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Friday.—Breakfast abroad. Dinner at Mr. B-'s; cold gander and hot potatoes—the latter very good; ate three, aud went to school quite contented. Supper-cold gander and no potatoes, bread heavy and dry; had the headache and couldn't eat; Peggy much concerned; had a fire built in the square room, and thought she and I had better sit there out of the noise; went to bed early; Peggy thought too much sleep bad for the headache.

Saturday.—Cold gander and hot Indian Johnny cake; did very well, glad to come off so. Dinner-cold gander again; didn't keep school this afternoon; weighed and found I had lost six pounds the last week; grew alarmed; had a talk with Mr. B- and concluded I had boarded out his share.


The following extracts from Miss Elizabeth Montgomery's “Reminiscences of Wilmington,” (Del.,) published in 1851, were copied and forwarded by Miss M. S. Gilpin :

The next place of note was an humble Methodist meeting-house, founded by a meek and lowly people, who would shudder at the Popish name of a church, though they did decorate it with evergreens on Christmas, and kept the day as a religious festival. It has been so often enlarged that hardly a relic of the original is left. Now it can vie with many buildings in large cities, and is called "Ashbury Church.”

We must not pass this primitive place of worship without a tribute of respect to John Thelwell, its devoted patron from its early dawn, and (with his worthy wife) faithful unto death. It would be easier for us to say what he did not than to recount his numerous duties. He was a ruler, an exhorter, and an efficient class-leader with these people. He was clerk of the market too, and once he weighed a woman's butter which was wanting in balance, and was about to take away the basket. She being near-sighted, and he having but one eye, she took the advantage by daubing a pound in the other eye, and thus made off with her effects.

He held the office of bell-man from time immemorial as crier. Many at this day remember Daddy Thelwell and his big bell, tingling as he passed, and warning the burgesses to attend their meeting in the little town chamber over the end of the lower market-house. Those are yet living who heard the joyful sound of his old bell ringing in their ears, arousing them from repose, his voice echoing loud and long, “Cornwallis is taken!" Could you believe, after being faithful to all these duties, he should be a schoolmaster, and of some note, too!

The more ancient hornbook, scarcely now remembered, became out of use in this country, and ceased to be imported from England when we undertook to teach ourselves learning after the Revolution. It was soon below our expectations, for it only contained the alphabetic letters, the numerals and the Lord's Prayer. These, fastened on a small thin board, about the size of a small spelling-book page, were securely nailed to it with a strip of bright brass for a margin, and covered with a plate of horn so transparent as to render the text clearly to be read, yet fully defended from the unwashed fingers of the pupils. One of the British poets has immortalized this elementary guide to all the future learning of our advanced age:

Hail, ancient book, most, venerable code,
Learning's first cradle and its last abode;
The huge unnumber'd volumes which we see,
By lazy plagiarists are stolen from thee;

But future times to thy sufficient store
Shall ne'er presume to add one letter more.
Thee will I sing in homely wainscot bound.
The golden verge encompassing around,
The faithful horn in front from age to age

Preserving thy invaluable page. But the intruding successor to teach the alphabet, spelling, reading and grammar, was Dilworth's spelling-book, with small print, like worn out newspaper type. The present generation would not now study such dim lights.

At the foot of Quaker Hill Mr. Thelwell had commenced teaching, but was soon promoted to the little senate chamber over the market-house, and this, at the corner of King and Third streets, was long his room. Most boys and girls were his pupils, at least during a part of their school-days. The boys' entrance was front, the girls' up an alley. Even in those primitive days there were some unruly children; but he adhered most strictly to the letter of Solomon's advice, and “never spared the rod." The rattan or ferule seemed to be in perpetual motion, and were as common in his seminary as gymnastics at this day, and woe to the boy mounted to receive the reward of his exploits or omissions ! But wondrous strange if after .such an exhibition he should return to school subdued. It can only be accounted for, that independence was not fully understood in the young Republic. Certainly it was not carried out as in this day.

The Bible was used for the senior class, and also Gough's Arithmetic, with sums in simple division that would fill a large slate, and puzzle many a brain, and cause showers of tears. This school was opened every morning by prayer and singing a hymn.

The village all declared how much he knew;
'Twas certain he could write and cipher too;
Lands he could measure, times and tides presage,
And e'en the story ran that he could guage.
But past is all his fame. The very spot

Where many a time he triumphed is forgot. Miss Debby Thelwell, the eldest daughter, assisted and kept the girls in order; she was a very worthy woman, but with no literary pretensions. Miss Polly rarely entered; she was timid and more refined. After the father's death the sisters united and taught young children for many years, until this worthy family were removed by death from useful employment.

