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EPODE XV.

The poo; laments the incoustancy of Neaera.

4. In verba jurabas. Borrowed from the form of a military oath The soldiers swore in verba consulis, or imperatoris. -5. Atque. In stead of the usual quam. See Hark. Lat. Gram. 417, 1; Z. 340, Note, at the end. - -7. Infestus. See note, above, in Epod. 10, 10. -11. Bea virtute. This means on my account, per me. Orelli thus gives the

“omnes vires meas in id intendam, ut perfidiae tuae te vehementer poeniteat.”. 15. Nee semel. Nor will his purpose yield to the beauny that has once become offensive. - 19. Licebit. See note, O. i., 28, 35,

- 21. Renati. Alluding to Pythagoras's doctrine of the transmigraion of souls. Comp. 0. i., 28, 10.

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EPODE XVI.

Turning away with pain and disgust from the renewal of civil strife, the poet visits m lancy the Fortunate Isles; and dwelling with delight upon those scenes of peace and joy, bids the Romans hasten away from their distracted, unhappy country, and seek an endur. ing home in those blest abodes.

The ode seems to have been written at the same time, and to refer to the same events, as Epode Seventh.

1. Altera aetas. A second generation. Second, in reference to the civil war of Sylla and Marius, which commenced B. C. 88. The battle of Actium was fought fifty-six years after, in B.C. 32; so that if we take thirty years for a generation, there remain but four years to the completion of the second aetas, and the poet's words are literally correct. - 2. Suis et ipsa. The prose construction would be suis ip sius. Dillenb. - 3. Marsi. Alluding to the Marsic war. See note, 0. iii., 14, 18. 4. Porsenae. All the modern writers of Roman history agree with Niebuhr, that Rome was conquered by Porsena. Tacitus speaks explicitly of the surrender of the city, dedita urbe, Hist. 3, 72. See Arnold's Hist. 8; Schmitz's, p. 70. – -5. Capuae. After the battle of Cannae, Capua aspired to the sovereignty of Italy. Livy has an admirable description of this city in Book 23, 6. Cicero has a memorable passage in Leges Agrar. 2, 32: Majores tres solum urbes in "erris omnibus, Carthaginem, Corinthum, Capuam statuerunt posse imperii gravitatem ac nomen sustinere.—Spartacus. See note, O. iii., 14, 19. 6. Allobrox. The Allobroges lived in Gaul, in what is now Sapoy and

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Piedmont and a part of Dauphiné. They were reduced to the Roman power by Fabius Maximus. 7. Germania. Probably the Cimbri and Teutoni, conquered by Marius and Catulus, B. c. 101. All writers agree in applying the epithet caerulea, blue-eyed, to the Germans. So Tac. Germ. 4; Juv. 13, 164. 8. Abominatus. Passive. Hated by parents; as Liv. 31, 12, 8; and detestata, O. i., 1, 24. – 13. Ossa Quirial. Disregarding the tradition that Romulus was caught up into beaven, he seems here to describe his bones as sacredly defended in a Bepulchre from the winds and the sun. Orelli, however, thinks that the poet means to describe Romulus as the ideal representative of the Romans, and that he really refers to the bones of the citizens thus rudely scattered around, in the city's desolation. 15. Forte quid. The particle si is here omitted, as in Sat. ii., 5, 74; Epist. i., 6, 56. The order is: “si forte quaeritis cominuniter (omnes) aut melior pars (comp. 1. 37) quid expediat carere malis laboribus.” Dillenb.-Carere depends upon expediat ; what is expedient to get rid of, i. e. in order to get rid of.

17. Phocaeorum. The Phocaeans, of Ionia, fled in exile from their city, rather than submit to Harpagus, the general of Cyrus.

