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Hell scarce holds the wild Uproar: As when HERCULES; D) crown'd with Conquest from T11ESSALY, (9) after he had put on the poison'd Robe, through Pain tore up Pines by the Roots, and threw LICHAS (r) from Oeta (s) into the Black Sea. Others more mild retreated into a silent Valley, and sung to Harps in Angelical Notes their own heroick Deeds and unhappy Fall, by Chance of War, and complain that Fate should enslave free Virtue: Their Song was partial, but the Melody suspended the Pains of Hell, and gave a great Delight to the thronging Audience; what less could be, seeing that they were immortal Spirits that sung?
(0) Hercules, the Son of Ju- () Lichas; Lat. Gr. i. e. A piter and Alcmena, and Grand- Man of Lychia ; i. e. A Sta. ion of Alcæus. After many ture : Because it was the Counmighty Deeds, called his twelve try of the Giants, Men of a Labours, he ran mad, by put. large Stature. He was the Serting on a poisoned Veft, itained vant of Hercules, by whom Dewith the Blood of Neffus the janira sent him that poison'd Centatr, whom he had kill'd Garmerit, which made him so with a poison'd Arrow, for a outragious, that he threw Lichas foul Affront offer'd to his Wife: headlong into the Sea, where Nellus in Revenge persuaded her he perished. to put it upon Hercules, as an ) Oeta : Lat. from the Gr. Antidote to the Love of other i.e. Destruction : From Oetus, Women : When he put it on hea Giant, who dwelt on it, and ran mad, burnt himself to Death, destroyed all before him ; a very and was afterwards deified high Mountaiti, dividing Thera
(9) Thessaly ; Lat. Gr. i. e. raly from Macedonia, whereon Situated upon the Seu; or from Hercules burnt himself to Death: The lalus, one of the antient Hence the Poets call him OeteKings; and Pelasgia, when the us, and from which he threw Pelasgi settled there. A Country Lychas into the Sea, tho' many of Greece, having Achaia on the Miles distant from it; now Bana South, Epirus on the West, and nia. Near it are the famous a Part of Macedonia ; very woo• Straits, call'd Thermopyla, 28 dy and fruitful. The People were Foot broad. given to Horsemanship and the Knowledge of poisonous Herbs, which abounded in is,
IN Discourse still more sweet (for Eloquence charms the Soul, and Song only the Sense) others fat apart retir'd upon a Hill, in Thoughts more elevated, and they reason'd high of PROVIDENCE, of FOREKNOWLEDGE, Will, and FATE; Fix'D FATE, FREE Will, and ABSOLUTE FOR E-KNOWLEDGE; and in these perplexing Contemplations were lost in wandering Mazes, and found no End: Then they argu'd much about Good and Evil, of Happiness, and of eternal Misery, of the Passions, of Apathy, and Glory, and Shame; all which was vain Wisdom, and false Philosophy ; yet with a pleasing Sorcery it could charm Pain and Sorrow of Mind for a Time, and raise deceitful Hope, or arm the harden'd Heart with stubborn Patience, as it were with Steel.
ANOTHER Part bend their flying March four Ways in Squadrons and great Bands, upon a bold Adventure, to make fresh Discoveries in that dismal World, if peradventure any part of it might yield them a happier Habitation: Their Way was along the Banks of the four Rivers of Hell, that discharge their deadly Streams into the burning Lake; abhorred Styx, (t) the River of Hatred; sad ACHERON ; (u) Cocytus, (*) the River of Lamentation; and fierce
(1) Styx ; I. Lat. Gr. i. e. most. A poisonous Spring in Hatred and Horror. The Poets Peloponnesus. This Fable imfeigned four Rivers in Hell, to plies Death, the King of Ter. whom they gave Names from rors. such horrible poisonous and (x) Cocytus; III. Lat. Gr. deadly Springs as were known i. e, Lamentation, Weeping ; for to them, to set forth the Dread. it is said to have swell'd with fulness of future Torments. They the Tears of the Tormented. say, this River ran nine Times Homer places it in Cimmeria round Hell.
(which is Scythia, now Tartary) (s) Acheron, or Acherus ; 11. and makes Hell to be there; Lat. Gr. i. e. Sad, forrowful, because of the Blackness and and comfortless ; Heb. i.e. Out. Darkness of that Country.
PALEGETON, (y) whose Waves boil with raging Fire. Not far from these runs a flow and filent Stream in a watry Labyrinth, (z) call'd LETHE, (a) the River of Oblivion, whereof whoever drinks forgets all his former State and Being, both Joy and Grief, Pleafure and Pain. Beyond this Flood lies a frozen Continent, dark and wild, beat with continual Storms of Whirlwind and Hail, which not thawing on the firm Land, gathers to a Heap, and feems like the Ruins of some old Building, all besides being deep Snow and Ice; à Gulph as deep as that SERBONIAN (6) Bog, betwixt
(y) Phlegeton, or Phlegethon; getfulness. A River of Africa, IV. Lat. Gr. i. e. Burning ; which after a long Course hides for the Waters of it are said to itself under Ground, and apboil for ever. This is the last pears again; wherefore Antiqui. of the Rivers of Hell, as the ty feigned that all the Dead Poets represented it.
