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belonged to them, an appropriation of 16,000 fl. was made to each, from the religious and educational funds.
But the protestants of Hungary, after the death of Joseph II., protested against all subordination to catholic school legislation and were permitted by the diet of 1791 to retain entire control of their schools of every grade. As they refused to introduce the “ratio educationis ” into their schools, catholic children were in turn forbidden to attend them without special permission. Left thus wholly to themselves, the efforts of the communities for common school improvement were but partial and partially successful, and the zeal at first shown in some places soon died away. Though in the cities aid was given from the public treasury, yet most of the schools were dependent solely upon the protestant church and school funds, which were usually so insufficient that the teachers were obliged to resort to other occupations to eke out a support that their tuition fees and other perquisites failed to give. The protestant gymnasiums on the other hand became very numerous, though without any uniform course of study. Even at the five Lutheran gymnasiums of the first rank the classes were burdered with a multitude of studies to the neglect of the classics, the teachers were poorly paid, (with salaries generally of 100140 A., besides tuition fees, &c.,) and the libraries and cabinets were exceedingly deficient. The remaining Lutheran gymnasiums were far inferior to these, giving instruction only in the elements of geography and history, arithmetic, and geometry, in addition to religion and Latin. The numerous “scholæ grammaticæ" (some fifty in number) had been changed judiciously to high schools. The Reformed colleges at Debreczin and Sáros-Patak, the “pupillæ oculi” of Hungarian Calvanists, were very peculiarly organized. Of the students of the four-years course of philosophy and theology, which was conducted at each college by six professors who had received their training at foreign universities, four-fifths (distinguished by the “toga ") were prepared for service as teachers and pastors, living together in the college under the supervision of a “senior" and twelve “sworn men” (geschwornen.) On completing the course they received teacherships for one or two years in the ten lower classes of the college. These institutions possessed libraries of 20,000 volumes each, well endowed museums, and endowment funds of 140,000 fl. and 120,000 fl. respectively. The college at Pápa and seven gymnasiums were organized to some extent in the same manner. The Magyar language was taught at all these schools and was made the language of instruction at Debreczin in 1798. . But the need of reform at all these institutions was deeply felt and plans were sanctioned both by the Calvinist convention in 1807 and by the Lutheran in 1809, though neither could be put in operation.
The common schools for the Greeks were sustained by the government and existed, at least for boys, in nearly all the parishes of that sect in Hungary. Three teachers' schools were established for their benefit, and they had also two Latin schools in the Banat.
In Transylvania there were a lyceum and nine gymnasiums belonging to the catholics, five Lutheran gymnasiums, four colleges and six gymnasiums of the Calvinists, one college and three gymnasiums for Unitarians. There were also a normal school and seven catholic high schools sustained by the State, and two Greek catholic high schools. The Lutherans were well supplied with trivial schools, eight of which were enlarged to high schools. Teachers were trained at the gymnasiums. Some of the Calvinist and Unitarian common schools also were tolerably well organized. In the military districts scattered through the territory public instruction was in a somewbat better condition. There were here nine catholic schools, in which German, as the language of the army, was for the high most part the language of instruction.
In this undeveloped and unorganized condition public instruction remained until the middle of the present century.
