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the forcible and poetical epithet “Jove-nourished” It is also worth remarking that Hobbes has made Homer say more than he does say. Homer says that Jupiter gives kings honour and loves them; but nothing, here at least, about committing to them the law. The following is Damm's explanation of the word Biorpsp;|g. “Auorps to est generalis titulus magni regis, a Jove mutritus, Jovis alumnus, von Gottes gnaden (by the grace of God).”—Damm, Lexicon Graecum. The Divine-right men, however, were not satisfied with the authority of old Homer, who after all was but a poet, and a poor benighted heathen. They wanted higher authority. Accordingly, about the time when, in modern Europe, kings began to make pretensions to “ Divine and indefeasible right,” some of them had recourse to the Jewish Scriptures for arguments or rather authorities; for it is one of those transcendent subjects that are above argument, and, for the full enjoyment of them, demand a “prostration of the understanding and the will.” In the sixteenth century, modern royalty had assumed throughout Europe that form and consistency which immediately led to the promulgation of the doctrine of “ Divine right.” In England it made considerable progress under the Tudor dynasty, as it did in France under the latter princes of the House of Valois. But it was under the fostering hands of the Stuarts in England, and the three first Bourbon kings in France, that it reached its highest elevation in the political firmament. James the First, the British Solomon as he was denominated, wrote a treatise for the express purpose of setting the point at rest; and it is a curious fact in the history of letters, that the royal author in question, in attempting to prove a certain proposition, has proved, not that, but the exact converse of it. We shall first give a speech of Henry the Eighth, which shows what pretensions he made to Divine right ; then one of Queen Elizabeth, which will be found very interesting; and then we shall consider the state of the question under the Stuarts. “A Speech made by King Henry the 8th to the House of Commons the 23 of December 1546, and in the 38 yeare of his raigne. “Although my chauncellor for the time being, hath before this time used very eloquently, and substantially, to make answer to such orations as hath beene set forth in this high court of parliament, yet is he not so able to open and set forth my mind and meaning, and the secrets of my heart, in so plain and ample a manner as I myselfe am, and can doe: wherefore I, taking upon me to answer your eloquent oration, Mr. Speaker, say that where you, in the name of our beloved Commons, have both praysed and extolled me for the notable quality that you have conceived to be in mee, I most heartily thank you all that you have put me in remembrance of my duty, which is to endeavour my selfe to obtaine and get such excellent qualities and necessary vertues as a prince or governor should and ought to have ; of which gifts I recognise my selfe both bare and barren: but of such small qualities as God hath indewed me withal, I render to his goodnesse my most humble thankes, intending with all my wit and diligence to get and acquire to me such notable vertues, and princely qualities, as you have alledged to be incorporated in my person. These thanks for your loving admonition and good counsell first remembered, I eftsoones. thanke you againe, because that you, considering our great chardge, not for our pleasure, but for our defence, not for our gaine, but to our great cost, which wee have lately sustained, as well in defence of your and our enemies, as for the conquest of that fortresse, which was to this realme most displeasant and noysome, and shall be by God's grace hereafter to our nation most profitable and pleasant, have freely of your owne minds granted to us a certaine subsidie here in an act specified, which verely wee take in good part, regarding more your kindnesse, then the profit thereof; as hee that setteth more by your loving hearts than by your substance: besides this hearty kindnesse, I cannot a little rejoyce when I consider the perfect trust and confidence which you have put in mee, as men having undoubted hope and unfained beleefe in my good doings and just proceedings; for you, without my desire or request, have committed to mine order and dispositions all chantries, colledges, hospitals, and other places, specified in a certain act, firmly trusting that I will order them to the glory of God and the profit of the commonwealth. Surely if I, contrary to your expectation, should suffer the ministers of the church to decay, or learning, which is so great a juell, to be minished, or poore and miserable to be unreleeved, you might say that I, being put in so speciall a trust as I am in this case, were no trusty friend to you, nor charitable to mine even Christian, neither a lover of the publicke wealth, nor yet one that feared God, to whom account must be rendred of all our doings; doubt not, I pray you, but your expectation shall be served more godly and goodly then you will wish or desire, as hereafter you shall plainely perceive. Now, sithence I find such kindnesse on your part towards mee, I cannot chuse but love and favour you; affirming that no prince in the world more favoureth his subjects than I doe you, nor no subjects or commons more loved and obeyed their soveraigne lord then I perceive you doe me; for whose defence my treasure shall not be hidden, nor, if necessity require, my person shall not be unadventured: yet, although I wish you, and you wish me, to be in this perfect love and concord, this friendly amity cannot continue, except both you, my lords temporall and my lords spirituall, and you, my loving subjects, studie and take pains to amend one thing, which surely is amisse and farre out of order (to which I must heartily require you), which is, that charity and concord is not among you, but disorder and dissention beareth rule in every place. St. Paul saith to the Corinthians, in the 13 ch. ‘Charity is gentle, charity is not envious, charity is not proud, and so forth, in the said chapter. Behold, then, what love and charity is among you, when the one calleth another heretick and anabaptist, and hee calleth him againe papist, hypocrit, and pharisee Be these tokens of charity amongst you? are these signes of fraternate love betweene you? No, no; I assure you that this lacke of charity amongst yourselves will be the hindrance and asswaging of the fervent love betweene us, as I said before: except this wound be salved, and clearely made whole, I must needs judge the fault and occasion of this discord to be partly by negligence of you, the fathers and preachers of the spiritualty; for if I know a man which liveth in adultery, I must judge him a lecherous and a carnall person; if I see a man boast and brag himselfe, I cannot but deeme him a proud man. I see here daily that you of the clergy preach one against another, teach one contrary to another, envy one against another without charity or discretion; some be too stiffe in their old mumpsimus, other be too usie and curious in their new sumpsimus ; thus all men almost bee in variety and discord, and few or no preaching truly and sincerely the word of God, according as they ought to doe, shall judge you charitable persons doing this: no, no, I cannot so doe. Alas! how can the poore soules live in concords, when your preachers sow amongst them in your sermons debate and discord Of you they looke for light, and you bring them to darkenesse. Amend these crimes, I exhort you, and set out God's word, both by true preaching and good example giving; or else I, whom God hath appointed his vicar” and high minister here, will see these divisions extinct, and these enormities corrected, according to my very duty; or else I am an unprofitable servant and an untrue officer. Although I say the spirituall men be in some fault that charity is not kept amongst you, yet you of the temporality be not clear and unspotted of malice and envy ; for you rayle on bishops, speake scandalously of priests, and rebuke and taunt preachers, both contrary to good order and Christian fraternity. If you know surely that a bishop or

* A pretty sort of type of the Godhead.

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