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LEADER of those bright Armies, which none but the Omnipotent could ever have overcome; if they but once hear that Voice, their greatest Surety of Hope in Fears, and Dangers, which they have so often heard in the worst Extreams, and which in the hazardous Edge of Battle, and in all Affaults has been their surest Signal, they will soon recover, take new Courage, and revive, though they now lie in extreme Misery, and prostrate on yonder Lake of Fire, as we not long since did, astonish'd and confounded, which is no Wonder, considering that we fell from such a dangerous Height.
He had scarce done speaking when the fuperior Fiend SATAN was moving towards the Shore; his heavy Shield of heavenly Workmanship, 'mally, large, and round, was cast behind him ; the broad Compass of it hung on his Shoulders like the Moon, whose Orb the TUSCAN (a) Artist (6) views through
fa) Tuscan; one of the Tufci Mathematician to the Grand or Hetrufci ; the antient People Duke of Tuscany ; who invented of Tuscany in Italy, that came those Glasses whereby he discovefrom Phænicia; but Jusin fays red Spots in the Sun, Mountains, from Lydia, L. 20. The Latins Rivers, &c. in the Moon ; the had long Wars with them, and "Nature of the Milky-Way; the at last conquered them under various Appearances of Saturn ; Servius Tullus, the 6th King of many new Stars about Orion and Rome. It is now a fine Country, Cancer ; and 62,500 Stars, subject to the Grand Duke of Tuf whereof 63 only appeared to the cany, in Extent about 144 Miles. bare Eye. For these useful Disa It was called Hetruria now Tuj. coveries he was imprisoned five tany, and the People Tuscans or Years by the Inquifition, conHetrurians.
demned by Pope Urban 8, forc'd (6) Artift; Fr. Lat. One that to recant at 60, and died at 78 is skill'd in any Art or Science : Years of Age, A. D. 1642. Milton means Galilæo Galilæi, But that first Invention was owing an excellent Astronomer, and to Roger Bacon, Fellow of MarNative of Florence, the Capital tin-College of Oxford, long beof Tuscany, chief Philosopher and fore Galilæo. And others af.
optic Glasses in an Evening, from the Top of FeSOLE, (c) or else in VALDARNO, (d) to discover Mountains, Rivers, or new Lands on her Globe; the tallest Pine hewn on the Mountains of NORWAY, to be a Maft for the Ship of some great Admiral, were but little in Comparison of his Spear, with which he walked to support his uneasy Steps over the burning Sulphur, (not like his former Steps in Heaven) and the Heat of Hell smote on him fore besides, for it was surrounded and cover'd with Fire ; nevertheless he endur'd it, 'till he came to the Brink of that inflamed Sea, where he stood and call'd his Legions, Angelick Forms, who lay intranc'd and confounded with their Fall; as thick as Leaves in Autumn, that fall into the Brooks in VALOMBROSA, (e) where the Trees cover over and shade the Stream; or like scatter'd Sedge afloat, when Orion, (f) attended with boisterous Winds, hath vexed the Coast of the RED-SEA, (8)
cribe it to Mr. James Metius of Amsterdam. But Galilao brought it to yaft Perfection.
(c) Fesolæ ; vulg. Fiesole and Fiezzole ; call's Fefala by Tit. Livius, Pliny, and Silius Italicus. It was an antient City of Yuscany near Florence, the Residence of the Tuscan Augurs, who taught the old Romans their fuperftitious Divinations, Sacrifices, &c. Here the great Galileo resided, and made his Aftro. nomical Observations from the Top of the Towers thereof. , 10). Valdarno ; Ital. from the Lat. i. e. The Valley on the River Arnus. It is a fruitful Vale on the River Arno, which runs
ough Tuscany and by Florence into the Tuscan Sea.
) Vállombrosa ; Ital. Les,
i. e. A hady Valley; a fruitful and pleasant Valley in Tuscany, full of Shades and fruitful Trees.
of) Orion; Lat. from the Grii. e. Urine or Tempeft. An Aftron. T. It is a Southern Constellation of 30 Stars, rising on the 9th of March, and setting in November ; and bringeth Storms and Rain with it. See Job 9. 9. Amos 5. 8. Some call @rion the God of the Winds.
