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struction must undergo an examination in some additional branch, at least for the lower classes. The examination is both written and oral, the former embraced in two questions, for the solution of which six or eight weeks are allowed, with liberty to employ any means of assistance attainable, and two other questions, for each of which twelve hours are given and the candidate restricted to his own mental resources. The oral examination extends beyond the special department to all the branches of the course.

Trial is also finally made of the candidate's natural fitness for teaching. The examination, if unsatisfactory, may be repeated at such time and to such extent as the examining board may decide. A year spent in actual teaching follows, to farther test and improve his fitness for the actual duties of the schoolroom, one or two classes being placed in his charge for not over nine hours in the week, under the observation of the director and class ordinarius.

Expenses—The Educational Fund and the manner in which the real schools are sustained have been already described. The expenses of the schools vary considerably, but the total annual expenses of a complete real school may be estimated at 18,000 f., and of a lower real school at 10,000 fl., according to which estimate the total expense of the real schools within the non-Hungarian provinces amounts annually to 600,000 fi.

Apprentice Schools.—Schools for factory operatives and tradesmen's apprentices, at the instigation of the chamber of commerce and trade, have been recently established at the real schools and at some of the gymnasiums, the teachers of those institutions being engaged to give instruction upon Sundays and weckday evenings. This instruction is in such branches as have reference to trade and industrial occupations, and of such special character as the local want may require.

3. Results of the Real School System. What has already been effected through the establishment of real schools gives much promise for the future, but the system is yet in its infancy and there is a manifest need of a large increase in their numbers. This want is the most pressing in Upper Austria, Styria, Prague and Southern Bohemia, and of all the provinces Lower Austria alone is tolerably supplied. In the principal industrial provinces of Austria, the attendance in Moravia and Silesia is one scholar to a population of 820, in Lower Austria 903, in Bohemia 1,360, while in the comparatively nonproducing provinces of Galicia and Bukowina it is but one in 7,800, and in Lombardy and Venice, where the idea of the real school has not yet become popular, but one in 8,420. The general ratio of attendance is less than at the gymnasiums. The nationalities rank somewhat as followsJews, (one in 680)—Germans and Czechish Moravians, (1,300)—Italians, Slovenes and Poles, (5,000)---Croats and Servians, (8,300)—Wallachs (14,000)—and Ruthenes, (41,000.) The increase of attendance from 1857 to 1863 was seventeen per cent., or three times that of the population, while the total increase from 1851 to 1863 at the gymnasiums and real schools of all grades combined was fifty-eight per cent., or more than five times the rate of increase of the population. The attendance of “privatisten", is very small and is mostly confined to particular schools and especially to the lower classes. The overcrowding of the classes exists even to a greater extent than at the gymnasiums. The proportion of regular teachers is nearly the same, being seventy-three per cent. of the whole number.

In regard to salaries the real schools are decidedly inferior to the gymnasiums, and in many places the lower grade of salary barely suffices to afford the merest necessaries of life. The condition of the libraries and natural history collections, &c., is as yet very unsatisfactory, notwithstanding all the liberality of the communes. The chemical laboratories everywhere are comparatively the best furnished. But in stipends the real schools are greatly deficient. Of all the 9,821 students of 1863, only 121 received stipends, which amounted to 14,020 fl., and these were mostly confinod to the provincial capitals. The public mind, however, is awaking to their necessity, and assistance is also rendered to some extent by aid societies and in other ways.

On comparing the ages of the students of the first and sixth classes at the close of the year, it is found that not five but six years have elapsed between the classes and the result is nearly the same as if the regular course of instruction were seven instead of six years, showing that the present course is too narrowly limited in time. This result is partly due to the overburdening the pupils with branches that should be taught elsewhere. The introduction of architecture and machinery, which in other countries are found only in special schools, the likewise unusual excess of chemical instruction, and the admission of such studies as mercantile arithmetic and the principles of customs and exchange, which better belong to a special course of practical instruction, are condemned by all schoolmen. Even after the removal of these branches, and of calligraphy and business composition, which have been assumed from the higher course of the burgher school, a more judicious and systematic arrangement of the remaining branches would be required, especially of drawing and mathematics, natural history and physics. Hand in hand with this reform would go the extension of the course by studies of a broader educational character. More extended instruction in history, and the giving to the grammar and literature of some modern language an equal position with the present language of instruction, meet with universal approval, and many of the most experienced teachers desire the change of the lower real school into a real-gymnasium by the introduction of classical study, and the continuation of Latin, at least as an optional, in the higher classes. For this purpose the propriety of adding another year to the lower real school course is not disputed; but a like extension of the higher course will also be necessary if it be made to include, as is proposed, one or two modern languages, or Latin, and perhaps the elements of philosophy.