In 1841 there were philosophical classes in Hungary at nineteen catholic and seventeen protestant institutions. The catholics had fifty-nine complete and nine lower gymnasiums, (of which fifty-seven belonged to the orders,) the Lutherans seven complete and six lower, the Calvinists three complete and five lower, and the Greek church two complete gymnasiums, besides the gymnasial courses at the five protestant colleges and seven lyceums. The Calvinists had also occasional Latin schools. The total attendance at the philosophical classes was 3,000-at the gymnasiums 20,000, of whom 16,000 were catholic, 2,000 Lutheran, 1,500 Calvinist, and 500 Greek. The instruction at the catholic institutions was still based upon the “ratio educationis" of 1806, while the salaries had been essentially increased. An attempt had been again made to reform the course of study at the Lutheran schools but with little success, owing to local opposition and prejudice. A kind of seminary for gymnasial training existed at Oedenburg, where the teachers received increased salaries, but elsewhere they were still dependent upon fees and perquisites and considered their office as only preliminary to a pastorate. The common schools, as respects support, were still left mainly without assistance, and where their maintenance was attempted to be made obligatory by legislation, it was resisted by the lower nobility. Even where some small endowment existed it was in the form of pasturage, fuel, fruit, wine, &c., and the teacher was in by far the most cases dependent upon agriculture, cattle raising, shopkeeping, or the offices of village notary or hedge advocate. An attempt was made in 1846 to remodel the catholic, Greek and Jewish schools after the School Constitution of Western Austria, but this "systema scholarum elementarium” was little heeded. The administration of the schools was especially defective, local supervision being almost unknown and actual control even more rarely exercised. In the Lutheran schools the age of admission and the course and method of teaching were wholly undetermined, and the same was true of the Reformed schools except so far as the teachers were scholars from the colleges and governed by traditionary rules and customs. Attendance was nowhere compulsory. Every one that could had a private teacher, more or less poor, and the country children were sent to school only in winter and most irregularly. Among the Lutherans a motive for retaining a child at school existed in the requirements for confirmation. In all Hungary and its dependencies the actual attendance was but thirty-seven per cent.—of the Jewish children seventy-five per cent., of the Roman catholic and protestant above fifty per cent., of the Greek fourteen per cent., and of the Greek catholic but eight per cent. The training which the teachers received really amounted to little, as the normal schools had remained stationary and were ill suited for the work. The protestant schools were frequently supplied by pupils of the lyceums and gymnasiums, but teachers could be found everywhere who were simply workmen, still carrying on their trade, and yet oftener discharged soldiers, strolling actors, or the like. In order to diminish this evil several teachers' schools were finally established through the efforts of some of the bishops, and in 1845 the diet authorized five similar semiriaries at State expense. But the efficiency of these in. stitutions as well as of other legislative measures was greatly impaired by the rapid progress of the Magyar movement to enforce the supremacy of that language. This movement originated in the powerful reaction in favor of the national tongue that had followed the attempt of Joseph II. in 1783 to force the German upon Hungary as the official language. The Ilungarian diet of 1791 had decreed that the Magyar should be the business language of the realm and made it a necessary study for all aspirants to public office. The National Academy, the theatre, and the press continued to exert a strong influence in the same direction, and in 1830 leyislation for its supremacy was renewed, culminating in the requirement of 1844 that it should be made as soon as possible the sole language of in. struction, of the pulpit and church, of books, &c., even in the non-Magyar districts. This aroused in turn the opposition of the Slaves especially, even more than of the Germans, and the attempted enforcement united in sympathy with them the Slovenes, Croats, and Servians, with political results most disastrous to Hungary.
In 'Transylvania in 1841 there were philosophical classes at three catholic lyceums, at four Calvinist and one unitarian colleges, and at five Lutheran gymnasiums; there were also thirteen Roman catholic, one Greek catholic, five Lutheran, five Calvanist, and three unitarian gymnasiumsall of which were under the control of the respective ecclesiastical authorities. The philosophical course in the catholic institutions was limited to philosophy, history, mathematics, and physics. German was taught at most of the colleges and was the language of instruction at the Lutheran schools. The catholic gymnasial course resembled that of the “ratio educationis." The Lutheran gymnasiums had a course of study, though but imperfectly carried out, in which real studies were to some extent included. The orthodox Greeks, debarred by law froin every branch of public service but the military, took little interest in education, had no gymnasiums and rarely attended those of other sects, were but poorly sup.
plied with common schools, and their ecclesiastics even were often very ignorant. The catholic common schools were better sustained, but still deficient in number. The Saxon territory was the best supplied and with the best schools. The number of schools in 1846 was 1,980, attended by nearly one-half of the children. The Magyar influence here also was strongly felt, but was persistently resisted by the Saxons.
