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belymitted, that then it shall be lawfull for us, our hcires and successors, to putt the said person or persons out of our allegiance and protection; and that it shall be lawsull and free for all Princes to prosecute with hostility the said offenders and every of them, theire and every of theire procurers, • ayders, abettors and comforters in that behalse. Provided ^TMv[n°to" also, and our expresse will and pleasure is, and wee do by ^King's these presents for us, our heiresand successors, ordaine and other subappoint, that these presents shall not in any manner enure,J?**8 tile,. or be taken to abridge, bane or hinder any ot our lovin»eingonthe subjects whatsoever to use and exercise the trade of fishing coast of the upon that coast of New-England in America by these pre- Piet"lses sents mentioned to be granted: But that they or any and granted. every or any of them shall have full and free power and liberty to continue and use theire said trade of fishing upon the said coast in any of the seas thereunto adjoineing, or any armes of the seas or salt-water rivers where they have beene wont to fish, and to build and set up upon the lands by these presents granted, such wharses, stages, and workhouses as v shall be necessary for the salting, drying, keeping and packing up of thtire fish to be taken or gotten upon that coast; and to cut downe and take such trees and other materialls there growing, or being, as shall be needfull for that purpose, and for other necessary easements, helpes and advantage concerning theire said trade of fishing there, in such manner and forme as they have beene heretofore at any tyme accustomed to doe, without makeing any wilfull waste or spoyle, any thing in these presents contained to the contrary notwithstanding. And wee doe further for us, our he ires These letand successors, ordaine and grant the said Governour and ^"1p^eten^)d Companie and their successors, by these presents, that these in |aw g°°d our letters patents shall be firme, good, effectual, and avail- sliallbeconable in all things and to all intents and constructions of lawe, *TMJd(^n^ according to our true meaning herein before declared, and company) shall be construed, reputed, and adjudged in all cases most notwithsavourably on the behalse and for the benefit and behoose o':^'^1"sany the said Governour and Companie and their successors: Al- impersectjthough expresse mention of the true yearly value, or certain- onsinthem ty, of the premisses, or any of them, or of any other p-ifts or or an>'sor

* _ 1 L' J. c . J ir naer statutes

grants, by us or any other of our progenitors or predecessors, or other act to the foresaid Governour and Companie before this time of authority made, in these presents is not made, or any statute,. act,lo t,le c< ordinance, provision, proclamation or restraint to the con-trarytrary thereof heretofore had, made, published, ordained or provided, or any other matter, cause, or thing whatsoever

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to the contraiie thereof in any wise notwithstanding. In witness whereof we have caused these our letters to be made patent. Witness ourselves at Westminster, the fourth day of March, in the fourth yeare of our reigne.

This is a true copy of such letters patents under the great seal os England. In testimony whereof I John Winthrop go* vernour of the Mastachusetts aforesaid have caused the publick seal of the same to be hereunto assixed this 19th day of the month called March 1643.

I ..... -r. . . 1644.

John Winthrop, Gov.

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VIRGINIA VIRGiNlA CHARTERS.

NUMBER I. King JAMES I.'s Letters Patent to Sir Thomas Gates, Sir George Somers and others, for two several Colonies and Plantations, to be made in Virginia, and other Parts and Territories of America. Dated April 10, 1606.

I. TAMES, by the grace of God, King of England, ScotJ land, France, and Ireland, Desender of the Faith, &c. Whereas our loving and well disposed subjects, Sir Thomas Crates, and Sir George Somers, Knights, Richard Hackluit, Clerk, Prebendary of Westminster, and Ed ward-Maria Wingsield, Thomas Hanham, and Ralegh Gilbert, Esqrs. William Parker and George Popham, Gentlemen, and divers others of our loving subjects, have been humble suitors unto us, that we would vouchsase unto them our licence, to make habitation, plantation, and to deduce a colony of sundry of our people into that part of America, commonly called Virginia, and other parts and territories in America, either appertaining unto us, or which are not now actually possessed by any christian prince or people, situate, lying, and being all along the sea coasts, between four-and-thirty degrees of northerly latitude from the equinoctial line, and five-and-forty degrees of the same latitude, and in the main land between the same four-and-thirty and five-and-forty degrees, and the islands thereunto adjacent, or within one hundred miles of the coast thereof.

II. And to that end, and for the more speedy accomplishment of their said intended plantation and habitation there, are desirous to divide themselves into two several colonies and companies: the one consisting of certain knights, gentlemen, merchants, and other adventurers, of our city of London and elsewhere, which are, and from time to time shall he, joined unto them, which do desire to begin their plantation and habitation in some fit and convenient place, between four-andthirty and one-and-forty degrees of the said latitude, along the coasts of Virginia and coasts of America aforesaid; and, the other consisting of sundry knights, gentlemen, merchants,

I 2 and and other adventurers, of our cities of Bristol and Exeter, and of our town of Plymouth, and of other places, which do join themselves unto that colony, which do desire to begin their plantation and habitation in some fit and convenient place, between eight-and-thirty degrees and five-and-forty degrees of the said latitude, all along the said coast of Virginia and America, as that coast lieth.

