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American Journal of Education.

[NATIONAL SERIES,]
No. I.-SEPTEMBER, 1867.

CONTENTS

PAGE.

PORTRAIT OF JAMES A. GARFIELD,

5

I. AMERICAN JOURNAL OF EDUCATION,

9

Original Prefaces, May, 1855, May, 1856, March, 1862,.

9

Plan of Central Agency, Journal and Library of Education,..

11

CLASSIFIED INDEX,....

17

1. General Principles and History of Education,..

18

2. Individual Views and Special Systems of Education,.

19

3. Studies and Methods of Teaching; School Organization and Government,...... 27

4. Teachers and their Training; Normal and Model Schools ; Teachers' Institutes,. 29

5. State and National Systems of Instruction,.....

31

6. Secondary, Intermediate, Academical and High Schools,.

32

7. University and Collegiate Education,.......

32

8. Special Schools and Departments of Science, Arts, Agriculture, Museums, &c.,.. 33

9. Military and Naval Education,.....

33

10, Preventive and Reformutory Education,..

33

11. Education of the Deaf and Dumb, Blind, Idiots, &c.,.....

34

12. Moral and Religious Education; Sectarian Schools and Instruction,

35

13. Female Education,..

35

14. Physical Education,...

35

15. Supplementary, Self and Home Education; Libraries,..

36

16. Educational Societies and Teachers' Associations,..

36

17. Philology and Bibliography; School-books and Periodicals, &c.,..

37

18. School Architecture,......

37

19. Educational Endowments and Benefactors,..

40

20. Miscellaneous, ....

40

21. Educational Biography and List of Portraits,.

38

IL EDUCATION RECOGNIZED AS A NATIONAL INTEREST,

41

Ordinance of 1785, Ordinance of 1787,..

41

Constitution of the United States, Recommendations of President Washington,.... 41

Speech of James A. Garfield in the House of Representatives, 1866,..

49

Act to Establish the Department of Education, March, 1867,.

64

III. CNITED STATES EDUCATIONAL Land Policy,....

65

Ordinance of the Congress of the Confederation, 1785,.

67

United States Land Grants in Minnesota, .......

69

IV. SUGGESTIONS ON STUDIES AND CONDUCT BY MEN EMINENT IN AFFAIRS,

Advice of Sir Matthew Hule to his Grandchildren,..

77

V. CoxsTITUTIONAL PROVISION RESPECTING SCHOOLS AND EDUCATION,.

81

VI. EDUCATIONAL REFORM IN SILESIA BY FREDERICK II.,...

125

Letter of John Quincy Adams, dated Berlin, March 7, 1801,.

125

VII. Public INSTRUCTION IN AUSTRIA,..

127

IL. SECONDARY SCHOOLS,

127

VIJI. SCHOOLS AS THEY WERE IN THE UNITED STATES,

185

LX. ENGLISH PEDAGOGY--OLD AND NEW,.....

191

Memoir of Charles Hoole,....

191

A New DISCOVERY OF THE OLD ART or TEACHING, BY CHARLES HOOLE-1659,... 195

1. THE PETTY SCHOOL,.......

195

X. EDUCATIONAL INTELLIGENCE, ......

208

Schedule of loformation sought by the Commissioner of Education,..

II. SECONDARY SCHOOLS,

129

1. Historical Development,....

129

Latin Schools prior to Empress Maria Theresa,..

129

Characteristic Features of the Schools of the Jesuits,..

129

Piarists and their Gymnasiums-Benedictines,..

130

Joseph I.-Churles VI.-Maria Theresa,..

131

Gerhard von Swieten, 1747-State Board of Education, 1769,.

131

Martini-Gratian Marx, 1775.....

132

Joseph II.--Obedience to Authority--Corporul Punishment forbidden,.

133

Leopold II.—Teachers' Association and Educational Session,..

134

Francis 1.-Rottenham and Board of Educational Reform-1. F. Lang,..

135

Superintendent of Gymnasiums-Gymnasial Code, 1808....

136

Special Instruction of Teachers-Philosophical Departments,.

137

Changes of 1824 and 1828-—Baumgartner--Ficker,...

138

Ferdinand I.-Iallaschka, 1837-Commission of 1841-44,

139

Statistics of 1828 ond 1838-Feuchtersleben's Outlines,..

140

Exner and the Reorganization of 1848–Hermann Bonitz,..

141

Count Thun--Seminaries for Training Teachers-Religion,..