- 18. Exsecrata. Having bound themselves by solenın oath. 25. Saxa renarint. Simul means as soon as. The Phocaeans threw a mass of iron into the water, and swore that they would not come back till it rose again, and swam upon the surface. -28. Matina. The Padus was in the north of Italy, and Mt. Matinus in Apulia. 35. Haec ; governed by exsecrata; having taken such oaths as these. - 41. Circumvagus. Flowing around the earth; in accordance with the ancient idea that the earth was a plain, and the ocean, like a river, flowed around it. Divites-insulas. To these the poet has alluded in 0. iv., 8, 27, where see note. This charming description of those ideal abodes of perfect peace and joy is in accordance with the pictures of Elysium in Homer, Od. 4, 561-69; and in Virgil, Aen. 6, 638, seqq. -46. Pulla ;=matura, ripe. Suam in opposition to a grafted tree. -48. Levis. As an old commentator observed, the very verse here echoes the murmur of the eaping stream. “Eleganter ipso versu susurrum aquae desilientis imitatus est.” Comm. Cruqs. - - 50. Refertque, etc. So Virgil, Ecl. 4, 21:

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" Ipsae laete domum referent distenta capellae

Ubera"

53. Ut--radat. After mirabimur, though mirari is ordinarily con. strued with quod and the Indic. or Subj. See note, O. iii., 4, 17, and Z. 0629, Note. -57. Non huc, etc. None come hither, from sordid mo tives of commerce and traffic. Of which there is a three-fold illustration, the ship Argo with Medea, the trading Phoenicians, and Ulysses

65. Quorum; i e as easily deduced from what immediately pre.

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cedes, ferro duratorum saeculorum, or cujus ferreae aetatis ; a fighe from which (brazen age, the last and worst of all) is granted to the good.

EPODE XVII.

The poet ridicules, with citter satire, Canidia and her sorceries. Affecting to recant, as if himself her victim, what he had before written (in Epode Fifth), he really repeat it all, and adds yet more; and in the words of reply which he puts into her mouth, makes her criminate and ridicule herself.

Compare the Fifth Epode, together with the introduction.

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3. Dianae. Hecate, as in Epod. 5, 51. — 4. Carminum. Forms, in verse, of charms and incantations. - -7. Turbinem. The magical wheel, which, as it went round, involved the victim more and more in the wiles of the sorceress, and when turned back released him. 8. Nepotem Nereiam. Achilles, who at length healed, by the rust of his spear, the wound he had inflicted upon Telephus. - 12. Hectorem. The idea is by implication, that the body of Hector was restored by Achilles, who could not resist the supplications of Priam. - 17. Volente Circa. So Circe, mored by the prayers of Ulysses, freed the victims of her sorceries. — 20. Amata, etc. Of course, in irony. As an old Scholiast says, urbanissima contumelia. - 22. Lurida. When the body is wasted, and shows nothing but skin and bones. = 25. Urget diem, etc. Compare the poet's language in 0. ii., 18, 15.-Est, like Čoti,=licet. And I may not. So Tacitus, Germ. 5, Est videre-vasa. - 28. Sabella. So in Sat. i., 9, 29, Sabella-cecinit anus.

The people seem to have been versed in magic arts. - 29. Marsa. As in Epod. 6, 76, the Marsi are here represented as excelling in magic incantations.

-31. Bercales. See note, Epod. 3, 17. — 33. Virens. This is tho reading of the most MSS., and is adopted by nearly all the Editors; it is interpreted as referring to the color of sulphur flame, which Orelli describes as something “between light yellow, green, and blue.”. 35. Officina; with tu; you like a workshop.- 36. Finis. On the gender, see note, O. ii., 18, 30. -36. Stipendium. This word, as it means in general, what one has to pay, is used here in the sense of poena.

-39. Mendaci lyra. A refinement of irony and satire. In the same breath that he promises to sing her praises, he pronounces his lyre mendacious. - 42. Infamis ; defamed; by Stesichorus (vati, l. 44). The story was, that the poet was punished by Castor and Pollux with blindness for slandering Helen, and was afterwards cured by them, on his writing a recantation. - 42. Vicem. On account of Helen. On the construction with offensus, see Z. O 453.- - 46. Obsoleta. Pollutrd. The negative only makes more forcible the poet's allusion to Canidia's mean origin. -48. Novendiales dissipare. The sorcer. esses made use of the ashes of the dead for magical rites. In such rites they were thought more efficacious, when fresh and warm from the urn or the funeral pile. Hence they plundered the sepulchres as soon as possible after an interment; which idea is expressed by novendiales, as the funeral rites usually continued for nine days. Allusion is made to the tombs of the poor, sepulcris pauperum, for those of the rich were carefully guarded. 50. Venter; for filius. Pactumeius seems to have been the name of some boy she had tried to palm off as her own.

