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316 Statement of Colonel Thomas Marshall. 1788. the Mississippi must be of to the inhabitants of the western waters, showed the absolute necessity of our possessing it, and concluded with assurances that were we disposed to assert our right respecting that navigation, Lord Dorchester* was cordially disposed to give us powerful assistance, that his Lordship had (I think he said) four thousand British troops in Canada besides two regiments at Detroit, and could furnish us with arms, ammunition, clothing, and money ; that, with this assistance, we might possess ourselves of New Orleans, fortify the Balize at the mouth of the river, and keep possession in spite of the utmost efforts of Spain to the contrary. He made very confident professions of Lord Dorchester's wishes to cultivate the most friendly intercourse with the people of this country, and of his own desire to become serviceable to us, and with so much seeming sincerity, that had I not before been acquainted with his character as a man of intrigue and artful address, I should in all probability have given him my confidence.

I told him that the minds of the people of this country were so strongly prejudiced against the British, not only from circumstances attending the late war, but from a persuasion that the Indians were at this time stimulated by them against us, and that so long as those savages continued to commit such horrid cruelties on our defenceless frontiers, and were received as friends and allies by the British at Detroit, it would be impossible for them to be convinced of the sincerity of Lord Dorchester's offers, let his professions be ever so strong; and that, if his Lordship would have us believe him really disposed to be our friend, he must begin by showing his disapprobation of the ravages of the Indians.

He admitted of the justice of my observation, and said he had urged the same to his Lordship before he left Canada. He denied that the Indians are stimulated against us by the British, and says Lord Dor. chester observed that the Indians are free and independent nations, and have a right to make peace or war as they think fit, and that he could not with propriety interfere. He promised, however, on his return to Canada to repeat his arguments to his Lordship on the subject, and hopes, he says, to succeed. At taking his leave he begged very politely the favor of our correspondence; we both promised him, provided he would begin it, and devise a means of carrying it on. He did not tell me that he was authorized by Lord Dorchester to make us these offers in his name, nor did I ask him ; but General Scott informs me that he told him that his Lordship had authorized him to use his name in this business.t

* Formerly Sir Guy Carlton.

+ See Butler, 520.—Colonel George Morgan at Burr's trial in 1807, stated that Mr. Vigo, of Vincennes, was, as he believed, concerned with Connolly. (American State Papers, xx. 503.)

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1789. Treaty with the Iroquois and other tribes of Indians. 317

Colonel George Morgan, during this year, was induced to remove for a time to the Spanish territories west of the Mississippi, and remained at New Madrid between one and two months; thence he went to New Orleans.*


Preparations, as we have stated, had been made early in 1788, for a treaty with the Indians, and during the whole autumn, the representatives of the Indian tribes were lingering about the Muskingum settlement: but it was not till January 9th of this year that the natives were brought to agree to distinct terms. On that day, one treaty was made with the Iroquois,f confirming the previous one of October, 1784 at Fort Stanwix; and another with the Wyandots, Delawares, Ottawas, Chippeways, Pottawatimas and Sacs, confirming and extending the treaty of Fort McIntosh, made in January, 1785. Of the additions, we quote the following:

Art. 4. It is agreed between the said United States and the said nations, that the individuals of said nations shall be at liberty to hunt within the territory ceded to the United States, without hindrance or molestation, so long as they demean themselves peaceably, and offer no injury or annoyance to any of the subjects or citizens of the said United States.

ART. 7. Trade shall be opened with the said nations, and they do hereby respectively engage to afford protection to the persons and property of such as may be duly licensed to reside among them for the purposes of trade, and to their agents, factors, and servants ; but no person shall be permitted to reside at their towns, or at their hunting

American State Papers, xx. 504.-Dr. Hildreth, (American Pioneer,' i. 128,) says he founded New Madrid. - See also Flint's Ten Years Recollections; account of New Madrid. + Collection of Indian Treaties. Land Laws, 123.

Land Laws, 149.-See also Carey's Museum for April, 1789, p. 415.

Treaties of Fort Harmar.

1789 camps, as a trader, who is not furnished with a license for that purpose, under the hand and seal of the Governor of the territory of the United States northwest of the Ohio, for the time being, or under the hand and seal of one of his deputies for the management of Indian Affairs ; to the end that they may not be imposed upon in their traffic. And if any person or persons shall intrude themselves without such license, they promise to apprehend him or them, and to bring them to the said Governor, or one of his deputies, for the purpose beforementioned, to be dealt with according to law; and that they may be defended against persons who might attempt to forge such licenses, they further engage to give information to the said Governor, or one of his deputies, of the pames of all traders residing among them, from time to time, and at least once in every year.