142

Kleemann-Gymnasial Journal-Convention of Philologists, 1858,

143

Schmerling-Statistics of 1860-Hochegger,..

143

2. Present Organization of Gymnasiums,........

144

Classification-Complete-Incomplete-State-Ecclesiastical...

144

Language of Instruction-Supervision and Administration-State and Provincial, 145

Teachers-their Gradation-Duties–Appointment-Salaries, Pensions,

145

Course of Instruction- Latin-Greek-German-Geography and History,

148

Mathematics-Physics-Philosophy-Religion, .

150

Optional Studies-Music-Drawing-Modern Languages, &c.,......

152

Text-books, Apparatus and Salaries—Terms and Vacations Admission-Tuition, 153

Discipline-Examination--Private Instruction-Funds and Expenditures,.. 156

3. Results of Present System,.....

157

III. REAL SCHOOLS,.

160

1. Historical Development,...

160

Mechanic Schools in 1757—Experimental Lectures on Physics and Mechanics, 1757, 160

Book-keeping-Schools for Apprentices, 1763-Renl Commercial Academy, 1770,. 160

Rottenham-Commercial and Trade Instruction, 1795,.

160

Gertsner's Plan of Realistic Instruction, 1804,...

161

Reorganization of Commercial Academy at Vienna, 1809...

161

Commercial Development-Real School at Prague, 1833,..

171

Feuchtersleben's Plan of Lower Real School or Burgher School,

162

Real School at Prague, 1850, and Statute 1851,

162

Statistics of Realistic Schools in 1858–Journal,..

163

2. Present Organization and Condition,...

163

Classification-Public-Imperial Royal-Communal-Private,

163

Language of Instruction-Administration, State and Provincial,,

163

Teachers-Appointment, Number, Compensation, &c.,.....

164

Studies-Prescribed and Optional--Practical Course,....

165

Regulations as to Classification, Text-books, Tuition Fees,...

166

Examination of Candidates for Teacherships and Practice--Apprentice Schools,. 167

3. Results compared with Gymnasiums,........

167

IV. PUBLIC INSTRUCTION IN HUNGARY, CROATIA, SLAVONIA,..

169

Hungary--Population--Religion-Races-Luther's Reformation-Piarists— Jesuits, 170

Empress Maria Theresn-- Normal School at Presburg, 1774,..

170

School System of 1774-Expulsion of the Jesuits in 1780-New System in 1806,.. 171

Transylvania-Higher and Lower Schools in 1807-Condition of Education in 1841, 174

Revolution of 1848-Coont Thun-Hungarian Jews,..

175

Hungarian School Messenger-Legislature of 1851,.

176

Teachers' Seminaries in 1853–Statutes of 1858,

Real Schools--Literary District Organization,...

179

Croatia and Slavonia-Transylvania,..

180

V. STATISTICAL TABLES, ...

182

1. THE AMERICAN JOURNAL OF EDUCATION.

DOCUMENTARY HISTORY.

ORIGINAL ANNOUNCEMENT.

Issued as a Circular in May, 1855, and published in August following, with the first number, and

again with a Postscript in January, 1856.

In the great educational movement now going forward on this Continent, and especially throughout all the states in which the English language prevails, there has seemed for many years to the undersigned to exist, if not a demand, at least the want, not only of an American association of the friends of universal education, but of a series of publications, which should, on the one hand, embody the matured views and varied experience of wise statesmen, educators and teachers in perfecting the organization, administration, instruction and discipline of schools, of every grade, through a succession of years, under widely varying circumstances of government, society and religion ; and on the other, should harmonize conflicting views, expose . real deficiencies, excite to prudent and efficient action, and serve as a medium of free and frequent communication between the friends of education, in every portion of the great field.

