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of them, whereof the governor, or deputy governor, and six of the assistants, to be always seven, to erect and make such judicatories for the hearing and determining of all actions, causes, matters and things happening within the said colony or plantation, and which shall be in dispute and depending there, as they shall think fit and convenient; and also, from time to time, to make, ordain and establish all manner of And to wholesome and reasonable laws, statutes, ordinances, direcm.ike laws, tions and instructions, not contrary to the laws of this realm andordi- 0f England, as well for settling the forms and ceremonies contr""^ of government and magistracy, fit and necessary for the said the laws of plantation, and the inhabitants there, as for naming and England, styling all forts of ossicers, both superior and inserior, which they shall find needful for the government and plantation of the said colony, and the distinguishing and setting forth of the several duties, powers and limits of every such ossice and place, and the forms of such oaths, not being contrary to the laws and statutes of this our realm of England, to be administered for the execution of the said several ossices and places; as also for the disposing and ordering of the election of such of the said ossicers as are to be annually chosen, and of such others as shall succeed, in case of death or removal, and adminiftring the said oath to the new-elected ossicers, and granting necessary commissions, and for imposition of lawful fines, mulcts, imprisonments, or other punishments, upon offenders and delinquents, according to the course of other corporations Reference within this our kingdom of England; and the same laws, to other cor- fines, mulcts and executions, to alter, change, revoke, annull, witM^the re^ea^e or Pasdon, under their common seal, as by the said kingdom of general assembly, or the major part of them, shall be thought England, fit; and for the directing, ruling and disposing of all other matTers and things, whereby our said people, inhabitants there, may be so religiously, peaceably and civilly governed, as their good lise, and orderly conversation, may win and invite the natives of the country to the knowledge and obedience of the only true God and Saviour of mankind, and the Christian Faith; which in our royal intentions, and the adventurers free prosession, is the only and principal end of this plantation; willing, commanding and requiring, and by these presents, for us, our heirs and successors, ordaining and apThe said pointing, that all such laws, statutes and ordinances, instruclaws shall be tions, impositions and directions, as shall be so made by the wUritinhedgovernor, deputy governor and assistants, as aforesaid, and w" * published published in writing under their common seal, shall carefully under their and duly be observed, kept, performed, and put in execution, f^mon according to the true intent, and meaning of the same; and these our letters patents, or the duplicate or exemplification thereof, shall be, to all and every such ossicers, superiors and inseriors, from time to time, for the putting of the same orders, laws, statutes, ordinances, instructions and directions, in due execution, against us, our heirs and successors a sussicient warrant and discharge. And we do further, for us, our The gov. of heirs and successors, give and grant unto the said governor siid comand company, and their successors, by these presents, that it shall and may be lawful to and for the chief commanders, to assemble governors and ossicers of the said company for the time and array, being, who shall be resident in the parts of New-England JTMn*e hereafter mentioned, and others inhabiting there, by their 0{ tne co^leave, admittance, appointment or direction, from time to ny, and contime, and all times hereafter, for their special desence and ductthenM£ sasety, to assemble, marshal, array, and put in warlike ^enfmie, posture, the inhabitants of the said colony, and to commis- thatslialliosionate, impo'wer and authorize such person or persons asvade , they shall think fit, to lead and conduct the said inhabitants, and to encounter, expulse, repel, and resist by force of arms, as well by sea as by land, and also to kill, slay and destroy, by all fitting ways, enterprizes and means whatsoever, all and every such person or persons as shall, at any time hereafter attempt or enterprize the destruction, invasion, detriment or annoyance of the said inhabitants and plantation, and to use and exercise the law martial in such cases only as occasion shall require, and to take or surprize, by all ways and means whatsoever, all and every such person or persons, with their ships, armour, ammunition, and other goods, of such as shall, in such hostile manner, invade or attempt the deseating of the said plantation, or the hurt of the said company and inhabitants, and, upon just causes, to and lifeeinvade and destroy the natives or other enemies of the said "{^"fe^ colony. Nevertheless our will and pleasure is, and we do invade1 "nd hereby declare unto all christian kings, princes and states, destroy their that if any persons, which shall hereafter be of the said com-enemiespany or plantation, or any other, by appointment of the said Proviso in governor and company, for the time being, shall at any time case they or times hereafter rob or spoil, by sea or by land, and do ^'rer°abn°r any hurt, violence, or unlawful hostility, to any of the prince or subjects of us, our heirs or successors, or any of the subjects state> in *

rmity with 01 England.

