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both on account of the want of teachers, which could not otherwise be remedied but by the appointment of ex-Jesuits, and for the purpose of procuring means, even at the expense of the gymnasiums, for the improvement of the common schools. Another prominent motive was the fear lest agriculture, trade and commerce should suffer if the facilities for entering upon literary pursuits were too great. A number of the more incomplete and poorly endowed institutions were accordingly gradually suppressed, amounting in all to thirty-two, and embracing some that had not belonged to the Jesuits.
The necessity, however, for a more complete and uniform organization of the schools that remained was no less urgent than before. The State Board of Education, temporarily suspended in 1772, upon the death of Swieten and resignation of the Archbishop, who was opposed to many of the proposed changes, was revived in 1774, with Kressel as president, and required to report a plan of reform.for all the educational institutions of the Empire, including common schools, gymnasiums, convent schools, academies, and universities, and giving special consideration to the question of the general use of the German language in instruction. A partial report, giving a plan of study for the "philosophical” course, drawn up by Martini, was made, and received the approval of the Empress during the same year, and provision was made for the introduction of the revised course in the University at Vienna, and as soon as possible in the other universities and convent schools. The question of gymnasial reform, however, was not so easily decided, and occasioned hot dispute between two opposing parties—the one favoring the system of the Jesuits, the other desiring to introduce a course and method similar to those which years of trial in the more advanced German States, especially in Prussia and Saxony, had proven so excellent and advantageous. Prominent among the plans proposed by the latter party was one advanced by Prof. Hess, of the Vienna University, which regarding the gymnasiums as institutions chiefly for general instruction, preparatory to higher scientific study, still retained Latin as the principal branch, but added to it a judicious and somewhat extended course of Greek and German study, mathematics, history, and natural science—the whole wrought out with much minuteness of detail. Martini recognized its many excellencies and warmly recommended it to the approval of the State Board, and after being modified by Hess in some of its wider deviations from the existing system, it was reported by them to the Empress, and by her referred to her principal ministers for their opinions. But the idea that a gymasium should not have an exclusively philological character had not yet gained general favor, and while many experienced schoolmen received and sustained the projected change with enthusiasm, many others prominent in the government were as violently opposed to it. The Empress finally appealed to Gratian Marx, then principal of the Savoy Ritter Academy, who laid before a special Educational Board a plan which was approved by them, and shortly afterwards, (October, 1775,) received the imperial sanction.
This system of Marx was fashioned upon the model of the Piarist institutions, in which, through the concerted action of the principals, various changes and reforms had been made as early as 1763. But beyond stricter regulations respecting the qualifications for admission, the semi-annual examinations and classification of the students and the removal of such as were found incompetent, the requirement of a thorough knowledge of Latin and its use in both speaking and writing on the part of all students intended for the university, and special provision for the supervision of the gymnasiums in the several provinces, the changes in the course of study were made only gradually as proper text-books were prepared, and were still incomplete at the death of the Empress in 1780. In the three grammar classes, the principal aim was still to speak Latin with correctness, to which was added a slight knowledge of Greek and some instruction in arithmetic, geography, and history, with the catechism. In the two humanity classes, all the instruction in the languages was given wholly in Latin, and admission and promotion depended upon the proficiency of the scholars in its use. Additional teachers were here provided for instruction in Greek, and though the standing of the students was not effected by their proficiency in this language, no premiums could be gained without satisfactory progress in it. Increased attention was to be given to mathematics, history, and geography, and as was previously the case, admission to the philosophical course depended upon the result of an examination in the studies of the gymnasium. No children of the class of serfs could be admitted to these classes, even so late as 1804, without permission from the public authorities.
