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and daughter of his own from heaven to earth to instruct our people in the knowledge of his divinity, that so they might adore and worship him, giving them laws and precepts 10 regulate their lives like men endowed with reason. They were empowered to live in houses and society; they were taught to fow the land, cultivate trees, rear plants, feed flocks, and enjoy them like civilized persons, who made a proper use of their rational faculties. With these instructions our first parent, the Sun, placed his two children in the lake Titicaca (about eight leagues from the capital city of Cuzco), giving them full liberty to travel to whatever part of the country they chose, with this restriction only, that when they stopped for a night to sleep and refresh themselves, they should Atrike a gold wedge which he gave them into the earth. This wedge was about half a yard in length, and above an inch thick; and if it funk with one stroke into the ground, there they were ordered to take up their future residence, and form a court, to which all the people should resort. They were further directed to govern themselves with reason, justice, piety, clemency, and lenity. After they had reduced them to obedience, and subjected them to laws, they were enjoined to perform all the offices of tender parents to children they love, and to imitate the example set them by their parent the Sun, who doth good to all the world, furnisheth light and heat, maketh the seeds to vegetate, the trees to be prolific, and the flocks to encrease; watereth the lands with dews from heaven, and daily performs a circuit in which he visits every corner of the earth, to discover the necessities and wants of all things, and apply the proper remedies. “Thus, after my example, laid the great author of their being, I would have my children employ all their care in cherishing virtue and rooting out bad habits from the human breast: from henceforth I constirute and ordain you lords and sovereigns over this people, that they may be reclaimed to reason by your instructions, and maintained in regular society by your government."

6. Thus our father the Sun, proceeded the inca, having declared his pleasure to these his two children, dispatched them to execute their important commission; and they, beginning their journey from Titicaca northward, tried to ftrike the wedge in the ground at every place they reposed themselves, but it refused to enter. At length, after various fruitless efforts, they arrived at a poor place about seven or eight leagues southward from this city (Cuzco), which to this day is called Pacavec Tampu, or the Shining Dormitory. This is one of those colonies which this prince planted, the inhabitants of which boast of the title bellowed on it by the first of our incas. From hence he and

his queen descended to the valley of Cuzco, at that time a wild. and barren desart (A), halting at Huanacauti, where again the wedge of gold being tried, was received by the earth with such facility, that it sunk at one stroke, and never more appeared.” Then, said the inca to his sister and wife in this valley, our father the Sun hath commanded that we should make our abode, and in so doing we shall perform his pleasure. It is necessary, therefore, that we should now separate and take different ways, in order to assemble the people in such a manner as we may be able to preach and propagate the doctrine among them which he recommends.” Accordingly our first governors proceeded by different ways from the desart of Huanacauti to collect the people, which being the first place of their residence which they hallowed by their feet, that we know of, we have deservedly erected a temple wherein to adore and worship our father the Sun, and offer up thanksgivings for this benefit conferred on mankind. Our inca the prince pursued his way northward, while his confort and fifter directed her steps to the south, declaring to all men whom they met in the wild thickets and uncultivated places, that their father the Sun had sent them to be the instructors and benefactors of those inhabitants, and to wean them from that rude and savage life to a method of living more agreeable to reason and human society. In pursuance of these commands, they related to the people, they came to gather those who were scattered among those mountains and rude places into more convenient habita:ions, where they might live in fociety and friendship, upon such food as was allotted by nature for man. The people heard, beheld, and were astonished. They saw these children of the Sun cloathed in the habits in which their father had vested them; they observed their ears pierced to receive the complaints of the oppressed, and adorned with jewels as a mark of their superior dignity and birth; they greedily fucked in their words and promises of comfort, yielded to their persuafion, adored them as the offspring of a superior being, and resigned themselves to their tutelage and government. These wretches relating the wonder to each other, the fame of the prince and princess spread abroad; insomuch that multitudes of men and women flocked to them, submitting themselves to their obedience.