On the northeast corner of Second street was a school of long standing for girls

There, in her noisy mansion, skilled to rule,
The village mistress taught her little school;
Well had the boding tremblers learned to trace

The day's disasters in her morning face. Mrs. Elizabeth Way was a celebrated teacher of needle-work, so important for misses in those times that even the art of shirt-making was strictly attended to, and fitting and cutting were taught here with neatness and care. Most of the older females, brought up in this town, have been her pupils.

Mrs. Way was a very respectable and worthy woman; she had received an education superior to most women of her day, and was endowed with a strong mind and strict principles of morality, yet an irritable temper was a drawback to her usefulness, and it was annoying to some of her pupils. She was a disci.

plinàrian of the old school, and strictly adhered to the wise king's advice. A bunch of switches or cat-o’ninetails were freely used to correct the naughty.

Leather spectacles were worn for slighted work. Much attention was paid to the position, for if the head leaned down, Jamestown-weed burs strung on tape were ready for a necklace, or if a person stooped, a steele was at hand. This was the length of the waist, and held up the chin by a piece extending round the neck, and a strap contined it down. It was not very comfortable to the wearer, though fitted to make the “ crooked ways straight,” but a morocco spider worn on the back, confined to the shoulders by a belt, was more usual. • The celebrated painter, Benjamin West, had been the companion of Mrs. Way's childhood and youth. As absent friends, they kept up a correspondence in age, and it seemed much pleasure to her to relate anecdotes of his early days.

Isaac Hendrickson, of Swedish descent, and then one of the most respectable shipping merchants, married her only daughter, a handsome and lovely woman, and highly esteemed. He owned the opposite corner where they lived. Mrs. Way was aged, and had declined teaching to live with her daughter. Her only son, a young physician, was also an inmate of this family. Mrs. H. and the Doctor both fell victims to the yellow fever of 1798. This sore calamity "brought down her gray hairs in sorrow to the grave."



Dr. Channing thus describes the discipline of the dame school of his boyhood in Newport, R. I, (1780–1794:) "I was a little amused with the objection which you say the

s made to your proposed school, that you want those essential qualifications of a teacher -gray hairs and spectacles. This objection brought back to my mind the venerable schoolmistress under whose care my infant faculties were unfo'ded. She, indeed, would have suited the ---s to a hair. Her nose was peculiarly privileged and honored, for it bore two spectacles. The locks which strayed from her close mob-cap were most evidently the growth of other times. She sat in a large easy-chair, and, unlike the insect forms of modern days, she filled the capacious seat. Her title was Madam, a title which she exclusively enjoyed. When we entered her door we kissed our hands, and Madam was the first word which escaped our lips. But I would not have you suppose that there was nothing but a title, and spe les, and gray locks to insure our respect. Madam was wiser than the She did not trust chiefly to age. On the right arm of her easy-chair there reclined what to common eyes appeared only a long, round stick; but so piercing was its vision, so quick its hearing, so rapid its motions, so suddenly did it reach the whispering or idle delinquent, that Ovid, had he known it, would have been strongly tempted to trace it, by many a strange metamorphosis, back to Argus, or some other watchful, sleepless being of ancient mythology. We, trembling wights, were satişfied with feeling, and had no curiosity to explore its hidden properties. Do you ask where this mysterious wand is to be found? I fear it is irrecoverably lost. The storm of revolution, which has so lately passed over us, not contented with breaking the sceptres and hurling down the thrones of monarchs, burst into the schoolroom, and Madam's title and rod were swept away in the general desolation."

As he grew older William was advanced to the boarding and day school of Mr. Rogers, which was considered the best in the town, and indeed had so high a reputation, that boys from a distance, especially from the South, were sent to his charge. It was the habit of that time to use flogging as the common penalty, and no master would then have responded, as all good ones must now do, to the words of Vogel:-"When we teachers become fully competent to our work the necessity of corporeal punishment will cease altogether.” This is mentioned because it is certain that what he then experienced outraged his sensitive honor, and served to arouse the feeling of indignation against any form of violence used toward children which grew so strong in him in later years. He would often tell an anecdote of a little boy in school trying to shield with his arms a larger one whom the master was about to whip. The contrast of the great heart with the small physical power, the noble position of the young remonstrant against tyranny, produced an indelible impression upon his childish imagination, and made the severity of the teacher and the quarreling of the children detestable and hideous.*