But Joseph II., notwithstanding all that was done by him for the benefit of the common schools, had but little sympathy with many of the plans of gymnasial reform. The idea of Hess, that the gymnasiums should be made institutions for laying the ground-work of a general education, seemed a dream that was impossible to be realized. Their proper aim appeared to him rather to be the education of capable civil officers, the inculcation of "morality,"* and the imparting of such instruction as was most immediately and practically useful. The legislation of his reign was chiefly confined to general instructions to directors and teachers in relation to text-books, and a single ordinance upon the subject of instruction and discipline. The practical acquisition of the Latin language was made the principal object, the secondary branches being left in a great measure to the pleasure of the individual teachers. The course and amount of instruction were carefully regulated and none but the prescribed textbooks were permitted, to the exclusion of the many manuscript works in
•The term “morality,” as often used in this connection, does not convey at once to the American mind its true, prominent idea, implying, as it does, a habit of obedience to constituted authority, and compliance with law, which makes its inculcation a matter of supreme political importance.
which teachers had, too often to the detriment of their pupils, shown off their learning or self-conceit. Corporal punishment was prohibited and a system of rewards and punishments substituted, by means of records of merit and demerit, seats of honor and disgrace, and various similar methods of appeal to the sensitiveness of the scholars. Private meetings and societies of students, of a religious character, were forbidden, and regular attendance upon public worship, daily mass, catechetical instruction, &c., was made obligatory. The philosophical classes were also reorganized, the only essential reform being the substitution of the German language for the Latin, till this time exclusively used in instruction. Upon the whole, the character and efficiency of this higher department, under the influences bearing upon it, had deteriorated. In addition to these regulations, Greek was afterwards made so far obligatory upon the uni. versity classes that even the lowest grade for certificate could not be obtained without satisfactory progress in it. Hitherto, instruction in the gymnasiums had been gratuitous, and aided by the religious orders many had attended who afterwards found it difficult to sustain themselves through a course of university study. To discourage the attendance of such students, and also to increase the number of stipends, tuition fees were now exacted, varying from twelve to eighteen florins in the different gymnasial and philosophical classes, and the amount thus raised was added to the fund from which stipends were granted to students designed for the university. At the same time, the “seminaries" and boarding schools (convicte) were abolished, and their property added to the same fund. The establishment of private institutions was discouraged and valid certificates could be granted only by the gymnasiums, on which account their semi-annual examinations were open to private pupils. It soon, however, became evident, even to the government, that these schools were not fulfilling their object, and the more that no means were provided for the training of their teachers. Simply to pass the semi-annual examinations became the sole purpose for which the pupils studied, and discipline disappeared as its religious foundation was swept away by the rationalistic tendencies of the times. The party that had opposed the Emperor's reforms, especially in religious matters, called attention to these evils, and memorialized the throne for their reform. The Emperor himself acknowledged the force of these complaints, and only a few days before his death, (February, 1790,) appointed a commission to report a plan for the more perfect organization and gradation of the gymnasiums and higher schools. His successor, Leopold II,, to whom the complaints were renewed, entrusted the reform to Martini, already president of the commission appointed by Joseph. Martini's plan, which went into effect in October, 1790, consisted in the formation of a “Teachers' Association" in each university department and in each gymnasium, which should have control of the instruction in their institutions, subject to the general direction of the “Educational Session” in each province, which was in turn subject indirectly to the higher school officials. Some provision was made for the supply of more capable teachers, but the details of the plan upon these and other points, instruction, discipline, &c., are of the less importance as it was never carried but imperfectly into operation.
