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male and female. Successive acts were passed assimilating the system of common schools more and more to that of the western provinces and gradually extending the scope of its action, until in 1859 the incorporation of all the above mentioned schools into the one general educational system of the Empire may be considered to have been completed—and though there was no want of complaint of the too direct interference of the civil authorities and of the undue encouragement of the German language, yet the essential improvement in the condition of the schools was generally recognized.
Considering the common school as in the strictest sense a sectarian institution, the government refrained from interfering with the school affairs of the protestants, beyond defining the character of the high school and
requiring the permanent settlement of teachers. Forms were prescribed . for their appointment only so far as they desired exemption from military
service. Earnest endeavors were made in each of the evangelical denominations and in the unitarian to establish a fixed school system, but unsuccessfully. Still, improvements were made and schools and school attendance were increased in the Lutheran communities and to a less extent in the Calvinist. The permanent settlement of the teachers resulted beneficially, but the want of uniformity in the course of study and the inefficient supervision made cooperation difficult.
The statistics of 1858, approximately correct, show that the common schools had increased to 13,106, of which Hungary had 5,323 catholic, 376 Greek, 944 Lutheran, 1,920 Calvinist, and 258 Jewish—the Banat, 529 catholic, 595 Greek, 61 Lutheran, 22 Calvinist, and 43 Jewish-Cro. atia, 298 catholic, 88 Greek, and 4 Jewish— Transylvania, 830 catholic, 573 Greek, 529 Lutheran, 603 Calvinist, 107 unitarian, and 3 Jewish. The percentage of attendance in the several districts of Hungary was from 41 to 84 per cent. of boys and from 30 to 72 per cent. of girls—in the Banat, 71 per cent. of boys and 41 of girls—in Croatia, 13 per cent. — in Slavonia, 23 per cent.—and in Transylvania 62 per cent. of boys and 43 of girls.
For the regulation of the gymnasiums of Hungary and its former dependencies the “Plan of Organization" of the western provinces was prescribed in 1850, and here the sectarian character was so far made secondary that valid certificates could be issued only by such as were organized essentially in accordance with it. The catholic gymnasiums were soon altered in one way or another so as to conform to its requirements. But as, on the other hand, only a single lower gymnasium of all the protestant institutions consented to adapt itself to the plan, all the rest were in 1851 declared private institutions until a reorganization should be effected. The maturity examination was also introduced, though limited to some extent in the branches included. In 1853, in order to correct the existing want of uniformity, a general course of study was prescribed, and also regulations for the examination of candidates for teacherships. New gymnasiums, as models under the new system, were erected by the State and provided with able teachers from the western provincs--ai Presburg and Ofen in 1852, at Neusohl, Kaschau, and Leutschau in 1853, and at Unghvár in 1854. The course of study provided that the language of the majority of scholars should be chiefly used in instruction in the lower classes, and the German predominantly in the upper gymnasium, or at least in the highest class, for all subjects but religion and the native language, without excluding the latter as an aid. The protestant gymnasiums complied but slowly with the requirements of the law and as in 1857 only seven complete and three four-class institutions had completed their reorganization, the rest were deprived of the title of gymnasium, excepting four complete and ten lower gymnasiums which promised a speedy change and were simply deprived of the “public right” of granting certificates—as was also the Greek gymnasium at Neusatz.
The elements of opposition to the new system are thus seen to have acted far more powerfully here than in the western provinces. Not only did the representatives of both the protestant sects favor the extreme national party, but it found many supporters among the religious orders. The public feeling was strongly against those gymnasiums in which German was exclusively used as the language of instruction, and a preference was expressed even for the mixed German and Latin that had once been usual. Clamors also arose against the introduction of Greek, the system of department teachers, and the overburdening of the scholars. Up to 1859 only three teachers of the religious gymnasiums and as many of the protestant had submitted to the prescribed examination. The Ministry finally was induced in that year to allow to the corporation supporting a gymnasium the determination of the language of instruction, still maintaining German as an obligatory study and as the language to be employed in the maturity examination. Less opposition was shown in Transylvania, the Saxon protestants especially favoring the new system.