Judge Story, in a letter to the biographer of Dr. Channing on the influence which surrounded that eminent man in his college career at Harvard between 1794 and 1798, writes:

You express a desire "to obtain some general views of the circumstances under which the students lived." I believe that this can be best done by giving you a brief sketch of the state of college, and the relation which the students had with the existing college government. Things are so much changed since that it is somewhat difficult to realize all the influences which then surrounded them. In the first place as to the course of studies. It was far more confined and limited than at present. In Greek we studied Xenophon's Anabasis and a few books of the Iliad; in Latin, Sallust and a few books of Livy; in Mathematics, Saunderson's Algebra and a work on Arithmetic; in Natural Philosophy, Enfield's Natural Philosophy and Ferguson's Astronomy; in Rhetoric, an abridgment of Blair's Lectures and the article on Rhetoric in the “* Preceptor;" in Metaphysics, Watt's Logic and Locke on the Human Understanding; in History, Millot's Elements; in Theology, Doddridge's Lectures; in grammatical studies, Lowth's Grammar. I believe this is near the whole, if not the whole, course of our systematical studies. The college library was at that time far less comprehensive and suited to the wants of students than at present. It was not as easily accessible, and, indeed, was not frequented by them. No modern language was taught except French, and that only one day in the week by a non-resident instructor.

The means of knowledge from external sources was very limited. The intercourse between us and foreign countries was infrequent, and I might almost say that we had no means of access to any literature and science except the En. glish. Even in respect to this we had little more than a semi-annual importation of the most common works, and a few copies supplied and satisfied the market. The English periodicals were then few in number, and I do not remember any one that was read by the students except the Monthly Magazine, (the old Monthly,) and that was read but by a few. I have spoken of our semiannual importations, and it is literally true, that two ships only plied as regular packets between Boston and London, one in the Spring and one in the Autumn, and their arrival was an era in our college life.

In respect to academical intercourse the students had literally none that was not purely official except with each other. The different classes were almost strangers to each other, and cold reserve generally prevailed between them. The system of "fagging " (as it was called) was just then dying out, and I believe that my own class was the first that was not compelled to perform this drudgery at the command of the Senior class in the most humble services. The students had no connection whatsoever with the inhabitants of Cambridge by private social visits. There was none between the families of the president and professors of the college and the students. The régime of the old school in manners and habits then prevailed. The president and professors were never approached except in the most formal way and upon official occasions; and in the college yard (if I remember rightly) no student was permitted to be with his hat on if one of the professors was there.

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* Memoir of William Ellery Channing, Vol. I, p. 44.



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CHARLES Hoole, an eminent schoolmaster in his day, and the author of at least twenty-four contributions to the pedagogical literature of the English language, was born in Wakefield, Yorkshire, in 1610. After receiving his elementary training in the free school of his native place under Robert Doughtie, a Cantabrigian of high reputation, he proceeded at the age of eighteen to Lincoln College, Oxford, on the advice of his kinsman, Dr. Robert Sanderson, where he earned the reputation of a superior scholar in the Latin, Greek and Hebrew languages, and in pbilosophy. After receiving the degree of bachelor of arts, he commenced teaching in Lincolnshire, and in Rotherham, Yorkshire, and acquired from the start considerable note in bis vocation, and about 1649 he was London by several noted citizens to start a private grammar school, first in Redcross Lane, and afterward (1651) in Token House Garden in Lothbury near the Royal Exchange, where, according to Wood, “the generality of the youth under him were instructed to a miracle.” He afterward removed to Montmouthshire on the urgent request of some of his old London patrons, but not being satisfied with the result, he accepted a prebendship in the church in Lincoln offered him by Bishop Sanderson, and soon after became rector of Stock Billerica, near Chelmsford in Essex, where he died March 7, 1666, and was buried in the chancel of the church, under an arch in the wall, near the communion table,” according to Wood.

Mr. Hoole published in 1633 “Pueriles Confabulatiunculæ, &c.;" in 1637 he composed “The Usher's Duty; or a Platform of Teaching Lily's Grammar," and " The New Discovery of the Old Art of Teaching," which were printed in 1659, together with a little treatise entitled “The Petty-Schoole”—which together throw more light on the old and the improved methods of teaching, than any one publication of that period which has come to our notice. In 1653 he published "Phraseological Pueriles, &c.;" and in 1654 his “Grammar in Latin and English in four parts," first intended

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