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FINIS

t I. I Br 1 QU ART I ET ULTIM 1

IN STITUTI O N U M.

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CAP. I.

De descendentium successione.

St quis igitur descendentium fuerit ei, qui intestatus moritur, cujuslibet naturæ aut gradus, sive ex masculorum genere sive ex fæminarum descendens, et sive suæ potestatis, sive sub potestate sit, omnibus ascendentibus et ex latere cognatis præponatur. Licet enim defunctus sub alterius potestate fuerit, tamen ejus liberos, cujuslibet sexus sint aut gradus, etiam ipsis parentibus præponi præcipimus, quorum sub potestate fuerit, qui defunctus est, in illis videlicet rebus, quæ, secundum nostras alias leges, patribus non acquiruntur; nam in usu harum rerum, qui dcbet acquiri aut servari, nostras de his omnibus leges parentibus custodimus: sic tamen, ut, si quem horum descendentium filios relinquentem mori contigerit, illius filios aut filias, aut alios descendentes, in proprii parentis locum succedere, sive sub potestate defuncti, sive suæ potestatis inveniantur; tantam de hæreditate morientis accipientes partem, quanticunque sint, quantam eorum parens, si viveret, habuisset; quam successionem in stirfies vocavit antiquitas: in hoc enim ordine gradum quæri nolumus; sed, cum filiis et filiabus, ex præmortuo filio aut filia mepotes vocari sancimus; nulla introducenda differentia, sive masculi

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z. Srečezuel tinzay. Kau ravra, asy wig ve foeminae sint, et seu ex masculorum seu foeminarum prole descendant, sive sual potestatis, sive sub potestate sint constituti. Et haec quidem de successionibus descendentium disposuimus,

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CHAPTER I.

Qf the succession of descendants.

If a man dies intestate, leaving a descendant of either sex or any degree, such descendant, whether he derives his descent from the male or female line, or whether he is under power or not, is to be preferred to all ascendants and collaterals. And, although the deceased was himself under paternal power, yet we ordain, that his children of either sex or any degree shall be preferred in succession to the parents, under whose power the intestate died, in regard to those things, which children do not acquire for their parents, according to our other laws; for we would maintain the laws in respect to the usufruct, which is allowed to parents: so that, if any of the descendants of the deceased should die, leaving sons or daughters or other descendants, they shall succeed in the place of their own father, whether they are under his power or sui juris, and shall be entitled to the same share of the intestate's estate, which their father would have had, if he had lived; and this kind of succession has been termed by the ancient lawyers a succession in stirfies: for in the succession of descendants we allow no priority of degree, but admit the grandchildren of any person by a deceased son or daughter to be called to inherit that person together with his sons or daughters, without making any distinction between males and females, or the descendants of males and females, or between those, who are under power, and those, who are not. These are the rules, which we have established, concerning the succession of descendants.

E; ris row. Si quis igitur.] The three first leaving grandchildren by three different sons,

chapters of this novel constitution deserve the
attentive consideration of the reader, not on-
ly because they contain the latest policy of the
civil law in regard to the disposition of the
estates of intestates; but because they are
the foundation of our statute law in this re-
spect. Vid. Holt's cases, p. 259. Peere Willi-
ams's rep. p 27. Prec. in chan. p. 593. Sir
Thom. Raymond's rep. p. 496. And they are
still almost of continual use, by being the
general guide of the courts in England,
which hold cognizance of distributions, in
all those cases, concerning which our own
laws have either been silent, or not sufficient-
ly express.
Elo row ru lotu yovsø;. In proprii parentis lo-
cum succedant. J Nothing is more clear in
the civil law, than that grandchildren, even
when alone, (although they descend from va-
opus stocks and are unequal in their num-
rs,) would take the estate of their deceas-
edgrand-father per stirpes, and not per capi-
taouppose therefore, that Titius should die,

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already dead; to wit, three by one son, six by another, and twelve by another; each of these classes of grandchildren would take a third of the estate without any regard to the inequality of the numbers in each class. But, as to this point in England, the law reports mention no judicial determination; yet it seems probable, that the courts, in which distributions are cognizable, would order the division of an estate in such a case to be made per capita; and this, partly from a motive of equity, and partly from a consideration of the intent of the statute, relating to the estates of intestates; for the statute directs an enal and just distribution: and, when the act mentions representation, it must be understood to refer to it, in those cases only, where representation is necessary to prevent exclusion, but not to refer to it, in those cases, where all the claimants are in equal degree, and therefore can take suo quisque jure, each in his own right. Vid. 23, 24, Car. 2. cap. 10 Lib. 3. Inst. p. 4.

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CAP. II:

De ascendentium successione.

SI igitur defunctus descendentes quidem non relinquat haeredes, pater autem aut mater aut alii parentes ei supersint, omnibus ex latere cognatis hos praepomi sancimus, exceptis solis fratribus ex utroque parente conjunctis defuncto, sicut per subsequentia declarabitur. Si autem plurimi ascendentium vivunt, hos praepomi jubemus, qui proximi gradu reperiuntur, masculos et foeminas, sive paterni, sive materni sint. Si autem eundem habeant gradum, ex aequo intereos haereditas dividatur, ut medietatem quidem accipiant omnes a patre ascendentes, quanticunque fue-, rint; medietatem vero reliquam a matre ascendentes, quantoscunque eos inveniri contigerit. Si vero cum ascendentibus inveniantur fratres aut sorores ex utrisque parentibus conjuncti defuncto, cum proximis gradu ascendentibus vocabuntur, si et pater aut mater fuerint; dividenda inter eos quippe haereditate secundum personarum numerum, uti et ascendentium et fratrum singuli aequalem habeant portionem; nullum usum ex filiorum aut filiarum portione in hoc casu valente patre sibi penitus vindicare, quoniam, pro hac usus portione, haereditatis jus et secundum proprietatem per praesentem dedimus legem; differentia nulla servanda inter personas istas, sive foeminae sive masculi fuerint, qui ad hareditatem vocantur; et sive per masculi sive per foeminao personam copulantur; et sive suae potestatis sive sub potestate fuerit is cui succedunt.

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