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Deposite, wherein to place the heavy baggage during the expected battle. On that day, five of Wayne's spies, among whom was May, the man who had been sent after Trueman and had pretended to desert to the Indians,* rode into the very camp of the enemy: in attempting to retreat again, May's horse fell and he was taken. The next day, the day before the battle, he was tied to a tree and shot at as a target. During the 19th, the army still labored on their works: on the 20th, at 7 or 8 o'clock, all baggage having been left behind, the white forces moved down the north bank of the Maumee ;

the Legion on the right, its flank covered by the Maumee : one brigade of mounted volunteers on the left, under Brigadier General Todd, and the other in the rear under Brigadier General Barbee. A select battalios of mounted volunteers moved in front of the Legion, commanded by Major Price, who was directed to keep sufficiently advanced, so as to give timely notice for the troops to form in case of action, it being set undetermined whether the Indians would decide for peace or war.

After advancing about five miles, Major Price's corps received so severe a fire from the enemy, who were secreted in the woods and high grass, as to compel them to retreat. The Legion was immediately formed in two lines, principally in a close thick wood, which extended for miles on our left, and for a very considerable distance in front; the ground being covered with old fallen timber, probably occasioned by : tornado, which rendered it impracticable for the cavalry to act with effect, and afforded the enemy the most favorable covert for their mode of warfare. The savages were formed in three lines, within supporting distance of each other, and extending for near two miles at right angles with the river. I soon discovered, from the weight of the fire and extent of their lines, that the enemy were in full force in front, in possession of their favorite ground, and endeavoring to turn our left flank. I therefore gave orders for the second line to advance and support the first; and directed Major General Scott to gain and turn the right flank of the savages, with the whole of the mounted volunteers, by a circuitous route ; at the same time I ordered the front line to advance and charge with trailed arms, and rouse the Indians from their coverts at the point of the bayonet, and when up to deliver a close and well directed fire on their backs, followed by a brisk charge, so as not to give them time to load again.

I also ordered Captain Mis Campbell, who commanded the legionary cavalry, to turn the lest flank of the enemy next the river, and which

* See ante p. 381, note.
† American Pioneer, i. 52. 318.-American State Papers, v. 243.

1790-95. Wayne's Battle.

407 affordeu a favorable field for that corps to act in. All these orders were ubeyed with spirit and promptitude; but such was the impetuosity of the charge by the first line of infantry, that the Indians and Canadian militia and volunteers, were drove from all their coverts in so short a time, that although every possible exertion was used by the officers of the second line of the Legion, and by Generals Scott, Todd, and Barbee, of the mounted volunteers, to gain their proper positions, but part of each could get up in season to participate in the action; the enemy being drove, in the course of one hour, more than two miles, through the thick woods already mentioned, by less than one half their numbers. From every account the enemy amounted to two thousand combatants. The troops actually engaged against them were short of nine hundred. This horde of savages, with their allies, abandoned themselves to flight, and dispersed with terror and dismay, leaving our victorious army in full and quiet possession of the field of battle, which terminated under the influence of the guns of the British garrison, as you will observe by the enclosed correspondence between Major Campbell, the commandant, and myself, upon the occasion.*

The bravery and conduct of every officer belonging to the army, from the Generals down to the Ensigos, merit my highest approbation. There were, however, some whose rank and situation placed their conduct in a very conspicuous point of view, and which I observed with

* [NUMBER 1.)

Miami (Maumee] River, August 21, 1794. Sir: An army of the United States of America, said to be under your command, having taken post on the banks of the Miami (Maumee) for upwards of the last twenty-four hours, almost within the reach of the guns of this fort, being a post belonging to His Majesty the King of Great Britain, occupied by His Majesty's troops, and which I have the honor to command, it becomes my duty to inform myself, as speedily as possible, in what light I am to view your making such near approaches to this garrison. I have no hesitation, on my part, to say, that I know of no war existing between Great Britain and America.

I have the honor, to be, sir, with great respect, your most obedient and very humble servant,

WILLIAM CAMPBELL, Major 24th Regiment,

Commanding a British post on the banks of the Miami. To Major General Wayne, &c.

[NUMBER 11.)