There therefore remained in 1859, in all the provinces, 90 "public" gymnasiums, of which 14 were State institutions, 13 communal, 37 belonging to the religious orders, 10 Lutheran, 11 Calvinist, 3 unitarian, one Greek catholic, and one orthodox Greek. Of these again there were in Hungary 31 complete and 28 lower gymnasiums, with 658 teachers and 11,209 students—in the Banat, two complete and three lower gymnasiums, with 53 teachers and 1,098 students--in Croatia and Slavonia, four complete and two lower gymnasiums, with 78 teachers and 1,047 studentsin Transylvania, sixteen complete and six lower gymnasiums, with 282 teachers and 4,018 students. At the remaining fifteen private gymnasiums there were 127 teachers and 2,269 students. Of the entire number of students, 11,061 were catholic, 1,176 Greek, 5,851 protestant, 250 unitarian, and 1,293 Jewish-as to race, 10,902 were Magyars, 3,239 Germans, 2,635 Slaves, and 1,658 Wallachs.
But, on the other hand, in its measures for promoting real instruction the government met with no hindrance. Until 1848 the only real school in Hungary had been that at Presburg. In 1859 there had been established two complete and three lower State real schools, one complete communal school at Pesth, and three lower ones in the Banat, and also two complete and four lower Lutheran schools, with a total of 153 teachers. and 2,159 pupils. Many of the teachers were drawn from the western provinces. The language of instruction was principally German-in five schools, to some extent otherwise. To the institution at Pesth there was also attached a trade school similar to that at Vienna, and a course was opened for fitting teachers for the burgher schools.
In October, 1860, the organization of the provinces was restored to its former basis, and the first action on the part of Hungary in respect to public instruction was the restoration of the earlier system of administration. The territory was again divided into five literary districts, over each of which was placed a Director of Education, with two associates, immediately subordinate through the “School Board” to the government, and having under his supervision the catholic and Jewish schools of every grade within his district. The evangelical school districts were left unchanged, coinciding with the four superintendencies of each sect. The Greek schools so far as not exclusively under the control of the episcopal authorities, were under the immediate care of the government.
With all other officials who were not naturalized citizens of Hungary, all “foreign" teachers were required to leave the kingdom before the close of the year 1861. These men, who had devoted themselves indefatigably to the duties of their positions, had been already subjected to much hostility, injustice, and insult, and even natives of Hungary who had favored the school reform, lost their influence and preferred to leave the kingdom, at least temporarily. For the common schools, meanwhile, the existing regulations were nominally retained, but for the gymnasiums a convention of teachers met at Ofen in August, 1861, by whom a new course of study was prepared, which was however not carried into operation. A provisional organization was prescribed by the government in October of the same year, which was shortly afterwards confirmed. By this, class teachers were again employed in the two lower classes, the same teacher giving instruction in all the branches of his class. The department system of teachers commenced with the third class. As to the language of instruction, the gymnasium became either exclusively Magyar, or mixed-some other native language being employed in the latter, conjointly with the Magyar, commencing with the third class, or earlier if expressly desired by the parents. Instruction in German is.obligatory even in the purely Magyar schools, and wherever the population belongs to different races the native tongue of each is inade an obligatory study. Great stress. is still laid upon the Latin language, to which forty-five hours weekly are given in all the eight classes, while mathematics receives but seventeen, and Greek in the upper gymnasium but six. The other branches are geography and history, natural history, physics, and philosophy. The total number of hours per week is from eighteen to twenty-three in each class. In August, 1862, an examining board for
candidates for gymnasial teacherships was appointed, without whose approval no teacher could be thereafter located, and even those already engaged were required to submit to an examination, those only being excepted who had received a doctorate. A thorough knowledge of the Magyar language is required of all candidates. Essentially the same regulations have been adopted by the evangelical gymnasiums.
