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sick whom I saw every day, my recollection of their sufferings, of their distress, of the interest attaching to their families, to their various relations, did not present itself to my mind only in the mass; I knew each one individually. Iidentified myself with each one of the sick, for I could call each, with the physician, my patient. I shared the regrets of the family of each victim, the joy of the wife, the children, of each convalescent restored to life, to labor, to the tenderness of family affections. After the first fears of contagion were surmounted, I ceased to experience the slightest apprehension of danger.” In spite of his courage, he was finally attacked by the disease; he had predisposed his system to its influence by overexertion and anxiety for his friends. But, even then, his temperate habits saved him. “It was now," he relates, “ that I received the reward of what I had done for the people. As soon as it was known that I was in danger, the street in which my house was situated was blocked by the crowd, who pressed even to my chamber to receive intelligence of my condition. The young people took turns, hour by hour, in the care of watching by my bed of suffering. The crisis was violent, but of short duration." In the great yellow fever epidemic of Philadelphia, similar preferences and immunities were remarked. Nor do the records of the disease in New Orleans or Charleston differ in any important respect from those of Northern cities. It is very generally believed at the North that the natives of southern cities are but seldom attacked by the disease. The opinion is founded on the fact that so few of them die in comparison with foreigners; but it is forgotten that they immediately withdraw from the infected atmosphere, and that even the few who remain behind can better afford to pay attention to ventilation, cleanliness and regimen than foreigners. But had we no further proof of the fact that the yellow feverallows no realimmunity to natives more than foreigners, than that afforded by the ravages of the disease at Norfolk, a few years since, it would be amply sufficient; and the same terrible epidemic proved beyond doubt that, far from military men being more liable to contract the disease than civilians, it is they who enjoyed most immunity, although in Norfolk, as well as in New York, they were chiefly foreigners.
In short, if we examine all the statistics that have been preserved in either hemisphere, we shall find nothing to justify the boasts of the rebels, and of their sympathizers in Europe, that once the warm weather commences, the yellow fever is the only enemy that need take the field against our troops. That they may suffer from it is, indeed, very possible, but by no means inevitable. Nay, it is scarcely probable, seeing, as we have already intimated, that they can always choose an elevated situation and every other sanitary precaution that the best scientific skill can suggest.
As it is thus evident that our troops need feel little alarm more than the rebels, and that they have much less to fear than the masses of the inhabitants of Southern cities, we may dismiss the so-called “ Yellow Jack” as a bugbear, only remembering that the Merrimac was once to have captured New York, Boston, and Philadelphia—at least, placed each under contribution. In short, she was to have crippled all our resources to such an extent, that we should be very glad to negotiate on the best terms we could obtain from the victorious rebel government, and the first news we hear afterwards is, that she has had to be blown up, to prevent her from falling into our hands !
All this, however, is no reason why we should not say a word to show how the approach of the disease may be detected, and in numerous instances stayed in its progress. Of all maladies, yellow fever is the most insidious in its attacks, and the most deceitful in its operation. Scarcely any two persons are affected with it exactly alike. There may be a score of patients in the same room, all suffering from yellow fever, and yet no two having the same symptoms; but the symptoms of all as different from each other as if they were those of as many different diseases. In nine cases out of ten, the attacks that seem mildest at the beginning are the most likely to prove fatal; and this apparent mildness may continue for several days— nay, until an hour or two before death—the patient being able to walk about most of the time. It is remarkable that it is in this scarcely perceptible form it runs its course most rapidly, terminating in “ black vomit,” and death in from two to five days. Sometimes it assumes the remittent form, and presents regular exacerbations and remissions; and the patient may be thus affected for seven, or even eleven days; and finally, when all begin to regard him as rapidly recovering, he may fall gently asleep, and never awake. But when the earlier symptoms are strongly marked, and the sufferings of the patient are most acute, in the generality of cases the danger is least.
The most ordinary symptoms are slight headache, or nausea. Unlike all other fevers, it is seldom ushered in by a well-defined chill. Its approach is generally marked, however, by an icy coldness of the whole surface of the body, especially of the extremities, accompanied with a sensation of languor, a tenderness in the region of the precordia, and pains in the eye-balls - the eyes at the same time presenting a peculiar hectic flush. The sensation of coldness of the surface alternates, with one of heat, so intense, as often to make the patient think that some pungent fluid must have been poured over the skin. The pulse scarcely affords any criterion whereby to judge of the real condition of the sufferer ; sometimes it seems perfectly natural and healthy, while the most fatal symptoms are present. None who have witnessed the peculiar flush of the countenance, in the later stages of yellow fever, can ever forget it. The perspiration is often profuse, but without in the least mitigating the local sufferings, or producing any. perceptible effect on the action of the heart or arteries. After the patient has suffered intensely for two or three days, he sometimes experiences sudden relief; both mind and body feel at ease; and friends begin to regard the disease as having yielded to treatment; but, soon this is found to be only a temporary lull, for it is followed by that yellowness of the skin which gives its name to the disease, and which is the precursor of the fatal black vomit. The stomach, always morbidly excited, now begins to eject this black matter, in enormous quantities, until death supervenes. A short time before dissolution, there are sometimes violent hæmorrhages from the tongue, gums and other parts of the body. Yet there may be well-defined cases of yellow fever, without any of these symptoms being present; there may be neither yellowness of the skin nor black vomit; but, when both are absent, their place is supplied by violent eructations of gas from the stomach, a symptom which is almost certain to terminate fatally.