Camp on the Bank of the Miami, (Maumee,] August 21, 1794. Sir: I have received your letter of this date, requiring from me the motives which have moved the army under my command to the position they at present occupy, far within the acknowledged jurisdiction of the United States of America. Without questioning the authority or the propriety, sir, of your interrogatory, I think I may, without breach of decorum, observe to you, that were you entitled to an answer, the most full and satisfactory one was announced to you from the muzzles of my small arms, yesterday morning, in the action against the horde of savages in the vicinity of your post, which terminated gloriously to the American arms; but, had, it continued until the Indians, &c. were driven under the influence of the post and guns you mention, they would not have much impeded the progress of the victorious army under my command, as no such post


Wayne's Battle.


pleasure, and the most lively gratitude. Among whom, I must beg leave to mention Brigadier General Wilkinson, and Colonel Hamtramek, the commandants of the right and left wings of the Legion, whose brave example inspired the troops. To those I must add the names of my faithful and gallant aids-de-camp, Captains De Butt and T. Lewis, and

to arrest.

was established at the commencement of the present war between the Indians and the United States.

I have the honor to be sir, with great respect, your most obedient and very humble servant,

ANTHONY WAYNE, Major General,

And Commander-in-chief of the Federal Army. To Major William Cambell, &c.


Fort Miami, August 22, 1794. Sir: Although your letter of yesterday's date fully authorises me to any act of hostility against the army of the United States in this neighborhood, under your command, yet, still anxious to prevent that dreadful decision which, perhaps, is not intended to be appealed to by either of our countries, I have forborne, for these two days past, to resent those insults you have offered to the British flag flying at this fort, by approaching it within pistol shot of my works, not only singly, but in numbers, with arms in their hands. Neither is it my wish to wage war with individuals; but, should you, after this, continue to approach my post in the threatening manner you are at this moment doing, my indispensable duty to my king and country, and the honor of my profession, will oblige me to have recourse to those measures, which thousands of either nation may hereafter hare cause to regret, and which, 1 solemnly appeal to God, I have used my utmost endeavors

I have the honor to be, sir, with much respect, your most obedient and rery humble servant,

WILLIAM CAMPBELL, Major 24th Regiment,

Commanding at Fort Miami. Major General Wayne, &c.


Camp, banks of the Miami, 22 August, 1794. Sir: In your letter of the 21st instant, you declare, “ I have no hesitation, on my part, to say, that I know of no war existing between Great Britain and America.” I, on my part, declare the same, and that the only cause I have to entertain a contrary idea at present, is the hostile act you are now in commission of, i. e. by recently taking post far within the well known and acknowledged limits of the United States, and erecting a for. tification in the heart of the settlements of the Indian tribes now at war with the United States. This, sir, appears to be an act of the highest aggression, and destructive to the peace and interest of the Union. Hence it becomes my duty to desire, and I do hereby desire and demand, in the name of the President of the United States, that you immediately desist from any further act of hostility or aggression, by forbearing to fortify, and by withdrawing the troops, artillery, and stores, under your orders and direction, forth with, and removing to the nearest post occupied by his Britannic Majesty's troops at the peace of 1783, and which you will be permitted to do unmolested by the troops under my command. I am, with very great respect, sir, your most obedient and very humble servant,

ANTHONY WAYNE, Major William Campbell &c.


Fort Miami, 228 August, 1794. Sir: I have this moment to acknowledge the receipt of your letter of this date; in answer to which I have only to say, that, being placed here in the command of a British post, and acting in a military capacity only, I cannot enter into any discussion either on


Wayne's Battle.



Lieutenant Harrison, who, with the Adjutant General, Major Mills, rendered the most essential service by communicating my orders in every direction, and by their conduct and bravery exciting the troops to press for victory.

Enclosed is a particular return of the killed and wounded. * The loss of the enemy was more than that of the Federal army. The woods were strewed for a considerable distance with the dead bodies of Indians, and their white auxiliaries, the latter armed with British muskets and bayonets.t

the right or impropriety of my occupying my present position. Those are matters that I conceive will be best left to the ambassadors of our different nations.

Having said this much, permit me to inform you that I certainly will not abandon this post, at the summons of any power whatever, until I receive orders for that purpose from those I have the honor to serve under, or the fortune of war should oblige me. I must still adhere, sir, to the purport of my letter this morning, to desire that your army, or individuals belonging to it, will not approach within reach of my cannon, without expecting the consequences attending it.

