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Mosco for seven Rubles, produce twenty when coined; about ten Thoufand of these Copeeks are given out Monthly, but no one is obliged to receive therri in Payment, except such as ave in the Czar's Service; they may be negociated against Silver at two per cent. Loss. The Brass comes by the Fleets to jirchangel.

The Money of this Country, as to the Supplies of Silver and Value of the Coin, depends so r. ' much on Trade, that it will be necessary to make some Mention of the chief Branches in this Place.

The Goods chiefly imported from England are all Sorts of Woolen Manufactures, Lead, Importations, 'pi^ Dying-Woods, Indigo, Pewter,

Olibanum, Brimstone, Lignum-vita;: The Hollanders and Hamburghers, besides these, bring Wines, Paper, Allum, Glass-ware, Spices, Dollars, Plate, Gold and Silver Lace, Brocades, Silesia Cloth, and all Sorts of Gallanteries.

The Englijh export chiefly, Hemp, Flax, TrainOil, Linen, Pot-Ash, Rhubarb, IsinExportattms. ^{s, Wax, Tar, Red Hides and Caviar; the two last to Leghorne. The Hollanders and Hamhurghers carry out farther, Wood-Ash, Masts, Hydes dried and falted, Tallow, Sables, HempSeed, Mats, and Hogs-Bristles.

Their

Their Fishery of Seals, or Sea-Dogs, about ten Thoufand a Year, yield five Thoufand .' Measures of Oil; the Skins and Oil are sent to England. Morses, or Sea-Horsesx from Nova-Zembla, used to load thirty Boats a Year with Blubber, the Teeth are esteemed next to Ivory, but the Trade being monopolized by a Company decays daily. Cod and Stock-Fisb, about three Ships lading Yearly to Denmark; Salmon falted and dried, a Ship's Loading to Bilboq; these with the Cod are taken in the North-Sea, about Kilduyn and Cola; but the Ships bring Salt from St. Ubes.

The Foreign Merchants are obliged to pay their. Customs in Dollars, Specie, at Archangel, which are only reckoned at the ancient "Pm*. Value of fifty Copeeks when received into the Treasury, and that too by Weight, fourteen to the Pound, which seldom holding, it comes from fourteen and a Quarter to three Quarters. Foreigners pay five per cent, for all Goods bought and fold by Weight, and Four per cent, for those by Tale or Measure; they only pay'single Duties either for their Exportations or Importations, whichsoever mount highest at the End of the Trade Time; Goods sent up by Foreigners to Mosco, or any inland Towns, pay ten per cent, in Dollars, and six per cent, where they buy or fell in Russ Money: The Ruffians pay five per cent. where they fell or buy in the Country, and live per cent, at Archangel. Wine pays a particular Custom ©f five Dollars an Hogshead,

In 1710, the Course of Exchange was three Rubles ten Copeeks to the Pound Sterling, Exchange, whereas ffae intrinsick Value is only about four Rubles and a half; for the Exportations exceeding the Importations near two thoufand Rubles Yearly, the national Credit of their Money is kept »p, which would fall almost to the real Worth, if any considerable Sum above the Ballance of the Trade was to be remitted beyond Sea.

The Czar's Revenues may be about seven Millions of Rubles Yearly, arising chiefly;

From the Custom of Goods in Archangel, and the Duties on them when bought of Bm> m,\stng. ^ Retail in the Country.

From Monopolies in the Czar's Hands; Pot-ash Yearly to the Value of forty thoufand Dollars; Wood-ash one hundred and twenty-five thoufand Dollars; Caviar, thirty thoufand Pieces of Eight, besides what is consumed in the Country; Rhubarb, about twenty thoufand Dollars; all which Commodities are never sold but for Specie Dollars; Tar, in 1706, forty thoufand Dollars, and another for ten thoufand Rubles; very little fold since.

From Inland Monopolies; Salt, five hundred thoufand Rubles; Tobacco, Boards and Bricks, which are only sold by the Czar's Officers, the Sums uncertain; Furs from Siberia in the Treasury; Brandy and Beer, which in the Town of Mosco alone bring in six hundred thoufand Rubles per Ann.

From the Mint by Re-coinage of Dollars, at one hundred and twenty per cent. Profit.

Of Old MONEY at thirty per cent.

Of Brass Money at sixty-five per cent.'

From the Chinese Trade, which, if well managed, would bring in about two or three hundred thoufand Rubles Profit Yearly ; the Cargoes thither are several Sorts of European Merchandize, but chiefly Furs, as Sables, Ermines, Black Foxes, and Grey Squirrels, from Siberia; The Returns are made in Damasks, Callicoes, blue Linen, Gold, Tapestry, China Ware, and Drugs: A great Part of these used to be sold in Lithuania and Poland, which Trade is now almost funk.

From the Persian Trade, whence Raw-silk, Carpets, Brocades, Sattins, Jewels, and Perjia Leather are imported, chiefly by the Armenians, who only pay two per cent. Custom, for whatever they transport through the Czar's Dominions without breaking Bulk, according to an old Privilege,

From new Impositions on stampt Paper; on all Law-suits, which pay ten per cent, of the Value contested; Oven, or Chimney Money ; all hackney Horses and Carriages; all Bath-stoves, of which every Village has one in Public, and every fashionable

House House one in particular, are taxed at a Ruble a Piece Yearly.

From the Abbey Lands, which are very considerable, but have been taken into the Czar's Hands, and are managed by a secular Commission, a Competency being allowed each Cloister in Proportion to the Number of Monks. * •

From the Land Tax, and Royal Demalnes.

All the Czar's Expences are paid within the Year, which makes the present War fall very heavy on him; for, though he does not owe above .two hundred thoufand Rubles on all Accounts, his Trea^fury by ill Management cannot find Credit for ten thoufand Rubles; nor will the Merchants give any Bills of Exchange, till they have received the Money before hand.

Mines there are,

Of Iron, several in Ruffia indifferent; in Siberia very good,

Of Copper, at Olonitz.

Of Brimstone, at Cafan, and in the Mountains which bound Siberia,

Hot Baths and Mineral Waters are found about Tcrki on the Caspian-Sea,

Salt

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