There would still remain, as optional branches, calligraphy, music, gymnastics, and one or more modern languages, sor which there should be no requirement of special tuition fees. The burgher school would then be restored to its proper position and, with the newly organized apprentice schools, would accommodate many of those students who now attend the real schools from want of other institutions more suited to their needs and the attempt to supply whose requirements makes now the duty of the real school the more complicated and difficult.

During the last five years the proportion of scholars in each class that were found prepared for promotion at the end of the year has been seventy-five per cent. About twelve per cento attain the certificate of the. first grade. Nearly two-thirds of the students, upon completion of the course, enter upon higher technical studies, four per cent. upon commercial study, and as many more upon preparation for teacherships, while over one-fourth apply themselves to agricultural study or forestry, enter the naval academy, or engage immediately in business, in a government clerkship, or the like. An increase in the kinds of business into which one who has passed the real school can immediately enter, will naturally follow the proposed extension of its general studies and the introduction of the maturity examination as a guarantee of the intellectual proficiency of the student. This examination and the study of Latin will also probably assure admission to particular departments of university study.


VANIA.* It is needless to represent in detail how little the general interests of education could prosper within the Hungarian provinces under the calamities and adverse influence of the last two centuries, the commotions attendant upon wars, revolutions and conquest, dissensions between races

*Prior to the revolution of 1848 "Hungary and its dependencies (partes adnera)” included Hungary proper, and the kingdom of Croatia and Slavonia The Grand Duchy of Transylvania was essentially distinct, but united to Austria through the crown of llungary In 1819 the whole territory was reorganized into four separate provinces, similar to the western provinces of the Empire, viz., Hungary, Croatia and Slavonia, the Servian Waywodeship and Banat, and Transylvania, but in 1860 the Emperor found himself compelled to restore the earlier organization. The population of Hungary is very diverse in race and religion, comprising the Magyars (4.500,000) in the fertile regions of the centre and S. W., the Slovenes (1,80 ,000) in the mountain regions of the N W. and N., and the Ruthenes (450,000) in those of the N. E., Servians, Slavonjans and Illyrians, 100,000) in the S., Croats and Wends (100,000) in the S. W., Wallachs (650,000) in the S E., Germans (1,000,000) and Jews (350,000) in scattered districts and towns, besides Gipsies, Szeklers, Armenians, Bulgarians, &c. In religion, 4,700,000 are Roman Catholic, 750.000 Catholic or United Greek, 550,000 non-united or Orthodox Greek, 1,750,000 Calvanists, 900,000 Lutherans, and 350,000 Jews. The inhabitants of Croatia and Slavonia are principally Croats and Servians, and almost exclusively Roman Catholics. They are very little cultivated, in fact semi-barbarians. In Transylvania the distinctions of race and religion are so

strongly defined as to have long been constitutionally recognized, dividing the territory into the . lands of the Magyars (270,000 Calvinists and 200,000 Roman Catholic) chiefly in the N. E., of the

Szeklers (Unitarians, 60,000) in the E., of theSaxons (Lutheran, 200,000) in the S. and N. E, and of the Wallachs, (500,000 united and 600,000 non-united Greek.)

and creeds, and unceasing struggles for civil and religious liberty. Yet early exceptions existed. The numerous German colonies that in the twelfth and thirteenth centuries had settled in Northern Hungary and in Transylvania were not only conspicuously prosperous even in times of the greatest trouble, but carefully nourished the germ of classical culture. Here the tenets of the Reformation found ready acceptance and the mis sionaries of Lutheran doctrine brought with them also Melancthon's system of instruction. In the middle of the sixteenth century there had been organized an excellent gymnasium at Cronstadt, and several of the previous Latin schools of the cities were afterwards raised to a similar grade, while scarcely a community of the Lutheran faith remained without its common school. The same was true to a less extent of the Calvinist communities, the Magyar pastors and teachers of that faith being less cultivated than the Lutheran Germans. Elementary instruction among the catholics was due almost solely to the labors of the Piarists. But from the times of Ferdinand II. and Cardinal Pázmán, the Jesuits began to multiply their gymnasiums, (the first was founded at Presburg in 1626,) so that at the expulsion of the order in 1773 there were twentyseven in Hungary, six in Croatia and Slavonia, one in the Banat, and three in Transylvania, besides which the Jesuits had nine and the Piarists seven “convicte."

