee are the physicians of Muintir Murchadha and of Hy-Ailella, and they are of the tribe of Tuath-na-d-Toibrineadh. Another book says of O'Flaherty"—[L e. another book calls O'Canavan and O'Lee the physicians of O'Flaherty, instead of calling them physicians of Muintir-Murchadha, &c.J

k Bally-Colgan, 6aile Ui Choljain, i. e. O'Colgan's town. This place retains its name to the present day, and is a townland now divided into two parts, called Ballycolgan Upper and Bally, colgan Lower, situated in the parish of Kilkilvery, near Headford, in the barony of Clare.

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beprai j. IDeic Cinnain comapba Cilli Coana, 7 hi TTlaelampaill Oomnai£ Parpaic bpecemain hi plaicbtpcaij. hi Clfcipceain o pair buiob, conn m-baili. Hi £aebucain, 7 hi TTlaelin oipcinnio Cilli ceilbili. Hi t)ubam o cluuin ai, luce comioeacca hi plairbepcaiji; cum a ciji coircinn. Hi TTleallaij; o Cill manac a5up ° Cill na cuilan caipaij5 605051, cona ppeamaiB oucupa. H-l Dopijean, 7 hi Caireapaig on 6eirij, cona ppeamaib oucupa. O h-Qinjjli o oaipe 1 Qinjli cona baili. TTlac 6eolain o Cill leabaip oipcineac cluij ouib parpaic,

1 Kilcoona, Cill Cuana, i. e. St. Cuana's church, a well-known parish, situated to the southeast of Headford, in the same barony.

m 0' Maelampaill. This name is written O'maoilpabuill in Duald Mac Firbis's copy of this tract The name is still extant, but pronounced O'Mullawill, and sometimes anglicised Lavelle. According to the tradition in the barony of Murrisk, or Iar-Umhall, this family is of Danish descent, but this tradition does not appear entitled to much credit.

"Donaghpatrick, TDomnai^ pacpaij, i.e. of St. Patrick's church. This is the name of a parish in the north of the barony of Clare. Its original church stands in ruins near the margin of Lough Hackett, which is the Loch Cime of the old Irish writers.

"Nath-Buidhbli, pronounced Rd-weev, now Rafwee, a townland in the parish of Killeany, in the barony of Clare. See Ordnance map, sheet 56.

P Cill- Cillbile, now Kilkilvery, a well-known parish in the barony of Clare, containing the town of Ath-mic-Cing, or Headford.

1 Cluain-ai, q. Cloneen?, in the parish of Killeany.

'Kilnamanagh, Cill na manac, i-e. church

the comharba of Kilcoona1. O'Maelampaillm of Donaghpatrick" is the brehon [judge] ofO'Flaherty. O'Cleircinof Rathbuidhbh", O'Laebacain and O'Maoilin are the Erenachs of Cill-Cillbilep. The O'Dubhans [CPDuanet] ofCluain-aiq are the attendants of O'Flaherty at his common house. The O'Meallaighs of Kilnamanagh"' and of Kill na Cailansare the chiefs of Bogogi, with their correlatives. O'Doregan, and O'Caitheasaigh, from Beitheach' \_Beagh~\, with their correlatives. O'Haingliu of Derry Aingli with his bally. Mac Beolan, of Killower*, is the keeper of the

black

of the monks, a townland containing the ruins of a small abbey, situated to the north of Lough Hackett. in the parish of Donaghpatrick, in the north of the same barony. See Ordnance map, sheet 42.

* Kill na Cailan, now obsolete.

1 Beitheach, i. e. land abounding in birch; now Beagh, in the parish of Kilcoona, in the same barony There is also a &aile Ua Charapaift, i. e. O'Casey's town, in the same parish.

"O'Haingli. This is probably the name now anglicised O'Hanly. A family of the name still resides at Kilroe, in this vicinity, and is opulent and respectable. There is a more celebrated family of O'Hdinlidhe, or O'Hanly, who were chiefs of Kinel Dofa, situated between Slieve Bawn and the Shannon, in the county of Roscommon.

* Killower, Cill Ceabaip, i- e. the church of the Book, a parish situated in the north-east of the barony of Clare. The black bell of St. Patrick afterwards passed into the family of Geraghty, and was for ages exhibited to the pilgrims by that family on Domhnach Cruim Duibh, or Garland Sunday, on the mountain of Croaghpatrick, where it was held in the highest veneration. It was in the possession of a branch of this family who lived at Lecarrow.

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