At the same time the distinctive pathological appearance in yellow fever is the matter of the black vomit. This symptom may not appear, as we have said, before death; but we are assured by Dr. Audouard and many other eminent physicians who have fully investigated the subject, that it is discernible in all cases after death. Sometimes it is found in the stomach, and sometimes in the intestines ; in the former it resembles
may be dou But this fortunately, even taken in han
coffee grounds; in the latter it assumes nearly the color and consistence of pitch.
When yellow fever assumes its most malignant type, it may be doubted whether the plague or any other disease is more fatal. But this rarely occurs, and when it does occur it does not last long. Fortunately, even in its worst form it is not necessarily fatal. When the patient is taken in hand in time by a good physician, he has every reason to hope that he will overcome the disease. Could the doctors agree as to whether it is contagious or non-contagious, a much larger proportion of the patients would be saved. At present a large majority are opposed to the contagion theory; indeed, the number of those who believe in its contagiousness are rapidly diminishing.
As to the modes of treatment used they are almost innumerable, but it will be sufficient to mention those found most efficacious. It is well to bear in mind, however, that what may cure one, two, or three, may kill a fourth and fifth, in the same hospital. This diversity of effects arises partly from the difference in the symptoms at different stages of the disease, and partly from the differences in the constitutions of the patients. What Dr. Audouard relied most upon was, an infusion of tamarinds, barley-water with honey, camphorated enemata, and camphorated oil rubbed on the abdomen. In only one case he tried leeches, but with no good effect-the patient died. Bleeding he had no faith in ; he knew many cases in which others tried it, but always with a fatal result. Of all the medicines used, what approximated nearest to the character of a specific was cinchona ; this he knew, in the hands of others as well as his own, to have cured a large number. But the best yellow fever physicians of Europe and America have great faith in blood-letting, provided it be commenced at an early stage of the disease, before the system becomes too much enfeebled and incapable of producing reaction, for in the latter case it is certain death. When blood letting is dangerous, the best medicines are external stimuli, the object of which is, to aid the powers of the system in their efforts to produce a warmth at the surface. The bowels should always be kept open, chiefly by oil or injections ; hot bricks, bottles of hot water, cayenne pepper, sinapisms, &c., should be applied to the extremities, especially to the feet whenever the patient begins to suffer from a sensation of coldness in those parts. There is nothing more useful than ice in yellow fever ; it is often used both
internally and externally, with the best effects. Blisters, too, are much relied upon by experienced practitioners, especialy when the vomiting is violent and protracted. The spirit of turpentine with the oil of cinnamon, in thirty-drop doses, has been known to effect cures after even the black vomit had made its appearance. But the best remedies of all are good nursing, fresh air, and general cleanliness.
Art. X.--National Academy of Design. Catalogue of the Thirty-seventh
Annual Exhibition. New York: 1862. Before we offer any opinion on the contributions to the present exhibition, we will make an observation or two on art criticism in general, especially as it is practised in America. In doing so, the first idea that occurs to us is, that our artists are but little indebted to our critics. Of no other enlightened country is this remark so true as it is of ours; nowhere else does the critic afford less aid to the artist. The great defect of the former is, that he is too appreciative--too prone to admiration. He thinks he serves art because he praises everything that comes before liim as a specimen of it; but the effect of his indiscriminate eulogies is, to do evil rather than good. His motives do not alter the case; whether he bestow extravagant praise without venturing to find any fault, in order to serve the artist, or gratify the purchaser of a picture ; or whether he is carried away by his feelings, believing the judgment he passes to be just; the result is the same.
It must be remembered that feeling, like any other faculty, requires to be educated. If we are too enthusiastic, we must learn to restrain our enthusiasm, by comparing the subject that excites it to the best we know of the same kind. Thus, for example, if we are unusually pleased with a group, before we give expression to any superlatives in its praise, we should pause to see whether it will bear a comparison with Raffaelle's Cartoons; and if we are delighted with a painting of the Saviour, we should ask ourselves, or those who know better, how it would coinpare with Titian's “ Christ crowned with Thorns," If, instead of adopting this precaution, we praise a piece whose greatest merit is to be passable, as if it were one of the noblest efforts of Angelo or Correggio, what we deserve for our pains, from both artist and public, is derision and contempt.
"The critic of art," says Lessing, “ought to keep in view not only the capabilities, but the proper objects of art.” Nor is it by any means necessary that the critic should himself be a practical artist, for the best artists, even when most liberally educated, are not the best critics. This is true