Before the middle of the eighteenth century many of the Protestant intermediate schools and endowments had perished, nearly all the Magyar magnates had returned to the catholic faith, and intercourse between the Germans and their fatherland had become neglected, to the detriment of culture and the schools. In the Banat also the long continued sway of the Turks and the exclusion, as in Transylvania, of the Wallachs and of all belonging to the Greek church from all political rights, had exerted a most depressing effect, and in the indifference of that church to educational matters the government itself finally interfered and directed the civil authorities to prepare a plan of school organization. But the Empress Maria Theresa took the school interests of the entire empire under her care and simultaneously with the creation of the Board of Education of the western provinces formed also an Educational and School Board for Hungary, through whom the first normal school was founded at Presburg in 1774. A “ratio educationis” or general school system, was also reported by them in 1777, adpating in some measure the school ordinances of the western provinces to the relations of the kingdom, for which purpose it was divided, with Croatia and Slavonia, into nine "literary districts." In each district there was immediately established a normal school, and the imperial estates took the lead in introducing common schools, which were required in every parish as far as practicable. The plan designed for the Greek population of the Banat was approved in 1774, under which within three years 373 schools were established, forty others enlarged, schoolbooks were prepared, and teachers sent to Vienna for instruction. But in 1778 the Banat was united to Hungary, forming


another literary district under its school system, which, however, received little attention beyond the normal schools and the imperial estates until after the death of the Empress, that active rivalry between cities and communities, landed proprietors and clergy, that was shown in Western Austria being here wanting. In Transylvania teachers were trained in the new method of instruction at the Theresan Orphan Asylum, but here, as in Hungary, the new system found little favor with the noncatholic population, and the course of study proposed in the “ratio educationis” for the Latin schools, gymnasiums and philosophical classes, was carried out but rarely.

On the expulsion of the Jesuits the property of the order was devoted to public instruction and realized in 1780 a sum of over 10,000,000 f., from which deducting the sums set apart to the universities, there remained for other institutions an annual income of 280,000 Al., corresponding at the then rate of interest to a capital of 7,000,000 fl. That little immediate good resulted was chiefly owing to the violent though well

meant measures of Joseph II., by whom school attendance was made compulsory and extended even to Sunday instruction, German was introduced into the high schools and a knowledge of it made necessary to admission at the gymnasiums, tuition fees were established though repugnant to privilege and custom, and the effort was made to give a mixed or “paritätisch: character to the high school, which caused equal offense to all denominations. These and other educational measures excited so zealous an opposition that they became wholly inoperative and at the death of the Emperor (1790) were entirely done away with.

By the Hungarian diet, which reestablished the former constitutional position of the kingdom, a new “ratio educationis" was prepared in tolerable conformity with the principles of Rottenham as developed by the Austrian Board of Educational Reform, which was approved in 1806 and immediately introduced into all the catholic schools of Hungary and its dependencies. Every catholic community was required to sustain a trivial school, seventy-three cities and market towns should each have its high school, and the ten normal schools should serve as training institutions for teachers. Latin was made the language of instruction in the philosophical classes and as far as practicable at the gymnasiums.— There were then fifty-four complete six-class gymnasiums and six four-class "scholæ grammaticæ," thirty of which belonged to the religious orders. The gymnasiums at Ofen, Raab, Presburg, Kaschau, Grosswardien and Agram (the seats of the university and of the five academies,) were styled archgymnasiums and were under the same direction as those higher institutions. Philosophical classes existed at these places and at the lyceums at Erlau, Waizen, Steinamanger and Szegedin. Upon restoration of the convents, abolished by Joseph II., instruction was made obligatory upon them, and the transfer of existing gymnasiums to the care of the orders was encouraged. As the Piarists by the sequestration of their estates were disabled from supporting the twenty-five gymnasiums that

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