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TRANSLATION AND TRANSLATIONS

BY THE SAME AUTHOR

CORPUS POETARUM LATINORUM. Two volumes. G. Bell & Sons, Ltd. Each 25s.

net.

LUCAN, DE BELLO CIVILI VII, VIII.
Cambridge University Press. 2s. 9d. and 3s.6d.
PHAEDRUS. Text with Critical Notes.
Oxford University Press. Paper cover, 5s. net.
Cloth, 6s. net.
PROPERTIUS. Text with Critical Notes.
G. Bell & Sons, Ltd. 4s. 6d. net.
SELECTIONS FROM TIBULLUS. Mac-
millan & Co., Ltd. 6s.
SILVA MANILIANA. Cambridge Uni-
versity Press. 3s. net.
TIBULLUS. Text with Critical Notes.
Oxford Uni ity Press. Paper cover 2s. net.
Cloth, 3s. net.
SERMO LATINUS. A Short Guide to
Latin Prose Composition. Macmillan & Co.,
Ltd. 35. 6d.
DEAD LANGUAGE AND DEAD LAN-
GUAGES. John Murray. Is. net.

AND TRANSLATIONS

THEORY AND PRACTICE

BY

J. P. POSTGATE, LITT.D., F.B.A.
Fellow and sometime Senior Lecturer of Trinity College,

Cambridge,
Emeritus Professor of Latin in the University of Liverpool,

President of the Philological Society

OMNIA VERTVNTVR

LONDON
G. BELL AND SONS, LTD.

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FOR fifty years in various capacities I have had to

OR

concern myself with Translation. In the hope that what I had done and suffered might be made of use to other workers in this field I resolved to give the results of a part of my efforts to the world, prefaced by a brief statement of the principles and methods to which, consciously or unconsciously, my practice had adhered. This I soon discovered could not be fitly presented without reference to the work of my predecessors, and the statement has changed to something like a treatise. That such a handling of the subject was not entirely superfluous may be seen not merely from its own importance which, educational literary and international, was never greater than at present, but from the confusion and uncertainty which have embarrassed it for so long

I have dealt chiefly, but by no means exclusively, with the two foreign languages in which I am most at home. This need not be deemed a disadvantage. The problems of translation from a modern language have everywhere their analogues in translation from an ancient one, whereas there are many affecting the latter to which the former shows nothing to correspond.

While on this side I have limited myself, on another I have taken my inquiry beyond what of late has been usual. Translation, like a Ianus bifrons, has a double outlook, with passages this way and that; and the sardonic visages surmounting its approaches seem to

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