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BOOKS AND LITERARY AND SCIENTIFIC

INTELLIGENCE.

The Philosophy of Christian Morals. By SAMUEL SPALDING, M.A.,

8vo, pp. 430. London, 1843. The author of this volume was a student in Coward College, and prosecuted his studies in general literature and science in the classes of University College, London. In taking his degree, Mr. Spalding distinguished himself in the examinations on Mental and Moral Philosophy ; and during the years of ill-health which followed, until his decease at the age of thirty-six, he found his chief employment in preparing this work for the press. The subject is one of great importance. Our theology, and our general intelligence, have suffered much from the inadequateness of the attention which has been paid to it. The book treats luminously and powerfully on the origin, nature, objects, and law of our moral emotions; and, without pledging ourselves to every sentiment which it contains, we most cordially recommend it to the attention of our readers. It is a work which reminds us forcibly of the tone of culture on such subjects that should be more encouraged in our colleges.

The Protestant Reformation in all Countries; including Sketches of

the State and Prospects of the Reformed Churches. A Book for Critical Times. By the Rev. John MORISON, D.D. London. 8vo, pp. 527.

This work embraces a view of the state of Europe previous to the commencement of the Lutheran Reformation, and tracing the progress of protestantism in the different nations of Christendom during the sixteenth century, concludes with an estimate of the condition and prospects of the reformed faith in our own times. While the field chosen by Dr. Morison is thus comprehensive, we need not say that the subject is one of deep interest, and we are happy in bearing our testimony to the ability, the judgment, the piety, and the earnestness with which the author has executed his plan. We know of no one volume beside on this subject containing so much to give it value; and the adaptation of the work to the critical,' in the times in which we live, gives it a special claim on public attention.

The History of the London Missionary Society, comprising an account

of the Origin of the Society; Biographical Notices of some of its Founders and Missionaries, with a record of its Progress at home and its Operations abroad. Compiled from original documents in the possession of the Society. By William Ellis. Vol. I. pp. 579. Snow, London, 1844. This volume embraces a history of the London Missionary Society, in its connexion with the South Sea Islands, and with the countries beyond the Ganges, from the commencement of its labours to the present time.

The Tahiti question and the China question are here calmly and ably exhibited in their full relation to history, and in the posture which the affairs of the society had assumed in those quarters up to September last. All that is gloomy and foreboding in the one region, and all that is bright and animating in the other, are accordingly here. The great and good men who have filled up the chain of these apostolic labours through half a century in those distant regions, all find their just memorial in this volume ; and we earnestly hope that it will be extensively read by the friends of missions generally, and that no vestry library, or congregational reading society in Great Britain or Ireland, will be without a copy of it.

Chemistry, as Exemplifying the Wisdom and Beneficence of God. By

George Fownes, Ph. D. 12mo, pp. 184. Churchill, London. This book throws further light on one branch of the argument so admirably conducted by Paley in his 'Natural Theology.' The trustees of the Royal Institution of London, have a septennial prize of One Hundred Guineas placed at their disposal for the benefit of the author of the best essay on some subject of this nature.

In the competition of the last year this prize was awarded to the author of the above essay. We scarcely need say more to recommend the volume to that portion of our readers who are interested in such inquiries.

Critical Essays on a few subjects connected with the History and

Present Condition of Speculative Philosophy. By Francis Bowen,

A.M. 12mo, pp. 352. Boston. Wiley and Putnam, London. This is a collection of Essays which have appeared in the American · Christian Examiner,' or in the North American Review. The Essays are on the following subjects :-Locke and the Transcendentalists. Kant and his Philosophy. Fichte's Exposition of Kant: Philosophy applied to Theology. The Philosophy of Cousin. Paley : the Argument for the Being of a God.-Subject continued : the Union of Theology with Metaphysics. Berkeley and his Philosophy. Elements of Moral Science. Political Ethics.

This is an admirable volume, teeming with proofs of learning, acuteness, and sound judgment. The author has traversed the shadowy regions of the German philosophy, and has discriminated between its evidence and its dogmatism ; its wisdom and its folly ; its religion and

its irreligion; with greater force and justness than any writer with whom we are acquainted. We do not accord with all his conclusions, but, in the main, there is a strong English sense in this transatlantic brother, which, as contrasted with the ignorant wonder or besotted worship wherewith the Teutonic mysticism is regarded by many among ourselves, has been to us not a little refreshing. The characteristics of the English, German, and French schools of philosophy are all clearly indicated in these different papers, and to any mind disposed to studies of this nature the volume must be eminently acceptable.

A Series of Discourses on the proper Deity of the Son of God, and

the primary design of his Mission. By the Rev. T. East, of Birmingham. 8vo, pp. 440. Bartlett, London. Mr. East's work is the result of a long and careful attention to the teachings of Holy Writ. It is an instructive illustration, also, of what may be done by long practice in the way of giving clearness, point, and force-we had almost said irresistible force, to the lessons of that volume. As a popular treatment of the controversy to which it relates, the work stands alone in our language. It possesses all the solid strength of Fuller, with treble-fold the spirit of that writer. Mr. East is even more positive in his announcements than his highly gifted predecessor, but he is also a man of more varied reading, of higher cultivation, and with more to justify him in his tone of severity, is certainly less capable of showing mercy to an adversary. He takes the same firm hold on his subject from the beginning of the volume to the end, and does not leave the argument which he assails, until the last shred of consistency seems to be shaken from it. It is the book which the student of divinity should read as his first book on the subject; he will then be prepared to proceed with advantage to the perusal of our more critical and erudite treatises on the same argument. bably have occasion to return to this volume, but for the present must restrict ourselves to saying thus much in its favour.

