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ing to their best discretion, and the discretion os the Council of that colony; and that none of our subjects shall be permitted, or suffered, to plant or inhabit behind, or on the back of them, towards the main land, without the express licence of the Council of that colony, in writing thereunto first had and obtained. Provided VI. Provided always, and our will and .pleasure herein isj tfementsset" t^at ^ Plan.tation ai)(^ habitation of siichof the said colonies* that shall beas ^all last plant themselves, as aforesaid, shall not be made last made within one hundred like English miles of the other of them j JhaHbemore that first began to make their plantation^ as aforesaid. '' mfiesdis- VII. Arid we do also ordain, establish, and agree, for us^ tant from our heirs, and successors, that each of the said colonies shall the first, have a council, which flial'l govern and order all matters and Each of causes, which ihall arise, grow, or happen, to or within the jiiesesliali°be ^arHe several colonies, according to such laws, ordinances, governed by and instructions, as shall he,in that behalf, given and signed a council of with Out hand or sign manual, and pass tinder the privy seal a3 oimGdS of our redTM of England; each of which Councils shall conbytheking^ fist os thirteen persons, to be ordained, made, and removed, from time to time, according as shall be directed and comthese conn- prised 4n thfe same instructions; and shall have a several seal,

Snveseal-- a" rnatter6 tnat Pa''s or concern the the same several Councils; each of which seals shall have the king's arms engraven on the one side -thereof, and his portraiture -on the other; and that the seal for the Council of the said first colony shall have engraven round about, on the one side, these words; SigiUum Regis Magna Britannia, Francia, & Hi-bernitc; on the other side this inscription, round about; Pro 'Concilia prima Cohnia Virginia. And the seal sot the Council of the said second colony shall also have engraven round about the one side thereof, the aforesaid words; iiigillum Regis Magnes Britannia, Francia, & Hibernia; and oa the other side; Pro 'Conciiio Jecundæ Colonise Virginia. A superior VIII. And that also there shall be a Council established councilof here in England, which shall, in like manner, consist of refidin0'in tnirteen P6rns, to be, ^or tnat purpose, appointed by us, England,"1 our neirs and successors, which shall be called our Council appointedby of Virginia; and shall, fr-om time to time, have the superior the king, managing and direction, only of and for all matters that shall or may concern the government, as well of the said several colonies, as of and for any other part or place, within the aforesaid precincts of four-and-thirry and five-and-forty degrees, above-mentioned i which Council shall, in like manjier, have a seal, for matters concerning the Council. or.

colonies, colonies, with the like arms and portraiture, as aforesaid,.with this inscription, engraven round about on the one side • Sigillum Regis Magna Britannia., Francia, & Hibernia; •and round about the other side, Pro Concilia suo Virginia.

IX. And moreover, we do grant and agree, for us, our Liberty t* .heirs and successors, that the said several Councils, . of and w?rk

for the said several colonies, shall and lawfully may, by ^ulniMvirtue hereof, from time te time, without any interruption vet in said of us, our heirs or successors, give and take order, to dig, coloniespaymine, and search for all manner of mines of gold, silver, and 'Yfisth copper, as well within any part of their said several colonies, part of the .as of the said main lands on the backside of the same colonies ; g°>d and Aland to have and enjoy the gold, silver, and copper, to be gotten, oaf .thereof, to the use and behoof of the same colonies, and the the copper* plantations thereof; yielding therefore, to us, our heirs and successors, the fifth part only of all the same gold and silver, and the fifteenth part of all the same copper, so to be gotten or had, as is aforesaid, without any other manner of profit or account, to be given or yielded to us, our heirs, or successors, for or in respect of the same.

X. And that they shall, or lawfully may, establish and Power toescause to be made a coin, to pass current there between the tabliih coins people of those several colonies, for the more ease of trassic [q^o1' cc" and bargaining between and amongst them and the natives

there, of such metal, and in such manner and form, as the said several Councils there shall limit and appoint.