In 1863 there were in Hungary ninety gymnasiums-fifty-eight catholic, fourteen Lutheran, fifteen Calvinist, two common to both sects, and one Greek. Twenty-seven of the catholic, five of the Lutheran, and the Greek were lower gymnasiums. Of instructors, 641 were regular teachers, 146 assistants and 137 associate teachers. At the catholic schools, 93 per cent of the directors and 84 per cent of the remaining regular teachers were ecclesiastics-at the evangelical, but twenty-five and sixteen per cent. The number of students was 21,052, distributed very unequally, several gymnasiums having from six to eight hundred, while nineteen had each less than one hundred pupils. In religion, 11,375 were Roman catholic, 917 Greek catholic, 920 Greek, 2,365 Lutheran, 3,739 Calvinist, and 1,733 Jewish. Maturity examinations were held at twentysix catholic and fourteen evangelical institutions, and of 1,165 students ninety per cent. were approved.
It had soon become evident that the new course of study was separating the gymnasiums of Hungary from those of Western Austria and making it difficult for their students to enter the higher institutions of that country, while it had been so variously understood and applied by the different gymnasiums that there was very little uniformity among themselves. Accordingly, in 1864, the teachers of many of them were consulted respecting a revision of the course and their opinions have been submitted to a commission, who will report to the Educational Council.
In the real schools little change has been made, except that the Magyar element is here also made more prominent and increased importance given to that language and to the geography and history of Hungary. There are four complete and ten lower real schools, of which four are State institutions and the remainder communal, with 140 teachers (of whom but 24 are ecclesiastics,) and 2,185 students—616 German and 1,330 Magyar -1,540 Roman catholic, and 392 Jewish. Four schools average over 300 pupils, and seven have less than 100 each.
Of the present number of common schools in Hungary there are no reliable statistics. It may, however, be said generally that their number has somewhat declined, the communities not being required by law to maintain their schools and therefore permitting them to go to decayespecially in the Northern and Eastern portions among the Ruthenes and Wallachs.
In Croatia and Slavonia the overthrow of the Austrian system was less violent and complete ; the foreign teachers were removed more gradually, the school administration was unchanged, and the course of study prepared by the diet of 1861 for all institutions, from the common schools to the projected university, has remained inoperative. The system therefore of Western Austria, introduced in 1849 for the intermediate schools, still remains essentially in force. The language of instruction is the Croatian, though at all the gymnasiums and at the real school at Agram the German language is an obligatory study-as is also true of the Italian at the
real school at Fiume. There are four complete and two lower gymnasi. ums, with 72 teachers and 1,116 students, of whom 999 are Roman cath
olic. The real school at Agram has twelve teachers and 119 students. The common schools remain essentially as in 1860. In 1863 there were 23 high and 502 trivial schools. At 202 schools Sunday instruction to adults was also given. The number of pupils was 36,390, the attendance being forty-five per cent. of the boys and forty-three per cent of the girls. In the language of instruction, 378 were Croat, 7 German, and 140 mixed -in religion, 394 Roman catholic and 115 Greek.
Transylvania severed to a less extent its connection with Western Austria. Of the modification in the gymnasial course of study enacted by the higher authorities of the several denominations and approved by the government, the most important was that making instruction in the geography and history of Transylvania more detailed in its character, and admitting metaphysics and moral philosophy into the two higher classes. The Calvinist institutions varied most from the existing arrangement. The language of instruction at all the Lutheran and at the two principal catholic gymnasiums is German, at the remainder Magyar. At the five complete and two lower Roman Catholic gymnasiums, the one 'Greek catholic, the six Lutheran, and the one unitarian, there were in 1863, 207 teachers, and 3,170 students, of whom 837 were German, 1,151 Magyar, and 1,120 Wallach-1,707 Roman and Greek catholic, 697 evangelical, 325 unitarian, and 333 Greek and Armenian. Of the complete Greek gymnasium and the six Calvinist, (the gymnasial courses at the four colleges and two distinct gymnasiums,) no statistics are given. Maturity examinations are held at all the complete gymnasiums.
We have little information respecting the real and common schools of Transylvania. The former have retained essentially their earlier organization. The four Lutheran schools have 31 teachers with 358 students. The common schools in the Hungarian and Szeckler districts, left to the care of the communities, have lost much that should have been preserved. A complete census of these was made in 1865.