III. We, greatly commending, and graciously accepting of, their desires for the furtherance of so noble a work, which may, by the providence of Almighty God, hereafter tend to the .glory of his divine Majesty, in propagating of christian religion to such people, as yet live in darkness and miserable ignorance of the true knowledge and worship of God, and may in time bring the infidels and savages, living in those parts, to human civility, and to a settled and quiet government: Do, by these our letters patents, graciously accept of, and agree to, their humble and well intended desires. Grant to IV. And do therefore, for us, our heirs and successors, the Londongrant an(j agree, that the said Sir Thomas Gates, Sir Georee J£2JJV'Somers, Richard Hackluit, and Edward-Maria Wingfiekl, fettle any adventurers of and for our city of London, and all such .where on others, as are, or shall be, joined unto them of that color y, shall be called the first colony; and they shall and may begin rica, be- their said first plantation and habitation, at any place upon tweeniaf. the said coast of Virginia or America, where they shall think 34^ and lat. £t and convenient, between the said four-and-thirty and oneand'cfthe and-forty degrees of the said latitude; and that they shall seacoastnear ^ave a" lands, woods, soil, grounds, havens, ports, their place rivers, mines, minerals, marshes, waters, fishings, comofsettle- modifies, and hereditaments, whatsoever, from the said first 2j,et"nC° J,/seat of their plantation and habitation by the space of fifty co miles miles of English statute measure, all along the said coast of' fromit,each Virginia and America, towards the west and southwest, as thedepth of tne coast lieth, with all the islands within one hundred miles 100wiles directly over against the same sea coast; and also all the v into the lands, soil, grounds, havens, ports, rivers, mines, minerals, main land. woo<jS, waters, marshes, fishings, commodities, and hereditaments, whatsoever, from the said place of their first plantation and habitation for the space of fifty Iske English miles, all along the said coasts of Virginia and America, towards the east and north-east, or towards the north, as the coast lieth, together with all the islands within one hundred miles, directly over against the said sea coast; and also all the lands, woods, soil, grounds, havens, ports, rivers, mines, minerals, marshes, waters, fifliings, commodities, and hereditaments, ditaments, whatsoever, from the same fifty miles every way on the sea coast, directly into the main land by the space of one hundred like English miles; and shall and may inhabit and remain there; and shall and may also build and fortify within any the same, for their better saseguard and desence, according to their best discretion, and the discretion of the Council of that colony; and that no other of our subjects shall be permitted, or suffered, to plant or inhabit behind, or on the backside of them, towards the main land, without the express licence or consent of the Council of that colony, thereunto in writing first had and obtained.

V. And we do likewise, for us, our heirs, and successors, Grant t» by these presents, grant and agree, that the said Thomas moinh'com. Hanham, and Ralegh Gilbert, William Parker, and George pany of li-" Popham, and all others of the town Plymouth in the county bertytosetof Devon, or elsewhere, which are, or shall be, joined unto ^oreon them of that colony, shall be called the second colony; and thecoastof that they shall and may begin their said plantation and seat of NorthAmetheir first abode and habitation, at any place upon the said "vJ"'enb]e* coast of Virginia and America, where they shall think fit and jg" and lat. convenient, between eight-and-thirty degrees of the said 450. latitude, and five-and-forty degrees of the same latitude; and and of the that they shall have all the lands, soils, grounds, havens, seacoastnear ports, rivers, mines, minerals, woods, marches, waters,their Place fishings, commodities, and hereditaments, whatsoever, from menfto the the first seat of their plantation and habitation by the space of distance of fifty like English miles, as is aforesaid, all along the said s°miles coasts of Virginia and America, towards the west and south- from lt f*fh

o '. way and to

west, or towards the south, as the coast lieth, and all the thedepthof islands within one hundred miles, directly over against the ioomiles said sea coast: and also all the lands, soils, grounds, havens,int? ',he ,

'. . , i n m 'mainland,

ports, rivers, mines, minerals, woods, marshes, waters, nihings, commodities, and hereditaments, whatsoever, from the said place of their first plantation and habitation for the space of fifty like English miles, all along the said coast of Virginia and America, towards the east and north-east, or towards the north, as the coast lieth, and all the islands also within one hundred miles directly over against the same sea coast; and also all the lands, soils, grounds, havens, ports, rivers, woods, mines, minerals, marshes, waters, fishings, commodities, and hereditaments, whatsoever, from the same fifty miles every way on the sea coast, directly into the main land, by the space of one hundred like English miles; and shall and may inhabit and remain there; and shall and may also build and fortify within any the same for their better safeguard, accord

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