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all other persons. The actual enumeration shall be made within three years after the first meeting of the Congress of the United States, and within every subsequent term of ten years, in such manner as they shall by law direct. The number of Representatives shall not exceed one for every thirty thousand, but each State shall have at least one Representative; and until such enumeration shall be made, the State of New Hampshire shall be entitled to choose three, Massachusetts eight, Rhode Island and Providence Plantations one, Connecticut five, New York six, New Jersey four, Pennsylvania eight, Delaware one, Maryland six, Virginia ten, North Carolina five, South Carolina five, and Georgia three.
When vacancies happen in the representation from Vacancies to be any State, the executive authority thereof shall issue filled.
writs of election to fill such vacancies.
The House of Representatives shall choose their House to choose Speaker and other officers; and shall have the sole
power of impeachment.
Sec. 3. The Senate of the United States shall be comSenate to consist posed of two Senators from each State, chosen by the slawe. from each Legislature thereof, for six years; and each Senator
shall have one vote.
Immediately after they shall be assembled, in consequence of the first election, they shall be divided as equally as may be into three classes. The seats of the Senators of the first class shall be vacated at the expiration of the second year; of the second class at the expi
ration of the fourth year; and of the third class at the Senators to form expiration of the sixth year; so that one third may be
and if vacancies happen, by resignation, or otherwise, during the recess of the Legislature of any State, the Executive thereof, may make temporary appointments, until the next meeting of the Legislature, which shall then fill such vacancies.
No person shall be a Senator, who shall not have atQualifications. tained to the age of thirty years, and been nine years a
citizen of the United States, and who shall not, when elected, be an inhabitant of that State for which he shall be chosen.
The Vice President of the United States, shall be
President of the Senate, but shall have no vote, unless Vice President to
preside. they be equally divided.
The Senate shall choose their other officers, and also may choose their a President pro tempore, in the absence of the Vice President, or when he shall exercise the office of President of the United States.
The Senate shall have the sole power to try all impeachments : When sitting for that purpose, they shall be on oath or affirmation. When the President of the To try impeachUnited States is tried, the Chief Justice shall preside : And no person shall be convicted, without the concurrence of two thirds of the Members present.
Judgment, in cases of impeachment, shall not extend further than to removal from office, and disqualification Extent of judge to hold and enjoy any office of honor, trust or profit, under the United States; but the party convicted shall, nevertheless, be liable and subject to indictment, trial, judgment and punishment, according to law.
Sec. 4. The times, places and manner of holding elec- State Legislature tions for Senators and Representatives, shall be prescribed to sice the time in each State by the Legislature thereof; but the Con- ing Senators and
Representatives gress may at any time, by law, make or alter such regulations, except as to the places of choosing Senators,
The Congress shall assemble at least once in every year, and such meeting shall be on the first Monday in Congress to meet December, unless they shall by law appoint a different in December anday.
Sec. 5. Each House shall be the judge of the elections, returns and qualifications of its own members, and a majority of each shall constitute a quorum to do busi- Each House shall ness; but a smaller number may adjourn from day to udge of the elec day, and may be authorized to compel the attendance of members. absent Members, io such manner, and under such penalties, as each House may provide.
Each House may determine the rules of its proceed- May fix rules and ings, punish its Members for disorderly behaviour, and, bersisho its merawith the concurrence of two thirds, expel a Member.
Each House shall keep a journal of its proceedings, and from time to time publish the same, excepting Shall keep a such parts as may in their judgment require secrecy;
journal. and the yeas
nays of the Members of either House,
ble to arrest.
on any question, shall, at the desire of one fifth of those present, be entered on the journal.
Neither House, during the session of Congress, shall, May adjourn by without the consent of the other, adjourn for more than
three days, nor to any other place than that in which the two Houses shall be sitting.
Sec. 6. The Senators and Representatives shall receive Compensation. a compensation for their services, to be ascertained by
law, and paid out of the Treasury of the United States. Members not lia- They shall in all cases, except treason, felony, and
breach of the peace, be privileged from arrest during their attendance at the session of their respective Houses, and in going to, and returning from the same, and for any speech or debate in either House, they shall not be questioned in any other place.
No Senator or Representative shall, during the time Members not to for which he was elected, be appointed to any civil office be appointed to
under the authority of the United States, which shall have been created, or the emoluments whereof shall
have been increased during such time; and no person Persons in office holding any office under the United States, shall be a bers to be mem- Member of either House during his continuance in
Sec. 7. All bills for raising revenue, shall originate in Revenue bills to the House of Representatives; but the Senate may prooriginate in the
pose or concur with amendments, as on other bills.