Although I have said, in the former part of my letter, that my situation here is totally military, yet, let me add, sir, that I am much deceived, if His Majesty, the King of Great Britain, had not a post on this river, at and prior to the period you mention.

I have the honor to be, sir, with the greatest respect, your most obedient and very humble servant,

WILLIAM CAMPBELL, Major 24th Regiment,

Commanding at Fort Miami. To Major General Wayne, &c.

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The Legion lead twenty-six killed, five of them officers, eighty-seven wounded, thirteen of them officers; the Kentucky volunteers had seven killed all privates, and thirteen wounded, three of whom were officers;- of the wounded eleven died : making in all, dead and wounded, one hundred and thirty-three.--American State Papers, v. 492.

† An eye witness (American Pioneer, i. 319] thinks there were near five hundred Canadians in the battle. A Shawanese prisoner taken August 11, testifies thus

Question.-What number of warriors are at McKee's, and what nations do they belong to?

Answer. There are six hundred who abandoned this place on the approach of the army. Shawanese, about

200, but not more. Delawares,

300 Miamies,

100 Warriors of other tribes,


Total, 700 Q.-What number are expected to assemble, in addition to those now at the foot of the Rapids ? A.-In all, about 400 men, viz. Wyandots,

300 Tawas,


Total, 540
Q.-What number of white men are to join, and when ?

A.-Mr. or Captain Elliot set out for Detroit six days since, and was to be back yesterday, with all the militia, and an additional number of regular troops, which, with those already there, would amount to 1000 men. This is the general conversation among the

410 Destruction of Villages, &c. on the Maumee. 1790-95.

We remained three days and nights on the banks of the Maumee, in front of the field of battle, during which time all the houses and cornfields were consumed and destroyed for a considerable distance both above and below Fort Miami, as well as within pistol shot of the garri. son, who were compelled to remain tacit spectators to this general devastation and conflagration, among which were the houses, stores, and property of Colonel McKee, the British Indian Agent, and principal stimulator of the war now existing between the United States and the savages.

The army returned to this place (Fort Defiance] on the 27th, by easy marches, laying waste the villages and cornfields for about fifty miles on each side of the Maumee. There remains yet a great number of villages, and a great quantity of corn,* to be consumed or destroyed, upon Auglaize and the Maumee above this place, which will be effected in the course of a few days.t

The loss of the Americans in this action was 33 killed and 100 wounded, including 21 officers, of whom, however, but five were killed.

The army remained at Fort Defiance, busily engaged in strengthening the works until September 14th, when it marched for the Miami Villages at the junction of the St. Joseph and St. Mary, and began opposite to them, in the bend of the St. Mary, Indians, and Captain Elliot promised to bring that number. Colonel McKee's son went with Elliot, as also the man who deserted from the army on its march.

One of the Canadians taken in the battle gave the following estimates,

That the Delawares have about 500 men, including those who live on both rivers, the White river, and Bean creek.

That the Miamies are about 200 warriors, part of them live on the St. Joseph's, eight leagues from this place; that the men were all in the action, but the women are yet at that place, or Piquet's village; that a road leads from this place directly to it; that the number of warriors belonging to that place, when altogether, amounts to about 40.

That the Shawanese have about 300 warriors; that the Tawas, on this river, are 250 ; that the Wyandots are about 300.

That those Indians were generally in the action of the 20th instant, except some bunting parties. That a reinforcement of regular troops, and 200 militia, arrived at fort Miami a few days before the army appeared, that the regular troops in the fort amounted to 250, exclusive of the militia.

That about 70 of the militia, including Captain Caldwell's corps, were in the action. That Colonel McKee, Captain Elliot, and Simon Girty, were in the field, but at a respectful distance, and near the river.

That the Indians have wished for peace for some time, but that Colonel McKee always dissuaded them from it, and stimulated them to continue the war.--Am. S. Papers, v. 494.

* In a letter of August 14th, Wayne says, “ The margins of these beautiful rivers, the Miamies of the Lake and Au Glaize, appear like one continued village for a number of miles both above and below this place, (Grand Glaize ;) nor have I ever before bebeld such immense fields of corn in any part of America from Canada to Florida.”-American State Papers, v. 490.

+ American State Papers, v. 491.-See the English account of the battle in Weld's Travels, ii. 211.

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