We shall pro

The Aristocracy of Britain and the Laws of Entail and Primogeni

ture, judged by recent French writers; being selections from the works of Passy, Beaumont, O'Connor, Sismondi, Buret, Guizot, Constant, Dupin, Say, Blanqui, and Mignet: showing the advantage of the Law of Equal Succession, with Explanatory and Statistical Notes. 12mo, pp. 232. London. This work is of similar import with the preceding. The peace of 1815, restored kings to the continental nations, but did not restore nobles. The wealth and privileges of the English aristocracy, accordingly, have no parallel in those countries ; and this distinction, in which Englishmen are sometimes disposed to pride themselves, is pointed at by the most distinguished writers and statesmen of France, as one which must cease, at least comparatively, if our nation itself is not to come to an end. It is our habit to conclude that what has

lasted long must continue to last. But history assures us that men have often indulged this easy faith at great cost.

The Influence of Aristocracies on the Revolutions of Nations, con

sidered in relation to the present circumstances of the British Empire. By JAMES J. MACINTYRE. 8vo, pp. 448. Fisher and Jackson, London. Mr. Macintyre is not an impartial man, and his book is by no means an impartial book ; nevertheless, this volume on the evil genius of Aristocracies, is a work of substantial truth, so far as it goes, and contains a large accumulation of facts well worthy of attention, and on which the honest and good man will not fail to meditate as he reads.

The Witch of Endor, and other Poems. By R. A. VAUGHAN, B.A.

12mo, pp. 71. London: Jackson and Walford. Poetry-poetry in a youth, the bare mention of it is sufficient to conjure up to the sage fancies of some men, every image of vanity and idleness. But these sage persons profess to admire the poetry of Doddrige and Watts, of Young and Montgomery, and seem to forget that old poets were not always old. It is well for us that those who took up the note of censure during the youth of such men, against any indulgence of tastes of this sort, were not heeded. Need we remind these persons that poetry is not something restricted to rhyme, or to metre of any kind ? It çon sts in those forms of thought in which we trace not only the operation of the intellect, but the colour, and clothing, and soul, which are given to thought by imagination and feeling -as in the hymns of David and the odes of Isaiah. Our verses, accordingly, may be miserably wanting in poetry, while our prose may be filled with its truest elements. Hence the men who have written with the greatest effect on moral and religious subjects, have all possessed something of the poetic temperament, and most of them have had their season in which they have evinced some passion towards poesy in its more received form. Some of our readers may wonder that we should deem it necessary to set forth this mere alphabet of knowledge in respect to such things. But it is well to teach even this alphabet, so long as there are many who have even this to learn. Evangelical nonconformity has been damaged greatly by the narrowness and prejudice which have so commonly slighted aids of this nature.

The man who attempts to write poetry without any vocation that way may be safely left to himself. The evil will soon bring its own cure : and the man who has anything of the genius which that art requires, will not be deterred from giving it exercise because there are some men who do not know what it means. To which of these classes the author of · The Witch of Endor' belongs, we shall not take upon us to decide. The Spectator' describes the poem as marked by • force of diction and elevation of style,' and as possessing ' a poetical and even a dramatic spirit.' The Athenæum' speaks of it as being

too classical for popularity,' but as the production of an educated and polished mind,' and as including "evidences of sound judgment, and of a command of diction, seldom met with in so young an author.' We might cite authorities which have spoken in terms of much higher praise, but if these should suffice to dispose the reader to procure the book, and to read for himself, then a judgment more important to him than any other-his own-may be duly formed.

Strauss, Hegel, and their Opinions. By the Rev. J. R. BEARD, D.D.,

8vo, pp. 50. A Reply to the Life of Jesus, by Dr. Strauss, from the French of

Professor Quinet, and the Rev. Pastuer A. Coquerel. Translated

by the Rev. J. R. BEARD, D.D. 8vo, pp. 66. Illustrations of the Moral Argument for the Credibility of the Gospels.

By the Rev. J. R. BEARD, D.D. 8vo., pp. 101. Chapman: London. In the first of these pamphlets, Dr. Beard has furnished an able view of the doctrine of Strauss and Hegel ; in the second he has translated two admirable papers in reply to the former of these writers ; and in the third he has presented a still more powerful reply from his own pen. We think that Dr. Beard concedes somewhat more than is necessary or expedient to the theory of the rationalist, in his account of the probable origin of the gospels, and on some other points ; but we cannot speak too strongly in commendation of the clearness, justice, and force with which his general argument is conducted. Such of our educated young men as are in danger of being allured from the right path by the antichristian philosophy of Germany, as set forth in the cloudy laudations of certain popular writers, will do well to place themselves for a while under the guidance of Dr. Beard. By so doing, they will soon be satisfied, if we mistake not, that the renowned polemics adverted to, have a great deal more of master reynard than of the giant in them-certainly, they seem to dwindle into something very much of that order when a real man comes to deal with them.

We earnestly hope that Dr. Beard will be encouraged to proceed, both with his translations and his original compositions, so as to furnish to the English reader a sufficient view of the controversy in regard to Christian evidence which has been assuming so much peculiarity in Germany and France of late years. Such a service should be appreciated by every divinity student, and by every intelligent Christian.

German Anti-Supernaturalism. Six Lectures on Strauss' Life of

Jesus.' By Philip HARWOOD. 8vo, pp. 107. Fox, London. In these lectures Mr. Harwood professes to give the substance or argument of the book to which they relate. Their object, accordingly, is to show that there is no more of the supernatural or divine in the mission of Jesus than in the mission of Mohammed. Both men were the creation, the embodiment, and the want of their times. So far as

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