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Third, spared. The following contemporary account, extracted from Cole's “Athenae Cantabrigienses,” will give some notion of the excitement that prevailed; but it must be borne in mind that Cole was a high-church man, and a personal friend of Archbishop Cornwallis. “It is inconceivable the clamour, uproar, and rage, which the order from the Archbishop to observe decently Good Friday, in 1777, gave to the faction: for many weeks together the presbyterian newspapers were full of abuse and lies relating to Archbishop Cornwallis and his family; and when one expected it should have subsided, two months after the day was observed, out comes the following long and severe paragraph in the London Evening Post of May 29, 1777,-a paper, one would rather suppose to have been printed in the capital of New England than at London, on the Bishop of Chester, who, as a decent and respectable man, on that score is an offence to the fanatical tribe. “‘On the late announcing a sort of outlandish name, one Porteus, to an English bishopric, I naturally asked what was become of all our old, learned, and venerable clergy, of the best families, that they were all passed over with so much contempt and injustice 2 I was informed that the young prelate was a man distinguished by his Majesty's own judgment, and exalted by his mere personal favour, as one of the most promising talents and disposition to fill the sacred office in a manner the most suitable to his own pious feelings and sentiments, and the mild and liberal plan of government adopted by him. A countenance and a character so clear of cynical and ecclesiastical pride and austerity could not escape the penetrating observation and the generous sympathy of the royal patron. A Charles has had his favourite Laud. Similar characters and principles will always attract each other. It has indeed been insinuated that, over and above the great merit of Scottish extraction and interest, he has distinguished himself as a ministerial writer in the public papers, almost as much as by the stretch of church power and arrogance in shutting up the City shops on Good Friday; which, as a sanctified, hypocritical triumph over both reason and Scripture, the civil and religious rights of Englishmen, could not but be highly acceptable to tyrants and hypocrites of every denomination, particularly at court. By this experiment on the tame and servile temper of the times, it is thought the Host and Crucific may be elevated to prostrate crowds in dirty streets some years sooner than could have been reasonably expected. And when a Wedderburne shall be keeper of the King's conscience and seals, and a Porteus of the spiritual keys, as the alterius orbis papa, there is no doubt but our consciences, and our property too, will be effectually taken care of.”
III, POPULAR PASTIMEs.
THE popular pastimes of the time of James the First are enumerated in the following lines, in a little work entitled “The Letting of Humour's Blood in the Headvaine; with a New Morisco daunced by seven Satyres upon the bottome of Diogenes' tubbe:” 8vo, Lond. 1611.
“Man, I dare challenge thee to THRow THE SLEDGE,
IN “Remarkable Occurrences in the Life of Jonas Hanway,” by John Pugh, (Lond. 1787,) it is stated that “ he was the first man who ventured to walk the streets of London with an umbrella over his head. After carrying one nearly thirty years, he saw them come into general use.” Umbrellas, however, were used by females long prior to Hanway's time. In Gay's “Trivia, or the Art of walking the streets of London,” published in 1712, the year in which Hanway was born, the following description of the umbrella is given: “Good housewives all the winter's rage despise, Defended by the ridinghood's disguise; Or underneath the umbrella's oily shed, Safe through the wet on clinking pattens tread. Let Persian dames the umbrella's ribs display, To guard their beauties from the sunny ray; Or sweating slaves support the shady load When Eastern monarchs show their state abroad : Britain in winter only knows its aid, To guard from chilly showers the walking maid.” It has been stated that Hanway first imported the idea into Britain, having felt the benefits of the umbrella during his travels in Persia, where they were in constant use as a protection from the sun. The preceding extract proves the contrary, and the following passage from Coryat's Crudities shows that the umbrella had been well described in England a century and a half before Jonas Hanway's time. “Also many of the Italians doe carry other fine things of a far greater price, that will cost at least a duckat, which they commonly call in the Italian tongue Umbrel
laes, that is, things that minister shadow unto them for shelter against the scorching heate of the sunne. These are made of leather something answerable to the forme of a little cannopy, and hooped in the inside with divers little wooden hoopes, that extend the umbrella in a pretty large compasse. They are used especially by horsemen, who carry them in their handes when they ride, fastening the end of the handle upon one of their thighs; and they impart so long a shadow unto them, that it keepeth the heate of the sun from the upper part of their bodies.” It was more probably his neatness in dress and delicate constitution which led Jonas Hanway, on his return from abroad, to appropriate a luxury hitherto confined to the ladies. The following is Mr. Pugh's description of the general appearance of Mr. Hanway: “ In his dress, as far as was consistent with his ideas of health and ease, he accommodated himself to the prevailing fashion. As it was frequently necessary for him to appear in polite circles, on unexpected occasions, he usually wore dress clothes with a large French bag. His hat, ornamented with a gold button, was of a size and fashion to be worn as well under the arm as on the head. When it rained, a small parapluie” defended his face and wig.” The absence of almost all allusion to the umbrella by the wits of the seventeenth century, while the fan, the muff, &c. receive so large a share of attention, shows, that it was far from being recognised as an article of convenient luxury. Its clumsy shape probably prevented its being freely used: Dryden has
* The French for Umbrella.