In furtherance of these objects, a Plan of Central Agency for the increase and diffusion of knowledge on this subject was submitted to the American Association for the Advancement of Education, at its annual meeting in Washington in 1854. One feature of this plan was the publication of a Journal and Library of Education ; the former to be issued in monthly or quarterly numbers, to embrace the current educational intelligence of the world, and the discussion of topics of immediate and pressing interest ;-the latter to consist of a series of independent treatises, each devoted to the development of an important subject, or department, and embodying the reflections and experience of many minds, and the working and results of many institutions; and the whole, when complete, to constitute an Encyclopedia of Education. The plan was referred to a committeeconsidered and approved; and the Standing Committee were authorized to carry it into execution as far and as fast as the funds of the Association should admit. In the absence of any funds belonging to the Association, and of any pledge of pecuniary coöperation, on the part of individuals, the Committee have not taken any steps to establish a central agency for the advancement of the objects for which the association was instituted, or felt authorized to provide for any publication beyond the proceedings of its last annual meeting. Under these circumstances, the undersigned has undertaken on his own responsibility, to carry out the original plan submitted by him, so far as relates to the publication both of the Journal, and the Libraryrelying on the annual subscription of individuals in different states, and interested in different allotments of the great field, who desire to be posted up in the current intelligence and discussion of schools and education, to meet the current expenses of the former; and on special contributions in aid of the latter, by persons or institutions interested in particular treatises, as their preparation shall be from time to time advanced and announced.

The First Number of the American Journal of Education will be issued in August, on terms which will be set forth by the publisher. As it will be devoted exclusively to the proceedings of the American Association for 1854, it will not present the usual variety and arrangement of topics, which will characterize the succeeding numbers.

The first treatise or volume of the Library of Education will be published in the course of 1856, under the following title, “NATIONAL EDUCATION IN THE UNITED STATES; or Contributions to the History and Improvement of Common or Public Schools, and other means of Popular Education in the several States," on terms which will be hereafter announced. HARTFORD, Conn., May, 1855.

HENRY BARNARD.

P. S. After much of the copy for this Number of the American Journal of Education was in type, a conference was held with the Rev. Absalom Peters, D.D., in reference to the plan of an Educational Journal contemplated by him under the title of The American College Review and Educational Journal, which has led to the combination of our respective plans, and a joint editorship of THE AMERICAN JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND COLLEGE REVIEW.

Note to New Edition. The agreement for the joint proprietorship and editorship of the American Journal of Education and College Review, having been dissolved by mutual consent and for mutual convenience, the undersigned has resumed the publication of the American Journal of Education on his originai plan. A portion of the material intended for the first volume of the American Library of Education, will be published in the American Journal of Education.

Dr. Peters will continue the publication of an educational periodical to which he has given the joint name.

H. B. HARTFORD, January 7, 1856.

PLAN OF CENTRAL AGENCY

FOR TIIE ADVANCEMENT OF EDUCATION IN THE UNITED STATER.

The following Plan for “the Increase and Diffusion of Knowledge"

of Education and especially of Popular Education, and plans for its improvement through the Smithsonian Institution; or the American Association for the Advancement of Education was sub

mitted to the Association by Hon. Henry Barnard. The Institution for Association) to appoint a secretary or agent; with a salary, and to furnish a room for an office and depository of educational documents and apparatus, and beyond this not to be liable for any expense.

Agenda by the secretary or agent:

1. To devote himself exclusively to the “increase and diffusion of knowledge" on the subject of education, and especially of the condition and means of improving Popular Education, and particularly

2. To answer all personal or written inquiries on the subject, and collect and make available for use, information as to all advances made in the theory and practice of education in any one State or country.

3. To attend, as far as may be consistent with other requisitions on his time, and without charge to the funds of the institution, (or Association) Educational Conventions of a national and State character, for the purpose of collecting and disseminating information.

4. To edit a publication, to be entitled the American Journal and Library of Education, on the plan set forth in the accompanying paper (A.) 5. To collect

(a) Plans and models of school-houses and furniture.
(b) Specimens of maps and other material aids of education.

(c) Educational reports and documents from other States and countries. 6. To institute a system of educational exchange between literary institutions in this and other countries.

7. To make arrangements, and effect. if practicable, at least one meeting or conference of the friends of educational improvement in Washington (or elsewhere every year.

8. To submit annually a report in which shall be given a summary of the progress of education, in each State, and as far as practicable, in every country

A.

PLAN OF PUBLICATION.—A quarterly or monthly issue under the general title of the AMERICAN JOURNAL AND LIBRARY OF EDUCATION. I. A JOURNAL OF EDUCATION, to be issued in quarterly or monthly numbers,

embracing articles on systems, institutions and methods of education, and the current intelligence of literature and education, and to make an octavo

volume annually of at least 600 pages. IL A LIBRARY OF EDUCATION; to consist of a series of independent treatises

on the following (among other) subjects, to be issued in parts, and to be forwarded with the Journal to subscribers; the several parts or treatises to make an octavo volume of at least 600 pages per year.

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