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Monsieur Golofkin is of an ancient Family; he wa« Great Chamberlain, and on the Death of cbemcttttt Count Golowin was made Lord Chancellor of the of the Empire, which great Employment he modestly declined for several Months; he is a Gentleman of good Sense, very devout, and has the general Character of a Man of Honour: No one ever complained of his Cruelty and Injustice, though some think he is not resolute enough in opposing that of others. He was made Count of the Roman Empire and of RuJJia about three Years ago.
Monsieur Schapfirrojsis of no great Extractions his Grand-Father was one of the Jews carried out of Poland in their former Wars, his Father was baptized, and he professes the Rujstan Religion: in 1705, he was private Secretary to Count Golowin, to whom his Diligence and Knowledge of the High-Dutch Tongue made him absolutely necessary; on the Count's Death he was made Secretary to the Office of Embassies, and in 1709, Vice Chancellor with Count Golofkin', all foreign Affairs go necessarily through his Hands; he has more Experience than natural Qualifications; he is generally esteemed fair enough in his Business* but his quick Preferments have given him an Air of Stiffness, and it is faid his private Interest will not always let him distinguish the Merits of tbe Cause,
O a Prince
Prince Dolgofucki, who some Years ago was the Czar's Embassador in Poland, is often joined
rFr!Tf. to these Gentlemen in the Consultations on any foreign Affairs, but the executive Part
is entirely left to them; he is a Person of good
Sense, Manners, Modesty and Honour.
Monsieur Apraxin is of a good Family, his An, cestors having been Stolnicks, or Sewers; Mgh-AdmraL the oW Empress Dowager, Mother of
the Czar's eldest Brother, is his Sister; this Alliance brought him into Court and Favour, which he soon improved by a ready Wit, and a Conscience not enslaved to any Scruples to obstruct his Fortune; he had been Commiffioner of the Admiralty for many Years, and on Count Golowin's Death was made High Admiral; in 1709, he was made Governor of Ingria in Prince Menzuoff's Absence, and had the good Fortune to see the Swedijh Army under General Lubecker kill their Horses, and retire out of that Province unaccountably; which Miscarriage turned as his own Merit, and thereby increased his Credit with his Prince; he is very revengeful, and no Enemy to Presents ; he appears openly against the Favorite, and has great Credit at Court, but his Indiscretion in Drink, when in the Czar's Company, sometimes exposes him to difagreeable Accidents.
Felt Marshal Sheremetoff is of a very ancient Family, famous for producing lucky GeneFtk MarjM. rais against the Tartars, of which Success
he he has also had his Share in the late TurkiJhWzr: In his Travels to Italy, he made a Campaign on the Galleys of Malta, and is honoured with a Cross of that Order. He is the politest Man in the Country, and most improved by his Travels, is magnificent in his Equipage and way of Life, extremely beloved by the Soldiers, and almost adored by the People; he enjoys a vigorous Age at sixty and odd, has Goodnature, Honour, and as much personal Valour as any Man, but not Experience enough to act against an Army of regular Troops ; he often suffers under the Favorite's Persecution, and has more than once desired Leave to lay down his Command, but has always been refused.
There are several other Ministers who come into the Privy Council, but as they confine themselves to thedomestick Affairs, and have no remarkable Degree of Favour, or Influence in Matters of State, I shall not trouble you with their Names or Employments, but proceed to some small Account of the Czar's Riches. RUba.
The Commerce Coin of Muscovy is a small Piece of Silver, about the Bigness of an Englijh Penny, called a Copeek. S!!ver c>'"'
3 Copeeks, make an Altine.
Io Copekks, a Greiven.
25 Copeeks, a Popoltine.
50 Copeeks, a Poltine.
loo Copeeks, a Rubie.
O 3 Formerly
Formerly there was no Coin but Copeeks, and the other Names were only to signify such a Number, for the Easiness of the Tale ; but in 1703, great Quantities of Specie, Rubles, half Rubles, csV. were made, though the Mass of Money is still in Copeeks.
All great Sums are generally reckoned by Rubles, or an hundred Copeeks, the intrinsic Value Jr"!"' whereof may be about 4 s. \d. Englifl), but in the Course of Exchange, is generally reckoned at ts. Sd. and fifteen Years ago was 10s.
An hundred Rubles weighed twelve Pounds in John Bajilowitz's Time, who reigned from Weight. 1540 to 1584, and were kept up to eleven Pounds till the Reign of his present Majesty; but since the War, and growing Necessities of the Treasury, have been reduced by Degrees to six Pounds twelve Ounces and three Quarters, Englijh Weight. An hundred Rubles of old Copeeks weighing ten Pounds, are received in the Treasury, at an AU lowance of fifteen per cent, and are there mel ted down into new Copeeks.
The Standard mould be of the fame Goodness with Lyon Dollars, viz. twelve Ounces fine silver, Standard. an(j f0urOunces Alloytothe Pound Weight, but most that is carried into the Mint is not above ten Ounces sine Silver, and being seldom tryed when melted, their Coins are of different Value, as the Run happens to be good or bad; Plate, Dollars,
and old Copeeks being all melted together, with an additional Alloy of Brass.
The Silver is Cross Dollars, Lyon Dollars, and Æbertus Dollars, with unwrought Plate, brought from Holland and Hamburgh, and TM Bremen. Of Dollars yearly from two or three Thousand; Part to clear the Merchants Customs; Part in return of Brass Money, which the Treasury often advances to Foreigners, to be repaid in Dollars at two Years end, and partly for the Advantage of the Exchange, in the Course whereof to Holland, a Dollar is only rated from sixty-two or seventy-three Copeeks; but can be fold in Archangel from eightyfive to ninety Copeeks.
In 1702, the first Ducats were coined with the Czar's Stamp, at twenty six Carrats, being si . the Value of Holland's Ducats; but next ° Year the Direction of the Mint was taken from the Foreigners, and the Chinese Gold, being only at twenty or twenty-one Carrats from one to three Grains, was left without refining, which utterly decried those Ducats, and very few have been coined since 1706. The Gold, is imported in Ingots from China, about three hundred and sixty Pound Weight EngliJhYcatly, besides some thoufand Ducats brought every Summer by the Fleet to Archangel.
In 1705, the Czar began to coin Brass Copeeks, Halves and Quarters, thirty-six Pound of Brase, English Weight, which is bought in S'a^' O 4 Masco,