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English, or a marke Irish, upon every quarter of land containing 120 Acres, manured, or to be manured, as the phrase went, and was significantly set downe, that beares either home or corne, that was, with tillage or cattell, in lieu and consideration to bee discharged from other Cess, taxation, or tallage, excepting the rising out of Horse and Foote, for the service of the Prince and State, such as should be particularly agreed upon, and some certaine dayes labour for building and fortifaction for the safety of the people and kingdome."—Government of Ireland under Sir John Perrot, Knight, 4toLondon, 1626, p. 80. The narrative then continues as follows: "According to which Commission, and the directions therein contained. These Commissioners did travaile through the several Counties oiConnaught, first calling and conferring with the Lords, Chieftaines, Gentlemen, and Free-holders in their severall Precincts and Possessions, to finde their dispositions, how farre they were willing to condiscend, and yeeld to such a course, for the satisfaction of their Prince, and freedame of themselves from further burthens, to make their charge certaine, and that but small. These things well propounded, and discretely prosecuted: most, and in a manner, all the principall possessors of land in that Province, as they were generally dealt withall, did assent U> this contribution."—7r/.a
The reasons which induced the aboriginal Irish lords and chieftains to "assent" so readily "to this contribution," are thus stated by a learned modern writer. "Harassed by the perpetual aggressions of the warlike English families, who had settled in the chief towns, and fenced themselves round with formidable castles and entrenchments—divided also by family feuds, and shorn in a great measure of their honours and power, the native princes gladly accommodated themselves to Perrot's proposals, in the hope of a settled form of government, and perhaps of revenge, as well as defence against the Anglo-Irish lords, their rivals in power, who were better armed and disciplined than they. The old leading families of that province surrendered the exorbitant power which they had hitherto exerted over their wretched vassals. But experience soon proved that the promised protection was inadequately afforded, and they quickly returned to their Irish customs, and easily prevailed on their vassals to be governed by the maxims of their brehon laws."—0'Conor,Cat. MSS. Stole, p. 123.
b Gratianus Lucius alludes to their proceedings as
follows Camb. Evert, p. 29. "Percurri scriptum,
quod iter quorundam a Joanne Perrotto Hiberniie prorege, per Conaciam, & Tomoniam, anno post Christum natum 1585, stati redditus Reginre; ac priseis possessoribus pnescribendi causa, delegatorum
accurate prosequitur. In toto illo decursu, nulla pene ditio fuit, in qua, originis Hibernicae possessor censum prisci tributi vice delegatis statuentibus non referrebat. Quod etiani non obscure scriptor rermn ]n Hibemia Joanne Perrotto prorege, gestarum innuit—Lib. Imp. pag. 80. et seq."
"After treaties, succeeded Inquisitions to find what quantity there was in each Barony, and who were found owners thereof. Indentures were drawne betweene the Deputy in the behalfe of the Queene on the one part, and the chiefe possessioners in the several Precincts on the other, expressing so many quarters and quantities of Land, with the Rents thereon reserved, and such other covenants as were therein contained."—Government, &c. p. 82.
The Commissioners commenced with the " County of Clare and Thomond." Then followed the districts comprehended within the newly created "County of Gal way." Among these, the following "Indentures of Composition" were entered into for the territory of Iar-Connaught. Those of the other counties of the province will be found in succession; but as they all agree in form, the technical verbiage, to avoid prolixity, has been omitted in each except the first. Almost all the Ecclesiastical lands of Connaught are held under these important, and hitherto nearly unknown, documents. The original inrolments are preserved in the Record Branch of the office of Paymaster of Civil Services, Dublin; and the following are now, for the first time, printed.
INDENTURES OF COMPOSITION.
A. D. 1585.
"The Country of the O' Fflahertyes called Eyre-Conaght.