Art. 8. Should any nation of Indians meditate a war against the United States, or either of them, and the same shall come to the knowledge of the beforementioned nations, or either of them, they do hereby engage to give immediate notice thereof to the Governor, or, in his absence, to the officer commanding the troops of the United States at the nearest post. And should any nation, with hostile intentions against the United States, or either of them, attempt to pass through their country, they will endeavor to prevent the same, and, in like manner, give information of such attempt to the said Governor or commanding officer, as soon as possible, that all causes of mistrust and suspicion may be avoided between them and the United States : in like manner, the United States shall give notice to the said Indian nations, of any harm that may be meditated against them, or either of them, that shall come to their knowledge: and do all in their power to hinder and prevent the same, that the friendship between them may be uninterrupted.*

But these treaties, if meant in good faith by those who made them, were not respected,t and the year of which we now write saw renewed the old frontier troubles in all their barbarism and variety. The Wabash Indians especially, who had not been bound by any treaty as yet, kept up constant incursions against the Kentucky settlers, and the emigrants down the Ohio ;t and the Kentuckians retaliated, striking foes and friends, even the peaceable Piankeshaws who prided themselves on their attachment to the United States."|| Nor could the President take any effectual steps to put an end to this constant partisan warfare. In the first

* See Land Laws, p. 152. + See post for a full discussion of these points.-Carey's Museum, April, 1789, p. 416.

# Marshall, i. 348. 354.-American State Papers, vol. v. 84, 85.-Carey's Museum, May, 1789, p. 504. 608.

| General Knox. American State Papers, v, 13.


Troubles with the Indians.


place, it was by no means clear that an attack by the forces of the government upon the Wabash tribes, could be justified :-Says Washington :

I would have it observed forcibly, that a war with the Wabash Indians ought to be avoided by all means consistently with the security of the frontier inhabitants, the security of the troops, and the national dignity. In the exercise of the present indiscriminate hostilities, it is extremely difficult, if not impossible, to say that a war without further measures would be just on the part of the United States. But, if, after mani. festing clearly to the Indians the disposition of the General Government for the preservation of peace, and the extension of a just protection 10 the said Indians, they should continue their incursions, the United States will be constrained to punish them with severity.*

But how to punish them was a difficult question, again, even supposing punishment necessary. Says General Knox:

By the best and latest information it appears that, on the Wabash and its communications, there are from fifteen hundred to two thousand warriors. An expedition against them, with a view of extirpating them, or destroying their towns, could not be undertaken with a probability of success, with less than an army of two thousand five hundred men. The regular troops of the United States on the frontiers are less than six hundred : of that number not more than four hundred could be collected from the posts for the purpose of the expedition. To raise, pay, feed, arm, and equip one thousand nine hundred additional men, with the necessary officers, for six months, and to provide every thing in the hospital and quartermaster's line, would require the sum of two hundred thousand dollars, a sum far exceeding the ability of the United States to advance, consistently with a due regard to other indispensable objects.

Such, however, were the representations of the Governor of the new territory, and of the people of Kentucky,|| that Congress, upon the 29th of September, empowered the President to call out the militia to protect the frontiers, and he, on the 6th of October, authorised Governor St. Clair to draw 1500 men from the western counties of Virginia and Pennsylvania, if absolutely necessary; ordering him, however, to ascertain, if possible, the real disposi

American State Papers, v. 97,

+ Ibid. v. 13.

Ibid, v. 84 to 93. | Ibid, v. 84 10 93. Judge Innis (p. 88) says that in seven years, 1500 persons, 20,000 horses, and 15,000 pounds worth of property had been destroyed and taken away away by the savages.

Muskingum Settlements spread.

1789. tion of the Wabash and Illinois Indians.* In order to do this, speeches to them were prepared, and a messenger sent among them, of whose observations we shall have occasion to take notice under the year 1790.

Kentucky, especially, felt aggrieved this year by the withdrawal of the Virginia scouts and rangers, who had hitherto helped to protect her. This was done in July by the Governor, in consequence of a letter from the federal executive, stating that national troops would thenceforward be stationed upon the western streams. The Governor communicated this letter to the Kentucky conven. tion held in July, and that body at once authorised a remonstrance against the measure, representing the inadequacy of the federal troops, few and scattered as they were, to protect the country, and stating the amount of injury received from the savages since the first of May.t

Nor was the old Separation sore healed yet. Upon the 29th of December, 1788, Virginia had passed her third Act to make Kentucky independent; but as this law made the District liable for a part of the state debt, and also reserved a certain control over the lands set apart as army bounties, to the Old Dominion,-it was by no means popular; and when, upon the 20th of July, the Eighth Convention came together at Danville, it was only to resolve upon a memorial requesting that the obnoxious clauses of the late law might be repealed. This, in December, was agreed to by the parent State, but new proceedings throughout were at the same time ordered, and a ninth Convention directed to meet in the following July

North of the Ohio, during this year there was less trouble from the Indians than south of it, especially in the Muskingum country. There all prospered: the Reverend Daniel Story, under a resolution of the directors of the Ohio Company, passed in March, 1788, in the spring of this year came westward as a teacher of youth and a preacher of the Gospel. || By November, nine associations, comprising two hundred and fifty persons, had been formed for the purpose of settling different points within the purchase; and by the close of 1790, eight settlements had been made ; two at Belpre

, (belle prairie,) one at Newbury, one at Wolf Creek, one at Duck

American State Papers, v. 97. 101, 102. + Marshall, 1. 352.-American State Papers, v. 84, &c. # Ibid, 342. 350.—Butler, 187. | American Pioneer, i. 86. 9 Here was built the first mill in Ohio. (American Pioneer, ii. 99. and plate.)

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