The revolution of 1848 had its natural effect upon all educational interests. But a new era commenced with the closer incorporation of these territories with the empire and the formation of distinct provinces with similar relations to those of Western Austria. The energy of the Ministry of Instruction under the direction of Thun in the regeneration of public instruction in these provinces effected more in one year than had been done in any previous decade. The first thing done was a complete enrolment of the common schools. The total number was found to be 10,422, of which there were in Hungary 4,471 catholic, 221 Greek, 879 Lutheran, 1,771 Calvinist, and 83 Jewish-in the Banat, 349 catholic, 181 Greek, 47 Lutheran, 15 Calvinist, and 12 Jewish-in Croatia, 196 catholic, 32 Greek, and 1 Jewish-in Transylvania, 657 catholic, 367 Greek, 461 Lutheran, 563 Calvinist, and 116 unitarian. With great uniformity two-thirds of these schools had but a single class, while of high schools there were 393 in Hungary, 26 in the Banat, 12 in Croatia, and 47 in Transylvania, and of female schools in the same provinces respectively 394, 22, 13, and 195. According to the language of instruction there were in Hungary 777 German, 1,711 Slavic, 3,984 Magyar, 246 Wallach, and 761 mixed-in the Banat, 204 German, 196 Slavic, 77 Magyar, 15 Wallach, and 112 mixed-in Croatia, 3 German, 157 Slavic, and 69 mixed -in Transylvania, 455 German, 949 Magyar, 742 Wallach, and 18 mixed. The average salary in the different districts of Hungary was fiom 90 to 150 fl., in the Banat 210 fl., and in Croatia 250 fi. The total number of teachers was 14,131 in Hungary, 1,292 in the Banat, and 477 in Croatia, of whom 6,003 were catechists, 874 assistants, and 118 female teachers. The percentage of attendance in the districts of Hungary was from 30 to 60 per cent. of boys and from 22 to 47 per cent. of girls in the Banat 43 per cent of boys and 29 per cent. of girls—in Croatia 11 per cent. --and in Transylvania 26 per cent of both sexes.
Effort was first made for the increase of schools and classes, the better position of the teachers, the enlargement of school-buildings, &c., in which the Ministry met with the hearty cooperation of many of the communities, and among the considerable sums at various times contributed in this behalf may be mentioned the gift from Baron Haynau of 1,000,000 fl. to the Hungarian Jews for the conspicuous part taken by them in the revolution, to be spent in the erection of model high schools. Teachers were drawn from the western provinces, sometimes at considerable expense, and as there were no trained female teachers the new larger female schools were entrusted to the female religious orders. The gradual introduction of more energetic school supervision largely increased the attendance of scholars, the long interruptions of the country schools in summer became less frequent, calligraphy, drawing and singing were almost for the first time introduced, and Sunday schools for adults, hitherto almost unknown, were established in many places. The publication of the Hungarian “School Messenger" was commenced in 1856. The western districts of Hungary, (Oedenburg and Pesth-Ofen,) were preeminently active, taxing themselves beavily for school purposes and in five years doubling the number of their schools. The “Puszta" or "Tanya” schools were an entirely new creation, by which elementary instruction was given to the scattered villages in the out-lying districts of the cities of lower Hungary. Szegedin, for example had within its jurisdiction a territory of thirteen square miles in extent, (290 English square miles,) in which over 2,000 children were growing up in complete ignorance. This territory was now divided into twenty districts, school houses were erected, and appropriations made for the support of teachers. Where permanently located teachers were out of the question, circuit teachers were employed, and by some of the bishops Franciscan monks were sent out as teachers for the inhabitants of the steppes.
The Banat resumed the activity of the days of Theresa. The school buildings destroyed in the war were rebuilt, new ones erected, others enlarged, and in 1854 but two catholic parishes remained without common schools. Even Croatia and Slavonia were aroused to effort. The number of schools doubled and the attendance increased to nearly thirty per cent., though still over 900 villages with 20,000 children remained without schools. The Jews everywhere were conspicuous for the interest felt by them in the education of their children. Even the previously wholly neglected gipsy tribes (which number 60,000 in Hungary and over 80,000 in Transylvania) were brought to some extent under instruction, the recently more strict enforcement of the domicile and passport laws compelling them to partially lay aside their nomadic habits and engage in settled employments. In Transylvania the improvement of the catholic schools was effected more slowly, owing to the smaller proportion of the catholic population and the slower recovery from the disasters of the civil war. The Szecklers have made a notable advance since 1855, and Klausenburg, Hermannstadt and Cronstadt have emulated the cities of Hungary.
Legislation was at first chiefly limited to reaffirming the “Systema " of 1846 for all the Roman and Greek catholic, Greek, and Jewish schools in all the provinces, excepting Transylvania. In 1851 the text-book system of Western Austria was introduced and new books prepared, or the old ones revised, and in 1854 the gratuitous granting of books to the needy was commenced. Private instruction was discouraged and placed under stricter supervision. In 1853 the establishment of Teachers' Seminaries was undertaken by the government, resulting in the founding of sixteen Roman and one Greek catholic and two Greek schools in the different provinces, besides one for female teachers, and attendance at such an in. stitution was in 1856 made indispensable for newly located teachers, both