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For Cloathing the Czar's Army, every Man is allowed eight; Arjhines of Cloth, from thatbtng. flxty t0 seventy Copeeks the Arjhine f j the first Cost of the Cloth in England is about y. and %d. the Yard.
Cloaks for the Dragoons, each fix Yards.
Magazines, at j 60 Copeeks a Piece.
Boc-ts, 80 Copeeks a Pair.
A Soldier's Musquet, bad, 80 Copeeks.
A Sword, 25 Copeeks.
A P*ir of Pistols, - 83 Rubles,
N. B.. Only the Guards have Pistols.; they have a 1st better Arms from Utrecht, or Saxony..
The Army is cloathed once in two Years; towards the Cloathing, a Copeek a Day is deducted from the Soldiers j the Czar finds the Arms and Horses.
The Nobility are obliged to furnish the Horses for the Dragoons, at seven Rubles a Horse, J5W«i paid out of the Czar's Treasury, though the Horses often cost them ten or twelve Rubles a Piece. Some of the Regiments have been mounted on the Swedijh Horses which were surrendered at Perevolotfch; the rest very ill mounted: Most of the Dragoons are Gentry, obliged to appear by the Tenure of their Lands.
f ThtName of a Rust Measure, ne»r a Quarter less than an En.
The The Artillery is very well served; thegreat Guns are most of Metal, generally from three to jlrnlkry. tljjrty_fix Pounders, new cast since the present War, either from old Pieces, which had been heaped up by the Czar's Ancestors, without any just Regard to the Calibre, or from the Bells which every Church or Cloister were obliged to furnish to the Foundery about ten Years ago, according to , their Largeness and Income. In 1708, there were a thoufand Pieces of Cannon in the Town of Mosct alone ; from one to sixty Pounders; the Arsenals of Plescoiv, Smolenfko'>zn& Chios were filled in Proportion; besides the Field Artillery, every Battalion having two long three Pounders of Metal; the Mortars are of Brass, or Siberia Iron, of all Bores. The Czar is personally very curious in his Fireworks, is Captain of his Bombardiers^ and has most foreign Officers, which he engaged in England or Holland after the last Peace. The Powder is made in Mosco strong and good, except the Delivery is connived at by the Officers for their own. Profits; the Magazines are not filled with Stores as they ought to be, but sufficient Quantities may be prepared in a little Time, there being several Mills ready, and always Plenty of good Salt-petre from the Ukraine.
Account of the Progress made by the Czar in his Shipping.
P * The The first Ship was built for the Czar's Pleasure when very young, on the Bielo Ozero, or Shipfmg. jpbite-Sea, a large Lake about three hundred Miles from Mosco.
In the Winter of 1695, several half Gallies and Brigantines were prepared at Mofco, and carried by Sled-way to Veronitz where they were put together, and sent down the Don to be used at the Siege of jifoph.
In 1696, a considerable Number of Ship-Carpenters coming from Holland, with two Italians and a Greek Master from Venice, n Fleet was raised at Stupena and Veronitz, for which End the whole Empire was divided into eighty-four Parts, and each Division to furnish a Ship, or an equivalent Number of Gallies, Brigantines, and small Craft. The chief Nobility, appointed to oversee this Work in the Czar's Absence, contracted for the Ships with Foreigners* who, for want of Experience, dry Timber, and sussicient Time, as well as for their private Gains, run up the Vessels very slightly with green and bad Stuff, so that they decayed before they were finished; which the Czar perceiving at his Return from Great Britain, he came by Degrees entirely to dislike the Dutch Building and Masters, and discharged them as he could procure EngHJh. The last Ships built by the Dutch, Were eleven Frigates at Stupena in 1703.
The Fleet being built on large Rivers far up in the Land, it may be of Use to give Placet,where some shore Description of the Places 'h^sUft an where the Yards either are, or have been settled.
Stupena is a small Town on the River Veronne, about twenty Ensdilh Miles above Vtrt
■ • Stupena.
Vtronitz is another small Town, lying in 50 Degrees 20 Minutes of Northern Latitude, and in 63 Degrees Longitude, on the Veronne, eight Efiglijk Miles above the Mouth of that River, where it falls into the Don. In 1696, the Czar began a Stone Arsenal there, to preserve all Manner of Stores. The Ships here, and at Stupena, were built ,on the Land on Launches, bi|t could not be got a-float without great. Difficulty, nor otherwise than in the Spring; to remove which Inconvenience a Sluice and Work was made at the Mouth of the River in 1702, for raising and letting off the Water at any Time required j and by this Means fifteen Ships were laid dry on the Land to be refitted in 1703: But proper Care not being taken to keep the Sluices open in the Spring, when the Floods came down, and brought vast Quantities of Sand washed off the neigbouring Mountains, the Channel began to choak up, scarce
This Difappointment, with the bad Air, the Ground being Marshy, and the People subject to. Agues in the Spring, which has carried several of them off, obliged the Czar to think of removing his Yards j and the River being visited in 1705, for a proper Place to make some Dorks, Taverejs a little Village fix Miles lower was pitched on by the High-Admiral Apraxin, contrary to the Opinion of all the Ship-Carpenters and Sluice-makers, who represented that is was impossible to lay any Foundation there, which could secure them against the Force of the Floods, the Banks being a loose Sand; but the Admiral continuing obstinate, fof some private Interest, eight Docks were begun under the Direction of a Polander, Annisee Miekowicky in 1706. The Gates and Foundations were accordingly blown up in 1707, and notwithstanding all possible Care and Reparations, met the fame Fate in 1708: In the fame Year, however, positive Orders being given to set up four eighty Gun Ships, three of forty-eight, and one of twenty-four in that Place, the Carpenters resolved to open the Gates in the Floods and let in the Water, rather than have the Foundation of the Dock tore up, and the Carcasses of the Ships spoiled at the fame Time, as happened to one the Year before: This occasions a great Delay of near six Weeks in the Spring, during which all the Men lie idle.
The Czar, being convinced of these Incony.eniencies in 1709, when he was there in the Spring, ordered the Ships to be run up with Plank, until they