(5) Red-Sea; Heb. It is so called from Efau or Edom, bes cause of the red-colour'd Pottage which he purchas'd of Ja. cob; for his Dominions lay along that Sea, and from him the Country was called Idumea, i. e. Red: And so the old Egyprians
whose Waves overthrew Busiris (b) and his MEMPHIAN (i) Horfemen and Chariots, while with treacherous Hatred they pursu'd the ISRAELITES, who from the safe Shore beheld their Carcases floating, and their broken Chariot Wheels; so thick lay these, abject and lost, in a Manner covering the Flood, and in the utmost Confternation and Amazement at their hideous and unhappy Change.
call'd it Rythra, i. e. Red, which (i) Memphian ; of or belongthe Greeks turned into Erythra ing to Memphis ; Heb. i. e. A or Erythras, and the Latins into populous Country or great City. Maré Erythræum, i. e. The Red In Heb. it's called Moph and Sea. But in the Hebrew it is Noph, which the Greeks turned called Suph, i. e. The Sea of into Memphis. This great City Sedge or Weeds, which grow and was built, as some say, a little float upon it in Abundance. before the Flood ; and being afThis Sea parts Egypt from Ara. terwards repair'd and enlarg'd, bia, and therefore it is called al- it became the Royal City of Eso the Arabian Gulf.
gypt, 'till the Time of the Ptolo(b) Busiris ; Lat. from the mies, who resided at Alexandria ; Gri i. e. A Manager of Oxen; because it was built by Alexander because he butcher'd Men like the Great. It was a great City, Oxen. A cruel Tyrant of Egypt seven Leagues in Circuit ; bein the Time of Mofes, who un cause in Length of Time four der a Pretence of intreating Cities became one ; and stood on Strangers, sacrificed them upon the West Side of the Nile. It his Altars. He built the famous was destroy'd by the Arabs, as City of Zoan or Tanais, and the Prophets foretold ; and out made it the Seat of his King- of its Ruins they built another dom. This Fable signifies that on the other side of the River, Pharaoh, who put the Israelites call'd alcair, Heb. i. e. The to a very hard Slavery like Ox- City; which the French call en ; for which Hercules, the true Grand Cairo, i. e. The Great Moses, destroy'd him and all his City. Here it is taken for the Attendants in the Red-Sea. Some whole People of Egypt, in the call him Amenophis, but others Days of Busiris. Cenchres.
С НА Р. ІІ. Satan awakens all his Legions, who lay 'till then · confounded; they rise. Their Numbers. Ar
ray of Battle. Their chief Leaders nam’d, äc
cording to the Idols known in Canaan and the · Countries adjoining.
YATAN call'd so loud, that his Voice resounded
through all the hollow Deep of Hell.
PRINCES, (k) Potentates, (1) Warriors, chief Powers of Heaven, which once was yours, but now is loft; if such' an Astonishment as this can seize eternal Spirits, or rather have you chose this place to repose your weary'd Virtue in, after the Fatigues of the Battle, for the Ease you find to sumber here, as if it were in the blessed Mansions of Heaven; or have ye sworn in this abject Manner to worship the Conqueror, who even this Minute beholds Cherubim and Seraphim rowling in the Flood, with their Banners and Ensigns scatter'd, 'till perhaps e'er long, those who pursu'd us out of Heaven discern the Advantage, and defcending from above, thus drooping as we are, tread us down; or with Thunder-bolts link'd together, transfix us to the very Bottom of this Gulph: Therefore awake, arise now, or else be for ever fallen!
(k) Princes; Fr. Ital. Span. 10. 21. Here, the Chiefs a. Dut. Lat. i. e. those who take mong the Devils, Dan. 10. 13. the first Place ; Governors, 20. Chiefs, Ring - leaders, principal (1) Potentates; Fr. Ital. or most excellent Persons in a Lat. i. e. Mighty ones ; GoverKingdom. Sovereign Angels, nors, Rulers of Nations. Here, who have the Superintendence some Grandees among them. over Princes upon Earth, Dan.
THEY heard him and were asham'd, and sprung up upon the Wing; as when Men who are us’d to watch on Duty are found Neeping, by those of whom they stand in Dread, get up in Surprize, and begin to flir about before they are well awake. Not that they did not see the evil Condition which they were in, or feel the fierce Pain, yet they soon obey'd their General's Voice, and appear'd innumerable; as when the potent Rod of Moses, in the evil Day of EGYPT, (m) was stretch'd forth over the Land, and call'd up a
(m) Egypt; Lat. from the Lybia on the West. It is about
Alexander the Great. . In the for 300 Years. The Romans re-