drank a Draught of its Waters (z) Labyrinth; Teut. Dut. Fr. before they enter'd Hell, which Lat. from the Gr. i. e. Not bae made them forget all their past ving a Door, receiving or de- Sorrows. The Fable is Death, vouring. A Building full of when all the Pleasures and Pains Turnings and Windings, so that are quite forgotten.. it was very difficult for one to (6) Serbonian; of Serbon, get out of it. A Maze. Pliny or Sirbon : Strabo calls it Serboreckons four of them. The nis; Ptolomy and Pliny, Sirbofirst and greatest was built in nis. Ar ab. i. e. The Lake ; tho' Egypt by Menis, an antient Strabo ignorantly takes this for King, to be a Funeral Monu. the Lake of Sodom. A Bog or ment for himself, consisting of Lake upon the utmost Borders of 12 Palace, 1500 Rooms, and Palestine and Egypt, fifty Miles 12. Halls. The second in Crete, from Arabia ; now Lagos di made by Dædalus, by the Order Teveso, by the Italians, Bayreof Minos, from a Model of that, na by the Natives, and Baraand for the same End, or rather thrum, by the Latins, i. e. a for a Prison. The third in Lem- deep Gulph. It was Fifty-two nos, having 150 Pillars of Mar. Miles in Length, one Thousand ble: It is under the whole Con. Furlongs in Compass, narrow cavity of Mount Ida, and still and very deep, surrounded with to be seen. The fourth in Ita. . Hills of loose Sands, which ly, by the Order of Porfenna, thickened and discoloured the King of Tuscany.
Waters ; that Passengers did not (a) Lethe ; Lar, Gr. i. c. Fore discern them from the dry Sands,
DAMIATA (c) and Mount Casius, (d) where whole Armies have sunk: The. parching Air burns in Frost, and Cold performs the Effect of Fire: Thither at certain Revolutions all the Damn’d are dragg’d by their Tormentors, and by Turns feel the bitter Change of fierce Extreams, which by Change are made more fierce; their soft etherial Warmth forc'd from Beds of raging Fire, to starve in Ice, there to pine immoveable, fix'd in and frozen round for Periods of Time, and from thence be hurried back to Fire. They pass over this River LETHE, both to and fro, to heighten their Sorrow, and wish and struggle as they pass to reach the much desir'd Stream; with one Drop of its Water, to lose in sweet Forgetfulness all Sorrow and Pain in one Moment, being so near the Brink : But Fate oppofes, and Spirits of Horror, like MEDUSA, (e) with GORGONIAN (f) Terror guard
and so were swallowed up therein and loft. Indeed that large Tract of Land abounds with Quicksands, "Mountains and Heaps of Sands, wherein many Travellers have been buried alive, as Cambyses loft 50,000 Men in the Sands of Lybia. This Lake has been filled up long ago, and is not to be found now.
(c) Damiata, or Damieta; Heb. i. e, Dirt or Mud. A Town in Egypt upon the Mouth of the Miditerranean Sea, and the most Easterly Bank of the Nile, near Old Pelulium, which fignifies also Dirt; because both are situated in a dirty, Clay Soil." These Cities were the Key and Bulwark of Egypt. Damiata was founded by This, and destroyed by the Saracens, in the Holy War ; but is now a Flace of great Trade.
id) Casus, or Casius ; Syr. i. e. A Boundary; because it parts E. gypt and Palestine : A sandy Mountain on the farther Side of Pelufium, near the Serbonian Bog, between the Red Sea and the Mediterranean Sea, extending Southward to Arabia Pes træa: At the foot of it stood once a Town called Casium, famous for the Temple of Jupiter Cafius, wherein ffood a Statue of him in full Proporcion, Itretching out his Right Hand with a Pomegranate, the Emblem of his being the Terminal God, defending the Borders of that Nation.
(e) Medusa ; Lat. Gr. i. e. An imperious Queen, the Daughter of Cero Phoreas, a King of Corsica and Sardinia ; very beau. riful, having golden Hair ; of which the was exceeding proud,
ny a dismin many a darkd no Reft: The view’d their
the Ford, and the Water of itself Aies from the Taste of all living Creatures, as once it fell from the Lip of TANTALUS. (8) Thus the Fallen Spirits roving on in confus'd March, forlorn and pale, with shuddering Horror, and with ghaftly Eyes first view'd their lamentable Lot, and found no Reit: They pass'd along through many a dark and dreary Vale, and many a dismal Region, over many a frozen and many a fiery ALP; (b) Rocks, Caves, Lakes, Fenns, Bogs, Dens, and Shades of Death; a Universe of Death! which GOD created Evil by a Curse; Good only for Evil, where all Life dies, where Death lives, and Nature breeds perversely all monstrous and prodigious Things, abominable and beyond all Expression; and worse than ever Fables yet have feign'd, or Fear con
and contended with Minerva, for which the Goddess turned it into Snakes ; which were so ter. rible, that they turned all that beheld them into Stones. Per. feus cut off her Head, that it might not destroy the whole Country ; aud as he carried it thro' Africa, the Drops of Blood became Serpents: Hence they say, it is infested with swarms of Serpents and other venemous Creatures, above other parts of the World.
U Gorgonian, of the Gor. gons; Lat. Gr. i. e. Cruelty. The Gorgons were so called from Gorgon, a venomous Beast in A frica; they were the three Daughters of Phæcus, viz. Medusa, Steno, and Euryale: So called from their Savageness; because they killed at the very Sight.
(8) Tantalus; Gr. Lat. i. e. mot miserable. The Son of Juho piter and Plota, He killed and
dressed up his Son Pelops to the Gods, at a. Feaft: for which they condemned him to Hell ; where he was set in Water to the Chin, with Apples bobbing at his Lips; yet could taste of neither.
(6) Alp for Alps; by a Fig. of Rhet. Lat. i. e. white : because they are always White with Snow, or high ; a long Range of lofty and steep Mountains, which parts Italy and Germany and France: It coft Hannibal the Carthaginian General, nine Days before he got to the Top of them ; and is in marching over them ; wherein he loft vast Numbers both of Men and Beasts, tho' he mollified the Rocks with Vinegar, and cut them down with Iron Tools : But Polybius and Livy say, that the Italians, Gauls, and others past and repatt them, long before this famous Expedition of Hannibal.