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and from the head of the said river the eastern bounds are to be determined by a meridian line, to be drawn from the head of the said river unto the said three and fortieth degree} the said lands to extend westward five degrees in longitude, to be computed from the said eastern bounds; and the said lands to be bounded on the north by the beginning of the three and fortieth degree of northern latitude, and on the south by a circle drawn at twelve miles distance from Newcastle northwards and westwards, unto the beginning of the fortieth degree of northern latitude; and then by a strait line westwards to the limits of longitude above-mentioned. We do also give and grant unto the said William Penn, his heirs artd assigns^ the free and undisturbed use, and continuance in, and passage into, and out of, all and singular ports, harbours, bays, waters, rivers, isles, and inlets belonging unto, or leading to and from the country or islands aforesaid, and all the foil j lands, fields, woods, underwopds, mountains, hills, sens,- isles, lakes, rivers, waters, rivulets, bays, and inlets, situate and being within or belonging unto the limits and bounds aforesaid; together with the fishing of all sorts of fish, whales, sturgeons, and all royal and other fishes in the sea, bays, inlets, waters, or rivers, within the premises, and the fish therein taken; and also all veins, mines, quarries, as well discovered as not discovered, of gold, silver, gems, and precious stones, and all other whatsoever, be it stones, metals, or of any other thing or matter whatsoever, found or to be found within the country, isles or limits aforesaid; and him the said William Penn, his heirs and assigns, we do by this our royal Charter, for us, our heirs, and successors, make, create, and constitute the true and absolute proprietaries of the said country afore-Saving of said, and of all other the premises; saving always to us, ourthe »Ueglheirs and successors, the saith and allegiance of the said Wil-"" ° Jiam Penn, his heirs and assigns, and ot all other proprieta-heirs, and ries, tenants, and inhabitants, that are, and shall be within affig»s, and the territories and precincts aforesaid; and saving also unto ^jj'so*f" us, our heirs and successors, the sovereignty of the aforesaid the country, country. To have, hold, possess, and enjoy the said tract of land, country, isles, inlets, and other the premises, unto theHabendum. said William Penn, his heirs and assigns, to the only proper use and behoof of the said William Penn, his heirs and assigns for ever. To be holden of us, our heirs and successors, Ki ngs Tenendum. of England, as of our Castle of Windsor, in our county of Berks, in free and common soccage, by sealty only, for all services, and not in capite, or by Knights service; yielding and paying therefore to us, our heirs and successors, two

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beaver-skins, to be delivered at our said castle of Windsor, on Reservation the first day of January on every year; and also the fifth part °f 8 oft'the of al^ nlver ore' which shall from time to time hap

gold and(il- Pen to ^e found within the limits aforesaid, clear of all charver ore. ges. And of our further grace, certain knowledge, and mere • Erection cf motion, we have thought fit to erect, and we do hereby erect into^pro-tne aforesaid country and island into a province and scignory, vincebythe and do call it Pensylvania, and so from henceforth we will name of have it called. And forasmuch as we have hereby made and *'BfrY*nw ordained the aforesaid William Penn, his heirs and assigns, the true and absolute proprietaries of all the lands and dominions aforesaid: Know ye therefore, that we reposing special trust and confidence in the fidelity, wisdom, justice, and provident circumspection of the said William Penn, for us, our GranttoW. heirs and successors, do grant free, full, and absolute power, heirs^ofthe o^ virtue °f these presents, to him and his heirs, and to his power of and their deputies and lieutenants, for the good and happy making government of the said country, to ordain, make, enact, and laws for unfJer his and their seals to publish any laws whatsoever, for Bey," and tne raifing of money for the public use 6f the said province, other pur- and for any other end appertaining either to the public state, poses; peace, or sasety of the said country, or unto the private utility fcy the ad-of particular persons, according to their best discretions, by vice, and and with the advice, assent, and approbation, of the freemen with the as-of tne sajj country, or the greater part of them, or of their