Every bill which shall have passed the House of Representatives and the Senate, shall, before it becomes a law, be presented to the President of the United States; if he approve he shall sign it, but if not he shall return it, with his objections, to that House in which it shall have originated, who shall enter the objections at large on their journal, and proceed to reconsider it. If after such
reconsideration, two thirds of that House shall agree to Bills shall be ap- pass the bill, it shall be sent, together with the objecproved by the
tions, to the other House, by which it shall likewise be reconsidered, and if approved by two thirds of that House, it shall become a law. But in all such cases the votes of both Houses shall be determined by yeas and nays; and the names of the persous voting for and against the bill, shall be entered on the journal of each House respectively. If any bill shall not be returned by
the President within ten days (Sundays excepted) after it shall have been presented to him, the same shall be a President allow
ed ten days to law, in like manner as if he had signed it, unless the Congress, by their adjournment, prevent its return, in which case it shall not be a law.
Every order, resolution or vote, to which the concurrence of the Senate and House of Representatives may be necessary, (except on a question of adjournment) shall be presented to the President of the United States; Resolutions. and before the same shall take effect, shall be approved by him, or being disapproved by him, shall be repassed by two thirds of the Senate and House of Representatives, according to the rules and limitations prescribed in the case of a bill.
Sec. 8. The Congress shall have power, to lay and collect taxes, duties, imposts and excises, to pay the debts and provide for the common defence and general welfare of the United States ;-—but all duties, imposts and excises shall be uniform throughout the United States :-To borrow money on the credit of the United States :-To regulate commerce with foreign nations, and among
the several States, and with the Indian tribes :-To estabJish an uniform rule of naturalization, and uniform laws on the subject of þankruptcies throughout the United States :-To coin money, regulate the value thereof, and of foreign coin, and fix the standard of weights and measures : To provide for the punishment of counterfeiting Powers of Conthe securities and current coin of the United States :To establish post offices and post roads :—To promote the progress of science, and useful arts, by securing for limited times to authors and inventors the exclusive right to their respective writings and discoveries:– To constitute tribunals inferior to the Supreme Court:-To define and punish piracies and felonies committed on the high seas, and offences against the law of nations : To declare war, grant letters of marque and reprisal, and make rules concerning captures on land and water:-To raise and support armies, but no appropriation of money to that use shall be for a longer term than two years :-To provide and maintain a navy :-To make rules for the government and regulation of the land and naval forces :
-To provide for calling forth the militia to
execute the laws of the union, suppress insurrections and repel invasions:-To provide for organizing, arming, and disciplining the militia, and for governing such part of them as may be employed in the service of the United States, reserving to the States respectively, the appointment of the officers, and the authority of training the militia, according to the discipline prescribed by Congress :—To exercise exclusive legislation in all cases whatsoever, over such district, (not exceeding ten miles square) as may, by cession of particular States, and the acceptance of Congress, become the seat of the government of the United States, and to exercise like authority over all places purchased by the consent of the Legislature of the State in which the same shall be for the erection of forts, magazines, arsenals, dock-yards, and other needful buildings; and to make all laws which shall be necessary and proper for carrying into execution the foregoing powers, and all other powers vested by this Constitution in the government of the United States, or in any department or officer thereof.
Sec. 9. The migration or importation of such persons as any of the States now existing, shall think proper
to Importation of admit, shall not be prohibited by the Congress, prior to slaves ned to be the year one thousand eight hundred and eight, but a tax
or duty may be imposed on such importation, not exceeding ten dollars for each person.
The privilege of the writ of habeas corpus shall not be Writ of habeas suspended, unless when in cases of rebellion or invasion,
the public safety may require it.
No bill of attainder, or ex post facto law shall be passed.
No capitation, or other direct tax, shall be laid, unless in proportion to the census or enumeration herein before directed to be taken.
No tax or duty shall be laid on articles exported from No preference to No preference shall be given by any regulation of com .
merce or revenue to the ports of one State over those of from one State to another; nor shall vessels bound to, or from, one State, another, free.
be obliged to enter, clear, or pay duties in another. Specific appro- No money shall be drawn from the Treasury but in priations
consequence of appropriations made by law; and a regube published. lar statement and account of the receipts and expendi
No ex post facte law.
State exportations free.
Statements of, to