XI. And we do likewise, for us, our heirs, and sue- Power to cessors, by these presents, give full power and authority to C1"y out the said Sir Thomas Gates, Sir George Somers, Richard *hf Hackluit, Edward-Maria Wingfield, Thomas Hanham, settle the" R.alegh Gilbert, William Parker, and George Popham, said coioand to every of them, and to the said several companies,mes' plantations, and colonies, that they, and every of them,

shall and may, at all and every time and times hereafter, have, take, and lead in the said voyage, and for and towards the said several plantations and colonies, and to travel thitherward, and to abide and inhabit there, in every the said colonies and plantations, such and so many of our subjects, as shall willingly accompany them, or any of them, in the said voyages and plantations; with sussicient shipping, and furniture of armour, weapons, ordnance, powder, victual, and all other things, necessary for the said plantations, and for their use and desence there: Provided always, that none of the said persons be such, as shall hereafter be specially restrained by us, our heirs, or successors.

XII. More

Powertore- XII. Moreover, we do, by these presents, for us, our heirs, pel »*"in"" an(^ successors, give and grant licence unto the said Sir Thomas trudcrs into Gates, Sir George Somers, Richard Hackluit, Edward-Maria the said co- Wingfi,ld, Thomas Hanham, Ralegh Gilbert, William Parities. ker, and George Popham, and to every of the said colonies, that they, and every of them, shall and may, from time to time, and at all times for ever hereafter, for their several desences, encounter, expulse, repel, and resist, as well by sea as by land, by all ways and means whatsoever, all and every such person and persons, as without theespeciallicence of the said several colonies and plantations, shall attempt to inhabit within the said several precincts and limits of the said several colonies and plantations, or any of them, or that shall enterprise or attempt, at any time hereafter, the hurt, detriment, or annoyance, of the said several colonies or plantations. Power t» XIII. Giving and granting, by these presents, unto the raise two & sa;a Sir Thomas Gates, Sir George Somers, Richard Hackeent'.'upOT luit' Ed ward-Maria Wingfield, and their associates of the all goods said first colony, and unto the said Thomas Hanham, Ralegh imported Gilbert, William Parker, and George Popham, and their trre Kiri^ an"oc'ates °f the said second colony, and to every of them, subjects, &from time to time, and at all times for ever hereafter, power 5 per cent. and authority to take and surprise, by all ways and means smarted b wnat'oever, aH and every person and persons, with their strangers. ships, vessels, goods, and other furniture, which shall be found trassicking, into any harbour or harbours, creek or creeks, or place, within the limits or precincts of the said several colonies and plantations, not being of the same colony, until such time, as they, being of any realms or dominions under our obedience, shall pay, or agree to pay, to the hands of the treasurer of that colony, within whose limits and precincts they shall so trassic, two and a half upon every hundred, of any thing so by them trassicked, bought or sold; and being strangers, and not subjects under our obeysance, until they shall pay five upon every hundred, of such wares and merchandizes, as they shall trassic, buy, or sell, within the precincts of the said several colonies, wherein they shall so trassic, buy, or sell, as aforesaid; which sums of money, or benefit, as aforesaid, for and during the space of one-andtwenty years, next ensuing the date hereof, shall be wholly employed to the use, benefit, and behoof of the said several plantations, where such trassic shall be made; and after the said one-and-twenty years ended, the fame shall be taken to the use of us, our heirs, and successors, by such ossicers and ministers, as by us, our heirs, and successors, shall be there,; unto assigned or appointed. XIV. And

X1"V. And we do further by these presents, for us, our Liberty to heirs and successors, give and grant unto the said Sir Thomas carry goods Gates, Sir George Somers, Richard Hackluit, and Edward- Monies Maria Wingfield; and to their associates of the said first co- rrom the Jony and plantation, and to the said Thomas Hanham, Ralegh King's Gilbert, William Parker, and George Popham, and their as- °^rs JTM" soctates of the said second colony and plantation, that they, fr0mcustom and every of them, by their deputies, ministers, and sactors, for 7 years. may transport the goods, chattels; armour, munition, and furniture, needful to be used by them, for their said apparel, food, desence, or otherwise, in respect of the said plantations, out of our realms 6f England and Ireland, and all other our dominions, from time to time, for and during the time of seven years, next ensuing the date hereof, for the better relief of the said several colonies and plantations, without any custom, subsidy; or other duty, unto Us, our heirs, or successors, to be yielded or paid for the same.