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freemen or delegates or deputies, whom for the enacting of the said laws, their depu- when and as often as need shall require, we will, that the said and of the^i"iam ^enrl' and n,S neirs' shall assemble in such sort and power to ex- form, as to him and them shall seem best, and the said laws ecute the duly to execute unto and upon all people within the said c'dlatWf[n country and limits thereof. And we do likewise give and powertoa-p- grant unto tne said William Penn, and his heirs, and to his pointjudges and their deputies and lieutenants, full power and authority and officers to appoint and establish any justices, magistrates, and ossicers "^"^^^ whatsoever, for what causes soever, for the probates of wills, ofwiiis,and and for the granting of administrations, within the precincts granting of aforesaid, and with what power soever, and in such form as '"io^sf1"" to the said william Penn, or his heirs, shall seem mostconand of the venient; also to remit, release, pardon, and abolish, whether power to before judgment or after, all crimes and offences whatsoever, mes except" committe^ within the said country, against the said laws, ing 'treason treason and wilful and malicious murder only excepted; and andmurder, in those cases ;to grant reprieves until our pleasure may be "d^'ntth'^ known therein; and to do all and every other thing or things, prierai 'which unto the complete establishment of justice unto courts

and and tribunals, forms of judicature, and manner of proceedings,and of a" do belong, although in these presents express mention be not ftry'uTiciai made thereof; and by judges, by them delegated,' to award powers, process, hold pleas, and determine, in all the said courts and tribunals, all actions, suits, and causes whatsoever, as well criminal as civil, personal,' real, and mixt. Which laws, so, The laws as aforesaid, to be published, our will and pleasure is, and so we injoin, require, and command, shall be most absolute and D°^ing available in law; and that all the liege people and subjects of us, upon all the our heirs and successors, do observe and keep the same invio-.'".^"3.'^ Jably, in those parts, so sar as they concern them, under the province"; pain therein expressed, or to be expressed; provided nevertheless, that the said laws be consonant to reason, and be not provided repugnant or contrary, but, as near as conveniently may be, „^0*TMt' agreeable to the laws, statutes, and rights of this our kingdom not reof England: and saving and reserving; to us, our heirs and pugnant to succeslors, the receiving, hearing, and determining of the-^gUnA appeal and appeals of all or any person or persons of, in, or belonging to the territories aforesaid, or touching any judg- Reservation ment to be there made or given. And forasmuch as in the °*.a,n ^JP" government or so great a country, hidden accidents do often happen, whereunto it will be necessary to apply a remedy, before the freeholders of the said province, or their delegates or deputies, can be assembled to the making of laws; neither will it be convenient, that instantly, upon every such emergent occasion, so great a multitude should be called together; therefore, for the better government of the said country, we will and ordain, and by these presents, for us, our heirs and successors, do grant unto the said William Penn, and his heirs, by themselves, or by their magistrates and ossicers, in that behalf duly to be ordained, as aforesaid, to make and constitute fit and wholesome ordinances, from time to time, within the said country, to be kept and observed, as well for the preservation of the peace, as for the better government of the people there inhabiting, and publicly to notify the sahie, to all persons whom the same doth or may any way concern; which ordinances, our will and pleasure is, shall be observed inviolably within the said province, under pains therein to be expressed; so as the said ordinances be consonant to reason, and be not repugnant nor contrary, but, so as may be agreeable to the laws of our kingdom of England; and so as the said ordinances be not extended in any sort, to bind, charge, or take away the right or interest of any person or persons, for or in their lise, members, freehold, goods or chattels. And our further will and pleasure is, That the laws for regulating