of any prince or state, being then in league with us, our heirs or successors, upon complaint of such injury done to any such prince or state, or their subjects, we, our heirs and successors, will make open proclamation within any parts of our realm of England, fit for that purpose, that the person or persons committing any such robbery or spoil shall, within the time limited by such proclamation, make full restitution or satissaction of all such injuries done or committed; so as the said prince or others so complaining may be fully satisfied and contented: And if the said person or persons, who (hall commit any such robbery or spoil, shall not make satisfaction accordingly, within such time so to be limited, that then it shall and may be lawful for us, our heirs and successors, to put such person or persons out of our allegiance and protection; and that it shall and may be lawful and free for all princes and others to prosecute with hostilities such offenders, and every of them, their and every of their procurers, aiders, Reservation abettors, and counsellors in that behalf. Provided also, and subjects^-our exPrefs WiH ana" pleasure is, and we do, by these prefiding in o- sents, for us, our heirs and successors, ordain and appoint, ther parts of that these presents shall not, in any manner, hinder any of ons ofTu-' our loving subjects whatsoever to use and exercise the trade bertyosfisli-of fishing, upon the coast of New-England in America; inganddiy- but they, and every or any of them, shall have full and free rs(h within Power an^ 1 iberty to continue and use the said trade of fishing the said co- upon the said coats, in any of the seas thereunto adjoinlony. irg, or any arms of the seas, or salt-water rivers, where they have been accustomed to fish; and to build and set upon the waste lands belonging to the said colony of Connecticut, such warfs, stages, and work-houses, as shall be necessary for the salting, drying, and keeping of their fish, to be taken or gotten upon that coast; any thing in these Grantof the presents contained to the contrary notwithstanding. And foil of the know ye further, that we, of our more abundant grace, certain colonytothe knowledge, and mere motion, have given, granted and conCompany!nd firmed, and by these presents, for us, our heirs and successors, do give, grant and confirm, unto the said governor and company, and their successors, all that part of our dominions in Neyir England in America, bounded on the East by the Narrogancett River, commonly called Narrogancett Bay, where the said river salleth into the sea, and on the North by the line of the Massachusets plantation, and on the South by the sea, and in longitude, as the line of the

MassaMassachusets colony running from East to West, (that is to lay) from the said Narrogancett Bay, on the East, to the South Sea, on the West part, with the islands thereunto adjoining, together with all the firm lands, foils, grounds, havens, ports, rivers, waters, fishings, mines, minerals, precious stones, quarries, and all and singular commodities, jurisdictions, royalties, privileges, franchises, preeminencies, and hereditaments whatsoever, within the said tract, bounds, lands, and islands aforesaid, or to them, or any of them belonging. To have and to hold the same, unto the said Habendum. governor and company, their succesibr, and assigns, for ever* upon trust, and for the use and benefit of themselves, and their associates, freemen of the said colony, their heirs and assigns; to be holden of us, our heirs and successors, Tenendum. as of our manor of East Greenwich, in free and common soccagfi, and not in capite, nor by knights service; Yield- Reddendum ing and paying therefore to us, our heirs and successors, only the fifth part of all the ore of gold and silver, which from time to time and all times hereafter, shall be there gotten, had or obtained, in lieu of all services, duties and demands whatsoever, to be to us, our heirs or successors, therefore or thereout rendered, made, or paid. And lastly, we do for us, our heirs and successors, grant to the said governor and company^ and their successors, by these presents, that these our letters patents shall be firm, good, and effectual in th« law, to all intents, constructions and purposes whatsoever, according to our true intent and meaning herein before declared, as shall be construed, reputed, and adjudged most favourable on the behalf, and for the best benefit and behoof of the said governor and company, and their successors, although express mention, &c. In witness, &c. Witness the King, at Westminster, the three and twentieth day of April,

Per Breve de Private SigiUe,

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Rhode Island Charter, granted hy King Charles II. in the Fourteenth Tear of his Reign.

Qaintadicima pars Patentium Anno Rtgni Regis Cakoli Secundi ^uintodecimo.

/^HARLES the Second, by the grace of God, &c. To all to whom these presents shall come, greeting. Whereas we have been informed by the humble petition of our trusty and well beloved subjects, John Clarke, on the behalf of Benjamin Arnold, William Brenton, William Codington, Nicholas Easton, William Boulston, John Porter, John Smith, Samuel Gorton, John Week.es, Roger Williams, Thomas Olney, Gregory Dexter, John Cogeshall, Joseph Clarke, Randall Houlden, John Greene, John Roome, Samuel Wildbore, William Field, James Barker, Richard Tew, Thomas Harris, and William Dyre, and the rest of the purchasers, and free inhabitants of our island called Rhode Island, and the rest of the colony of Providence Plantations, in the Narraganset Bav, in New England in America, That they, pursuing with peace and loyal minds, their sober, serious, and religious intentions, of godly edifying themselves, and one another, in the holy Christian saith and worship as they were persuaded, together with the gaining over and conversion of the poor ignorant Indian natives, in those parts of America, to the sincere prosession and obedience of the same saith and worship, did not only by the consent and good encouragement of our roya! progenitors, transport themselves out of this kingdom of England jnto America; but also since their arrival there, after their first settlement amongst other our subjects irt those parts, for the avoiding of discord, and those many evils which were likely to ensue upon those our subjedts, not being able to bear in those remote parts their different apprehensions in religious concernments; and in pursuance of the aforesaid ends, did once again leave their desirable stations and habitations, and with excessive labour and travel, hazard and charge, did transplant themselves into the midst of the Indian natives, who, as we are informed, are the most potent princes and people of all that country; whereby the good providence

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