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Congress may


gislatures of the States concerned, as well as of the Congress.

The Congress shall have power to dispose of, and dispose of V. s. make all needful rules and regulations respecting the

territory or other property belonging to the United Claims of United States : And nothing in this Constitution shall be so not to be preju- construed, as to prejudice any claims of the United

States, or of any particular State.

Sec. 4. The United States shall guarantee to every

State in this Union, a Republican Form of Government; Republican Gov- and shall protect each of them against invasion; and on tection to states, application of the Legislature, or of the Executive, (when

the Legislature cannot be convened) against domestic violence.




The Congress, whenever two thirds of both Houses shall deem it necessary, shall propose amendments to this Constitution, or, on application of the Legislatures of two thirds of the several States, shall call a convention for proposing amendments, which, in either case, shall be valid, to all intents and purposes, as part of this

Constitution, when ratified by the Legislatures of threeAmendments to fourths of the several States, or by conventions in threeprovided for.

fourths thereof, as the one or the other mode of ratification may be proposed by the Congress; provided, that no amendments, which may be made prior to the year one thousand eight hundred and eight, shall in any manner affect the first and fourth clauses in the ninth section of the first article; and that no State, without its consent, shall be deprived of its equal suffrage in the Senate,

the Constitution


States valid.

All debts contracted, and engagements entered inte, Debts against U. before the adoption of this Constitution, shall be as va

lid against the United States, under this Constitution, as under the Confederation.

This Constitution, and the Laws of the United States

which shall be made in pursuance thereof, and all treaSupreme Law. ties made, or which shall be made, under the authority

of the United States, shall be the Supreme Law of the land; and the Judges, in every State, shall be bound

the Constitution

thereby, any thing in the Constitution or Laws of any State to the contrary notwithstanding.

The Senators and Representatives before mentioned, and the members of the several State Legislatures, and Oath to support all Executive and Judicial Officers, both of the United

required. States and of the several States, shall be bound by oath or affirmation, to support this Constitution ; but no reli- Religious Tests

excluded. gious test shall ever be required as a qualification to any office or public trust under the United States.

ARTICLE VII. The Ratification of the Conventions of nine States, Nine States neshall be sufficient for the establishment of this Constitu- cessary to ratify tion between the States so ratifying the same. Done in Convention, by the unanimous consent of the

States present, the seventeenth day of September, in
the year of our Lord, one thousand seven hundred and
eighty seven, and of the Independence of the United
states of America the twelfth. In witness whereof,
we have hereunto subscribed our names.

and Deputy from Virginia. New Hampshire,

John Langdon,
Nicholas Gilman.

Nathaniel Gorham,

Rufus King.

William Samuel Johnson, Connecticut,

Roger Sherman.
New York,

Alexander Hamilton.
William Livingston,

David Brearley,
New Jersey,

William Patterson,
Jonathan Dayton.
Benjamin Franklin,
Thomas Mifflin,

Robert Morris,

George Clymer,
Thomas Fitzsimons,
Jared Ingersol,
James Wilson,
Gouverneur Morris.

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George Reed,
Gunning Bedford, jun.
John Dickenson,
Richard Bassett,
Jacob Broom.
James M`Henry,
Daniel of St. Th: Jenifer,
Daniel Carroll.
John Blair,
James Madison, jun.
William Blount,
Richard Dobbs Spaight,
Hugh Williamson.
John Rutledge,
Charles C. Pinckney,
Charles Pinckney,
Pierce Butler.
William Few,
Abraham Baldwin.

North Carolina,

South Carolina,



WILLIAM JACKSON, Secretary. This Constitution was duly ratified by all the States of the Union.

CONGRESS OF THE UNITED STATES, Begun and held at the City of New York, on Wednesday, the

4th of March, 1789. The Convention of a number of the States, having, at

the time of their adopting the Constitution, expressed a desire, in order to prevent misconstruction or abuse of its powers, that further declaratory and restrictive clauses should be added : And, as extending the ground of public confidence in the government, will best ensure the beneficent ends of its

institution, RESOLVED, by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America, in Congress assembled, two-thirds of both Houses concurring, That the following articles be proposed to the Legislatures of the several States, as amendments to the Constitution of the United States, all or any of which articles, when ratified by three-fourths of the said Legislatures, to be valid to all intents and purposes, as part of the said Constitution, viz. : Articles in addition to, and amendment of the Consti

tution of the United States of America, proposed by Congress, and ratified by the Legislatures of the several States, pursuant to the fifth article of the original Constitution.

ARTICLE I. After the first enumeration required by the first article of the Constitution, there shall be one Representative for every thirty thousand, until the number shall amount to one hundred; after which, the proportion shall be so regulated by Congress, that there shall be not less than one hundred Representatives, nor less than one Representative for every forty thousand persons, until the number of Representatives shall amount to two hundred; after which the proportion shall be so regulated by Congress, that there shall not be less than two hundred Representatives, nor more than one Representative for every fifty thousand persons.

ARTICLE II. No Law varying the compensation for the services of the Senators and Representatives, shall take effect, until an election of Representatives shall have intervened.

ARTICLE III. Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of Religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press ; or the right of the people peaceably to assemble, and to petition the government for a redress of grievances.

ARTICLE IV. A well regulated militia being necessary to the secu. rity of a free state, the right of the people to keep and bear arms, shall not be infringed.

ARTICLE V. No soldier shall in time of peace be quartered in any house without the consent of the owner, nor in time of war, but in a manner to be prescribed by law.

ARTICLE VI. The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers, and effects, against unreasonable search es, and seizures, shall not be violated, and no warrants shall issue, but upon probable cause, supported by oath or affirmation, and particularly describing the place to be searched, and the persons or things to be seized.

ARTICLE VII. No person shall be held to answer for a capital or otherwise infamous crime, unless on a presentment or indictment by a grand jury, except in cases arising in the land or naval forces, or in the militia when in actual service in time of war or public danger; nor shall any person be subject for the same offence to be twice put in jeopardy of life or limb; nor shall be compelled in any criminal case to be a witness against himself, nor be deprived of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor shall private property be taken for public use, without just compensation.

ARTICLE VIII. In all criminal prosecutions, the accused shall enjoy the right to a speedy and public trial, by an impartial jury of the State and District wherein the crime shall have been committed, which District shall have been previously ascertained by law, and to be informed of the nature and cause of the accusation; to be confronted with the witnesses against him; to have compulsory process for obtaining witnesses in his favor, and to have the assistance of counsel for his defence.

ARTICLE IX. In suits at common law, where the value in controversy shall exceed twenty dollars, the right of trial by jury shall be preserved, and no fact, tried by a jury, shall be otherwise re-examined in any court of the United States, than according to the rules of common law.

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