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and governing of property, within the said province, as well for the descent and enjoyment or lands, as likewise for the enjoyment and succession of goods and chattels, and likewise as to selonies, shall be and continue the same as they shall be for the time being, by the general course of the law in our kingdom of England, until the said laws shall be altered by the said William Penn, his heirs or assigns, and by the freemen of the said province, their delegates or deputies, or the greater part of them. And to the end the said William Penn, or his heirs, or other the planters, owners, or inhabitants of the said province may not, at any time hereafter, by misconstruction of the powers aforesaid, through inadvertency or design, depart from that saith, and due allegiance which, by the laws of this our kingdom of England, they and all our subjects in our dominions and territories always owe unto us, our heirs and successors, by colour of any extent or largeness of powers hereby given, or pretended to be given, or by force or colour of any laws hereafter to be made in the said province, by virtue of any such powers; our further will and pleasure is, that a transcript or duplicate of all laws which shall be so as aforesaid made and published within the said province, shall, within five years after the making thereof, be transmitted and delivered to the privy council, for the time being, of us, our heirs and successors: And if any of the said laws, within six months after that they shall be so transmitted and delivered, be declared by us, our heirs and successors, in our or their privy council, inconsistent with the sovereignty or lawful prerogative of us, our heirs or successors, or contrary to the saith or allegiance due by the legal government of this realm, from the said William Penn, or his heirs, or of the planters and inhabitants of the said province; and that thereupon any of the said laws shall be adjuged and declared to be void by us, our heirs and successors, under our or their privy seal; that then and from thenceforth such laws, concerning which such judgment and declaration shall be made, shall become void ; otherwise the said laws so transmitted shall remain and stand in full force, according to the true intent, and meaning thereof. Furthermore, that this new colony may the more happily encrease by the multitude of people resorting thither, therefore we, for us, our heirs and successors, do give and grant, by these presents, power, licence, and liberty, unto all the liege people and subjects, both present and future, of us, our heirs and successors, (excepting those who shall be especially forbidden) to transport themselves and families unto the said country, with such convenient shipping?

ping, as, by the laws of this our kingdom.of England, they ought to use, and with fitting provisions, paying only the customs thereof due, and there to settle themselves, dwell and inhabit, and plant for the public and their own private advantage. And furthermore, that our subjects may be the rather encouraged to undertake this expedition with ready and chearful .minds, know ye, That we, of our special grace, certain knowledge, and mere motion, do give and grant, by virtue of these presents, as well unto the said William Penn, and his heirs, as to all others, who shall, from time to time, repair unto the said country, with a purpose to inhabit there, or to trade with the natives of the said country, full licence to lade and freight in any ports whatsoever, of us, our heirs and successors, according to the laws made, or to be made, within, our kingdom of England, and into the said country, by them, their servants, or assigns, to transport all and singular their goods, wares, and merchandize, as likewise all sorts of grain whatsoever, and all other things whatsoever necessary for food or cloathing, not prohibited by the laws and statutes of our kingdoms and dominions to be carried out of the said kingdoms, without any lett or molestation of us, our heirs and successors, or of any the heir of us, our heirs and succeslbrs; saving always to us, our heirs, and successors, the legal impositions, customs, and other duties and payments ,for the said wares, and merchandize, by any law or statute due, or to be due, to us, our heirs or successors And we do further for us, our heirs and successors, give and grant unto the said William Penn, his heirs and assigns, free and absolute power to divide the said cpuntry.and islands into towns, hundreds, and counties, and to erect and incorporate towns into boroughs, and boroughs into cities, and make and constitute sairs and markets therein, with all other convenient privileges and immunities, according to the merit of the inhabitants, and the fitness of the places, and to do all-and every other thing and things touching the premises, which to him or them shall seem meet and requisite, albeit they be such as of their own nature might otherwise require a more especial commandment and warrant than in these presents is expressed. We will also, Grant of a and by these presents, for us, our heirs and successors, we do11""."5. *?, give and grant licence by this our charter, unto the said tantsof this William Penn, his heirs and assigns, and to all the inhabitants province, to and dwellers, in the province aforesaid, both present and t0 tVoSa^Sw** come, to import and unlade, by themselves, or their servants, int^Engfactors or assigns, all merchandize or goods whatsoever, as land,but inIhall arise of the fruits and commodities of the said province,t0 n0 other

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