Disappearing Cryptography: Information Hiding : Steganography & Watermarking

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Morgan Kaufmann, 2002 - Computers - 413 pages
Disappearing Cryptography, Second Edition describes how to take words, sounds, or images and hide them in digital data so they look like other words, sounds, or images. When used properly, this powerful technique makes it almost impossible to trace the author and the recipient of a message. Conversations can be submerged in the flow of information through the Internet so that no one can know if a conversation exists at all.

This full revision of the best-selling first edition describes a number of different techniques to hide information. These include encryption, making data incomprehensible; steganography, embedding information into video, audio, or graphics files; watermarking, hiding data in the noise of image or sound files; mimicry, "dressing up" data and making it appear to be other data, and more. The second edition also includes an expanded discussion on hiding information with spread-spectrum algorithms, shuffling tricks, and synthetic worlds. Each chapter is divided into sections, first providing an introduction and high-level summary for those who want to understand the concepts without wading through technical explanations, and then presenting greater detail for those who want to write their own programs. To encourage exploration, the author's Web site www.wayner.org/books/discrypt2/ contains implementations for hiding information in lists, sentences, and images.

Each chapter is divided into sections, providing first an introduction and high-level summary for those who want to understand the concepts without wading through technical details, and then an introductory set of details, for those who want to write their own programs. Fully revised and expanded. Covers key concepts for non-technical readers. Goes into technical details for those wanting to create their own programs and implement algorithms. Up-to-date website containing the code samples from the book.

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Contents

Framing Information
1
12 Reasons for Secrecy
3
13 How It Is Done
5
14 How Steganography Is Used
7
15 Attacks on Steganography
9
16 Adding Context
13
Encryption
15
21 Encryption and White Noise
16
1012 Using Remailers
188
1013 Using Private Idaho
189
1014 Web Remailers
190
102 Remailer Guts
191
1021 Other Remailer Packages
195
1022 Splitting Paths
196
103 Anonymous Networks
198
1031 Freedom Network
199

211 DES and Modern Ciphers
20
212 PublicKey Encryption
24
213 How Random Is the Noise?
26
22 Measuring Information and Encrypting It
27
221 Entropy
28
222 RSA Encryption
29
23 Summary
31
Error Correction
33
311 Error Correction and White Noise
40
312 Error Correction and Secret Sharing
41
32 Constructing ErrorCorrecting Codes
42
321 Periodic Codes
45
33 Summary
47
Secret Sharing
49
41 Splitting Up Secrets
50
411 Requiring All Parts
51
412 Letting Parts Slide
53
413 A More Efficient Method
55
414 Providing Deniability
56
42 Building SecretSharing Schemes
57
421 Making Some More Equal
59
43 PublicKey Secret Sharing
60
44 Steganographic File Systems and Secret Sharing
61
45 Summary
65
Compression
67
51 Patterns and Compression
68
511 Huffman Coding
71
52 Building Compression Algorithms
74
522 Dictionary Compression
76
523 JPEG Compression
78
524 GZSteg
79
53 Summary
80
Basic Mimicry
81
61 Running in Reverse
82
611 Choosing the Next Letter
87
62 Implementing the Mimicry
89
621 Goosing with Extra Data
91
622 Regular Mimicry and Images
93
63 Summary
94
Grammars and Mimicry
97
71 Using Grammar for Mimicry
99
711 Parsing and Going Back
103
712 How Good Is It?
105
72 Creating Gram marBased Mimicry
107
721 Parsing the Output
109
722 Suggestions for Building Grammars
111
723 Scrambled Grammars
112
724 Assessing the Theoretical Security of Mimicry
122
725 Efficient MimicryBased Codes
125
73 Summary
126
Turing and Reverse
129
81 Running Backward
130
811 Reversing Gears
134
82 Building a Reversible Machine
139
821 Reversible Turing Machines
140
822 Reversible Grammar Generators
141
823 The Reversible Grammar Machine
145
83 Summary
147
Life in the Noise
149
91 Hiding in the Noise
151
911 Problems with the Noise
153
913 Independence Problems
155
914 File Format Grief
157
915 Deniability
160
92 Bit Twiddling
161
921 Hide and Seek
162
922 EzStego
165
923 STools
167
924 STools and Sound Files
170
926 Random Walks
173
927 Putting JPEG to Use
175
928 Hiding Information in JPEG Files
177
929 Outguess
178
9210 F4 and F5
179
93 Summary
182
Anonymous Remailers
183
101 Anonymous Remailers
185
1011 Enhancements
187
1032 PipeNet
200
1034 Freenet
201
1035 OceanStore
203
105 Summary
204
Secret Broadcasts
205
111 Secret Senders
206
Creating a DC Net
210
1121 Cheating DC Nets
212
113 Summary
213
Keys
215
121 Extending Control
216
122 Signing Algorithms
218
123 PublicKey Algorithms
220
1232 Using Matrix Multiplication
223
1233 Removing Parts
225
124 ZeroKnowledge Approaches
226
1241 Discrete Logs for Proofs
230
125 Collusion Control
232
126 Summary
233
Ordering and Reordering
235
131 Introduction
236
132 Strength against Scrambling
237
133 Invariant Forms
239
134 Canonical Forms
240
135 Packing in Multiple Messages
241
Adding Extra Packets
244
138 Summary
245
Spreading
247
141 Spreading the Information
249
142 Going Digital
252
1421 An Example
254
1422 Synchronization
257
1423 Strengthening the System
258
1424 Packing Multiple Messages
259
143 Comparative Blocks
260
1431 Minimizing Quantization Errors
261
144 Fast Fourier Solutions
262
1441 Some Brief Calculus
264
145 The Fast Fourier Transform
265
146 Hiding Information with FFTs and DCTs
270
1461 Tweaking a Number of Coefficients
271
1462 Removing the Original from the Detection Process
274
1463 Tempering the Wake
275
148 Modifications
278
1483 Hide the Information in the Phase
279
149 Summary
280
Synthetic Worlds
281
151 Created Worlds
282
152 Text Position Encoding and OCR
284
1521 Positioning
285
1522 MandelSteg and Secrets
287
154 Summary
289
Watermarks
291
161 Embedding Ownerships Information
292
1611 Fragility
294
1613 Watermark Size
295
1616 Accuracy
296
1618 Resistance to Framing
297
1621 Choosing the Coefficients
299
163 An Averaging Watermark
300
1631 Effects of Distortion
301
164 Summary
302
Steganalysis
303
172 Typical Approaches
305
173 Visual Attacks
306
1731 Aural Attacks
309
175 Statistical Attacks
311
1751 Sophisticated Statistics
313
Summary
314
Afterword
315
Java Mimic Code
319
Baseball CFG
353
Reversible Grammar Generator
367
Software
379
Further Readings
383
Bibliography
387
Index
401
Copyright

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About the author (2002)

Peter Wayner is a writer living in Baltimore and is the author of Digital Cash and Agents at Large (both Academic Press). His writings appear in numerous academic journals as well as the pages of more popular forums such as MacWorld and the New York Times. He has taught various computer science courses at Cornell University and Georgetown University.

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