- 56. Ut tu ; sc. fieri potest? Expresses indignation. See Z. V 609. Cotyttia; sc. sacra, the impure rites of Cotytto, a Thracian goddess.

-58. Pontifex. The pontifex maximus, being supreme in all religious matters, had jurisdiction over burials, and every thing pertaining to them. On the Esquiline was a burial place (see note, Epod. 5, 100), and here the sorceresses would plunder the tombs. -60. Pelignas. Like the Sabelli and Marsi, the Peligni were famous for their skill in sorcery. 62. Sed tardiora-votis. But a destiny slower than your wishes awaits you ; i. e. your wretched life shall be protracted contrary to your own ardent prayers for deliverance by death. 63. In hoc. For this purpose alone. -75. Terra cedet. The poet makes Canidia assume the proud air of a deity, under whom, as she strides on, the earth yields, as if unequal to the pressure. Orelli quotes Ovid, A. A. 1,500: (Bacchus) “e curru Desilit; imposito cessit arena pedi.”. 76. Cereas imagines. The sorceresses went through their processes over waxen images, with the idea that the souls of the originals were all the while subject to their power. So Virgil, Ecl. 8, 80:

"Et haec ut cera liquoscit Uno endemque igni, sio nostro Daphnis amore."

NOTES ON THE SECULAR HYMN.

The festival of the Secular Games, together with the name itself, Ludi Saecud IL res, was peculiar to the period of the Empire. The real object of its introduction and first celebration was to do honor to Augustus and to his government, the first ten years of which had just passed away. It seemed a fitting occasion, by means of a series of public games, at once to acknowledge and to secure the supreme power of Augustus, and to hand down his name to posterity, as the restorer of the state from strife and anarchy to harmony and established order. The Quindecemviri, in order to give greater éclat to the proposed games, sought to identify them with the existing Ludi Tarentini, which had been celebrated but three times during the period of the Republic. They declared that these games had been celebrated once in every century or saeculum ; and hasing con. sulted the Sybilline books, of which they had charge, they formally announced that the time had now arrived for another celebration.

2. But the Secular Games differed essentially from the Tarentine. The latter were in every instance celebrated for the specific purpose of averting from the state some pressing calamity, and the services were in honor of Dis and Proserpina; but, in the celebration of the former, the infernal deities held but a subordinate place, while their object, as we have seen above, was a purely political one.

3. On the above-mentioned announcement of the Quindecemviri, the jurist Ateius Capito was appointed to make the requisite arrangements, and Horace was directed to prepare an Ode. First of all, heralds were sent round to invite the people to a spectacle which they had never seen before, and would never see again. Next, in anticipation of the ceremonies, the Quindecemviri distributed among the free-born citizens, on the Palatine and the Capitoline, torches, sulphur, and bitumen; and in these places, as well as in the temple of Diana on the Aventine, were alse distributed wheat, barley, and beans, as offerings to the Parcae.

The festival was solemnized in summer, and lasted three days and three nights. Games were held in a place in the Campus Martius called Tarentum, and sacrifices were offered to the following deities : Jupiter and Juno, Apollo, Latona, and Diana, the Par. cae, to Carmenta, Ceres, and to Dis and Proserpina.

At the second hour of the night, the ceremonies were opened by the emperor, who, by the river-side, sacrificed three lambs to the Parcae, upon three altars erected for the purpose. In the Tarentum a stage was erected, and on it was sung by a choir a festive ay mn. On this first day the people went to the Capitol to offer sacrifices, and then returned to the Tarentum, to do honor to Apollo and Diana by singing choruses.

On he second day, the most honored natrons of the city went to the Capitol, and sang hymns; and the Quindecemviri sacrificed to the great divinities.

On : 1e third day, Greek and Latin choruses were sung in the temple of Apollo on the

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