"THIS INDENTURE made betwixte the Right Honorable Sir John Perrotte Knighte, Lorde Deputie Generall of Irlande, for and on the behaulfe of the Queenes most excellent Ma"c of the one parte, and Sr Moroghe ne doe of Aghnenure in the county of Gallway Knight, otherwise called O'Fflahertie—Donell Crone O'Fflahertie of the Cnocke, competitor for the name of O'Fflahertie—Teig ne Boolye (na buile) of the Arde, otherwise called O'Fflahertie of both Con o Mai-rice—Owine fitz-Donyell Coghie'
O'Fflahertie of Bonowen, gent Moroghe O'Fflahertie of the sam, gent—Roger O'Ffla
harty of Moycullenh, gent.—Danyell Mc Rory O'Fflaharty of the Owre, gent—Rory O'Fflaharty and Danyell his brother, sonnes to Moroghe ne Mooe—Mc Thomasc—Mc
-' ThiaDonyellCoghie(Oorhnaillanc0jaio) The latter was afterwards known by the name cf
had to wife Grace O'Mailly, well known in modem Morogh na Maor—See p. 108, ante, note *t.
times by the name of Grauna Weale; and by her A This Roger O'Fflaharty was chieftain of Moy
he had the two sons above-named, "Owine and Mo- cullen, and grandfather of our author.
roghe.TM The first was slain in A. D. 1586, by the e Mac Thomas, chief of the Joyces. See ante,
soldiers of Sir Richard Bingham Four Masters. p- 44, note ?, and additional note P, p. 21G.
Connord — O'Halloran — M* Cahill Boy Mr Donoghe'—and Mc Enry'—Dominvcke Lynche of the Ballaghe, gent—Domynicke Browne of Bearny, gent.—William Martyne of Gortetleva, gent.—Richard Martyne of Ballyerter, gent.—Anthony Linche of
the Dengine, gent—Marcus Linch fitz-Nichollas of Furboghe, gent and Patrick
fFrence of Curcholline, gent.—for and in the behalf of themselves and the rest of the Cheiftaynes, freeholders, Gent, ffarmers and inhabitants, having land or holdings within the countrey or terretorie of the O'FFLAIIARTYES CONTREY called EYRE-CONAGHT, their heires and assignes, of the other partie:
"WYTNESSETH, that wher the said whole Cuntry of Eyre Conaught is derided into fower barronyes, that is to witt, the barrony of Moycullyn, the barrony of Ballynehynsye, the barrony of Ross, and the barrony of the illes of Arren, which conteyneth in themselves, as well by auncient Division as by late Inquisition and presentments hereunto annexed, the nomber of 318 quarters of land, estemeing everie quarter, with his pastur, woodd and bogge, at 120 acres, as by a particular layinge downe of the same, in manner and forme followinge, yt may appeare.—FIRSTE. in the barrony of Moycullen there is a quantitie of land called Gnomore and Gnobegge, which contayne 52 townes, consistinge of 138 quarters, that is to say, within Gnomore, in Aghnenure, 4 q"—in Ardcollume, 4 q"—in Ballymymyn, 4 qTM—in Coyshowne or Fwoaghe, 2 qTM—in Russhyne, 2 q"—in the Creagge, 1 qr—in the Leame, 1 qr—in the Corre, 1 qr—in Ballyraghaine, 4 q"—in Ballyturlagoma, 4 qTM—in Balliroschall, 4 q"—in Ballywoghterarde, 4 q"—in Ballyvickgillewye, 4 q"—in Ballynera, 4 qTM—in Ballyclonlorge, 4 q"—in Curragheduffe, 2 q"—in Rusmuck, 2 q"—in Leytrmyllane, 2 q"—in Ballynemoght, 4 q"—in Killanelhire, 1 qr—in Lewghill, 1 qr—in Clocke M* Cahill oge, 1 qr—in Tierny, 1 qr—in Killeame, 2 qTM—in Letercally, 1 qr—in Ballynhenry, 4 qTM—in the Ower, 2 qTM—in Kildaycamoge, 1 qr—in Killuryne, 1 qr—in Kylgeane, I qr—in Inyse vickenchine, 2 qTM—and in Ballynaghekearnyn, 4 q"—which in that part of Gnomore cometh to 79 quarters, the moytie whereof is said to belonge to Moroghe O'Flahertie is cept, and the other moytye to Rorie oge O'Flahertis cept. And within Gnobegge, in Moycullen, 4 q"—in Ballyclonyduff, 4 q"—in Ballycoshowne, 4 q"—in Ballybarnae, 4 q"—in Ballineforbagh, 4 q"—m
Ballynspiddell, 4 qTM—in Coyleroe, 1 qr—in Moyascraghe, 4 qTM—in Oheyrie, 4 q"—
'Mac Connor, chief of a branch of the O'FIaherties, sprung from Hugh, the son of Rory of Lough Kime; for whom see the Genealogical table, post.