Emperor Francis succeeded Leopold II. in 1792. He favored the peculiar views of his minister, Rottenhann, who recognized the superiority of the gymnasiums of Protestant Germany, and recommended an examination of them and of the public schools of England. But in his opinion the higher speculative and historical branches of the philosophical course should be placed as far as possible out of general reach, and their pursuit by those who intended to engage in the practical business of life, and who could not hope to acquire a thorough understanding of them, should be discouraged as dangerous. Ordinary men should be content with the studies of immediate use to them and with received rules and principles. Prominence should therefore be given in the philosophical classes to mathematics and the natural sciences, while the instruction in history should be conducted with great care and judgment, to avoid conveying dangerous impressions and erroneous ideas, and a complete course of philosophical study should be established at only two or three of the universities. The correctness of these opinions was immediately questioned and warmly discussed by the Board of Educational Reform, which was appointed in 1795, and the debate was continued until interrupted for the consideration of the special reports upon the different classes of institutions, made by the individual members of the Board. The report upon gymnasiums was drawn up by I. F. Lang, principal of one of the Vienna schools, and of high reputation for scholarship and success in teaching. Rottenhann submitted a plan for a "lyceal course," as a substitute for the philosophical classes, and as intermediate between the gymnasial course and a course of true philosophical study. Reports upon instruction in special branches were also made by Gerstner, of the Prague University, by Mumelter, of the Vienna University, and others.
The final report of the Board was not made until 1799, and some time passed before any decisive measures were taken. In 1802, the Teachers' Associations, which had become very unpopular, were abolished, and the previously existing offices of superintendent of gymnasiums and of the higher departments, were restored. Lang was appointed to the former position. Meanwhile several ordinances were issued, designed to aid the enforcement of stricter discipline, and to foster a proper religious feeling, in opposition to the infidel tendencies of the age. Every gymnasium was required to have a catechist, by whom two hours of religious instruction should be given weekly, and his good report was essential to promotion to a higher class or to the holding of a stipend.' Attendance at mass and at religious worship was strictly required, the conduct of pupils, even out of school hours, was under supervision, and their progress in school was encouraged by frequent reviews and examinations. Record was to be kept of the conduct and standing of each pupil, which at the completion
of his studies should be returned to the government and have decisive weight in the making of official appointments.
The first general measure of reform, differing in many respects from that proposed by Lang, was adopted in 1805. By this the number of classes in the higher gymnasiums was increased to six, and there were required to be as many teachers as classes, each strictly confined to instruction in a single branch. The hours of study were limited to eighteen in the week, half which were devoted to Latin throughout the course. Three hours were given to geography and history, two to mathematics, and the remaining two to natural history and physics in the three lower classes, and to Greek in the higher. The speaking of Latin was again strictly insisted upon in the third and higher classes. The students were to be graded according to conduct and proficiency into three divisions, by which promotion from one class to another should be governed, and at each semi-annual examination prize books were to be awarded. No private tutor or teacher could give instruction in the studies of the gymnasium without the permission of the prefect, (except country pastors in the aid of poor boys,) and private pupils in gymnasial towns were required to pay the tuition fees, to be present at the monthly examinations, and to pay an annual examination tax. A number of improved text-books were speedily issued, with detailed instructions and judicious advice respecting their use, for such as having been class teachers were least prepared to act as department teachers.
In 1808, all the regulations respecting study, instruction and discipline were gathered into a "gymnasial code," thus completing the organization of these schools, as the “School Constitution” had done for the common schools. The superintendency beyond the provincial capitals was committed to the officials of the circles—the subordinate supervision of the religious gymnasiums to the principals of the orders, and of the remainder to suitable members of the clergy. The director in each capital was also superintendent of gymnasial instruction throughout the province, and the one at Vienna was the referee for the gymnasial system in the State Board of Education, which had been re-established. By Lang's indefatigable exertions, the hitherto insufficient salaries of the teachers were raised, notwithstanding the unfavorable condition of the State finances, and amounted now to 5–800 forins, which resulted in drawing not a few able teachers from the legal profession.
A re-organization was at the same time being effected in the philosophical course, which was limited at the lyceums to two years and included only the most essential branches, but at the universities was extended to three years and afforded thorough philosophical instruction. The obligatory branches were religion, giving a more doctrinal basis to what had previously been taught historically,--philosophy, embracing psychology, logic, metaphysics, and moral philosophy,-elementary mathematics, physics, and general history. The instruction in philosophy, mathematics, and physics was given in Latin, while some attention was also given