XV. Also we do, » r us, our heirs, and successors, declare, General deby these presents, that all and every the persons, being our ""suchpersubjects, which /hall dwell and inhabit within every or any sons as (hall of the said several colonies and plantations, and every of their b« born in children, which shall happen to be born within any the limits m°,se Col°" and precincts of the said several colonies and plantations, shall have and enjoy all liberties, franchises, and immunities, within any of our other dominions, to all intents and purposes, as if they had been abiding and born within this our realm of England, or any other of our said dominions.

XVIi. Moreover, our gracious will and pleasure is, and Persons we do, by these presents, for us, our heirs, and successors, wrl.'nUelder declare artd set forth, that if any person or persons, which of trading to shall be of any of the said colonies and plantations, or any these Col°other, which shall trassic to the said colonies and plantations, ?"J or any of them, shall, at any time or times hereafter, trans- i^to foreign port any wares, merchandizes, or commodities, out of any of countries, our dominions, with a pretence to land, sell, or otherwise dis- jjj; * pose of the same, within any the limits and precincts of any and goodS.. the said colonies and plantations, and yet nevertheless, being at sea, or aster he hath landed the same within any of the said colonies and plantations, Ihall carry the same into any other foreign country, with a purpose there to sell or dispose of the same, without the licence of us, our heirs and successors, in that behalf first had and obtained; that then, all the goods and chattels of such person or persons, so offending and transporting, together with the said ship or vessel, wherein such

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transportation Was made, (hall be forseited to us, bur heirs

and successors.

Previfien in XVII. Provided always, and our will and pleasure is, and theinhabf we ^o nereby declare to all christian kings, princes and ants"os "states, that if any person or persons, which shall hereafter be h«se Colo, of any of the said several colonies and plantations, or any ^*so*a!' other, by his, their, or any of their licence and appointment, anyortn"Jr"f shali, at any time or times hereafter, r6b or spoil, by sea or the King's by land, or do any act of unjust and unlawful hostility, to ti^'tv °rany subjects of us, our heirs, or successors, or any the ofanyUprienc^ subjects of any king, prince, ruler, governor, or state, being or Sute in then in league or amity with us, our heirs or successors, and amity with that upon such injury, or upon just complaint of such prince, England. ruier) governor, or state, or their subjects, We, our heirs, Or successors, shall make open proclamation within any of the ports of our realm of England, commodious for that purpose, that the said person or persons, having committed any such robbery or spoil, shall, within the term to r « limited by such proclamations, make full restitution or satissaction of all such injuries done, so as the said princes, or others, so complaining, may hold themselves fully satisfied and contented; and, that if the said person or persons, having committed such robbery or spoil, shall not make, or cause to be made, satisfaction accordingly, within such time so to be limited, that then it shall be lawful to us, our heirs, and successors, to put the said person or persons, having committed such robbery or spoil, and their procurors, abettors, or comforters, out of our allegiance and protection; and that it shall be lawful and free, for all princes and others, to pursue with hostility the said offenders, and every of them, and their and every of their procurers, aiders, abettors, and comforters in that behalf.

Promise ta XVIII. And finally, We do, for us, our heirs and sucTnd' jjj* cessors, grant and agree, to and with the said Sir Thomas fhallS be^t- Gates, Sir George Somers, Richard Hackluit, and Edwardcupied by Maria Wingsield, and all others of the said first colony, that the first co-We, our heirs and successors, upon petition in that behalf persons« t0 be made, shall, by letters patent under the great seal of stall be ap- England, give and grant, unto such persons, their heirs and pointed for assigns, as the council of that colony, or the most part of

Dyatherp0se them> sliall, for tnat PurPose, nominate and assign, all the Council of lands, tenements, and hereditaments, which shall be within thatColony. the precincts limited for that colony, as is aforesaid, to be holden of us, our heirs, and successors, as of our manor of

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