s Mc Donghe, chief of another branch of the O'Flaherties called the Clan Donogh, now Mac Donough, sprung from Donogh aluinn second son
of Muredach mor, for whom see Genealogical tableh W Enry, chief of the ancient Clan Conraoi or Conroy, comipted in latter times to "King." Tnu sept was located in Iar-Connaught, several centuries before the O'Flaherties. See ante, p. 253.
of their lands and goods since the peaceable goverment of the said Lo. Deputie, and the just dealings of Sr Richard Binghame, knight, their cheife officer, as well against comon mallefactors and spoylers, as also agaynst the immeasurable cesses and oppressions of all sorts of men of warr, heretofore layd upon them; have, inconsideracon thereof, and for that the said Eight honorable the Lo. deputie dothe promise, covenaunt and graunte to and with the said cheiftaines, gent., freeholders and inhabitants of the said Earconnaght, for and in the behalf of the Queen's Mat'", that they and every of them their heires and assignes, for their lands within the said contrey, shall, from and after the date hereof, be freelie and wholy dischardged, acquitted and exonerated for ever, off and from all manner of cesses, taxes, chardges, exaccons, cuttings, ymposicons, purveying, eateing, findinge or bearing of soldiers, and from all other burdens whatsoever, other than the rents, reservacons, and chardges hereafter in this Indenture specified, and to be enacted by parleament: willingly and thankfully for them their heirs and assignes, given and graunted, licke as they hereby doe give and graunte, to the said right Honorable the Lo. Deputy and his heirs, to the use of the Queene's most excellent Ma"' her heirs and successours for ever, one yearelie rent chardge of tenn shillinges of good and lawful current money of England, goinge out of every qr of 280 qTM of the aforesaid number of 318 q" of land, which in the whole amounteth yearelie to the some of £140 ster. payable at the feastcs of St. Michaell tharchangell and Easter, by eaven porcons, the first payment to beginne at the feast of St. Mychaell tharchangell next ensuing the date hereof, and soe yearele for ever at the severall feasts aforsaid, at her highnes' Exchequer within the same realm of Ireland, or to the hands of the Vice threr, or generall receaver of the same realme for the tyme beinge; and for lacke of money to be payed in the Exchequer aforesaid, the same thresurer or generall receaver to receive kyne, to the value of the said rente, or so muche thereof as shall remayne unpayed, at the rate of 13*. 4d. ster. for everie good and lawfull beof. And if yt fortune the said rente of £140 ster. to be behind and unpayed, in parte or in all, in manner and forme afoesaid, that yt shalbe lawfull unto the said right honnorable the Lo. Deputie, or other governour or governours of this realme for the tyme being, to enter and distrayne in all and singular the lands, tenements and heredytaments of the said 280 qTM., and the distresse taken to detayne and keepe, tyll the said yearelie rent as afore be fullie and wholie satisfied and payd: provyded alwayes, that if yt fortune anie parte of the quarters aforesaid, subject to this composition, to be so waste as yt beareth nether home or come, that the same shall not be layd upon the rest that is inhabited, but shall be forborne both in rente and arrearadges, duringe that tyme.
"And further, the persons above named, for them their heires and assigns, doe