"GREAT numbers being collected in this manner, our first governors gave orders that provifion should be made of such fruits as the earth produced for the sustenance of man; left,

(A) Garcilaso, by a slip of been followed by Sir Paul the

pen, calls this valley à Raycaut his translator. mountain; in which he has

being scattered abroad in search of nourishment, the bands of fociety should be broken, the main body divided, and the members diminished. Others were employed, in the mean time, in building houses according to the models given them by the prince. This was the origin of our imperial city of Cuzco, which was then divided into two parts; the one called Hanan Cuzco, or the Upper, and the other Hurin Cuzco, or the Lower Cuzco. Those who assembled under the king inhabited the former, and those of the queen's train peopled the latter ; a difference arising from no fuperiority assumed by the king, and intended only to distinguish his followers from those of his confort, and to remain

an eternal monument of the rise and origin of society. This is the reason, added the inca, that in all our empire this diversity of lineage hath remained, being ever since distinguished by the appellations Hanan Aylla and Hurin Aylla, fignifying the upper and lower lineage ; and Hanan Sugu and Hurin Sugu, the upper and lower tribes.

When the city was peopled in the manner above rečited, our inca taught his people those labours that contribute to the conveniences of life, such as ploughing the land, sowing it with grains and seeds fit for the nourishment of man, and the instruments necessary to carry on husbandry with facility and advantage. He also taught his subjects to cut channels for those rivulets which now water the capital, and to defend their feet from stones and thorns by shoes, and their bodies from the inclemency of the weather and the vicissitudes of seasons by cloathing. On the other hand, the queen instructed the women in good housewifry, taught them all the domestic arts; to spin and weave cotton; to make garments for their husbands, their children, and themselves ; with all the other little offices that could render life agreeable, and reconcile the men to their harder labours.

The Indians being reduced to some form of civility, felicitated themselves on their change of condition; and with fingular acknowledgments of the benefits received, travelled with joy through the rocks and woods to communicate the happy news to the other savages, who had not yet tasted the blessings showered down by the children of the Sun. They recounted all the favours bestowed on them, and confirmed their relation by showing their new habits and cloathing, and describing their diet, houses, and employment. The curiosity of the favages to behold these wonders was rouzed : they resolved to have ocular demonstration of all that was repeated, ranged themselves among the rest to learn and to obey ; and one in this manner inviting another, the people increased, in seven or eight years, in so extraordinary a man

B 4


ner, that the inca was enabled to raise a considerable

army, and make conquests where influence and persuasion proved insufficient to draw men from their barbarous way of living, He taught them how to make bows and arrows, and instructed them in the use of these weapons ; so that they soon became a formidable power, and obliged all the surrounding states to receive those legal restraints, which serve to promote the happiness of mankind.

« That I may not be tedious, said the inca, in relating the transactions of our ancestors, and the atchievements of our first inca, you must know that be reduced all to the eastward as far as the river Paucartainpee, eighty leagues westward, quite to the great river called Apurimac, and Touthward, for nine leagues, as far as Quequefona.' To the several districts contained within these limits, he fent colonies, to some places a hundred families, to others Jeffer numbers, according to circumstances. These were the beginnings of this noble city, and of this vast empire, which your father and his countrymen (meaning the Spaniards) have conquered from us, or rather of which we are despoiled and defrauded. These were our first incas and kings in the early ages of the world, from whom the succeeding princes and We ourselves are descended but how many years it may be since the Sun our father sene his offspring among us upon earth, I am not able to ascertain precisely; but I imagine it may be about four hundred years. This inca was called Manco Capac, and his queen was named Caya Mama, of Huaco, both being children and brethren of the sun and moon; and now, having satisfied at large the request you made of me, I abstain from tears, that I may not MI

you with sadness; although my eyes, refraining from flowing, occasion drops of blood to fall from my heart on account of the inward grief I feel for the calamities of our empire and the misfortunes of our incas (B).”

Such : GARCILASSO, lib. i. c. 7, 8, 9.

The names

(B) The following story is translates Shining dormitory, and related by Herrera, as another our author The bouse of venera.. method by which the Indians tion, there appeared three men account for the crigin of their and three women. monarchy. It is still more ab- of the former were Ayarache, furd and ridiculous than the Aranca, and Airamanco, and of former, and is besides intirely the latter, Mamacola, Mamacona, omitted by the author of the and Mamàragnä, all of them royal commentaries. At Pa- clothed in long mantles, and cavec Tampu, which Garcilaso fort tunics, so beautiful and

elegantly Such was the fabulous relation of the origin of the em- The reign pire and the establishment of monarchy among the Peruvians, of Manca which was firmly credited by all the natives of the country. Capac, If we might be permitted to interpret this account in the most firsi inca. natural and probable meaning, we should imagine that the first inca, Manco Capac, had formed this tale the more easily to induce the credulous multitude to embrace his doctrines, by pretending they were of divine origin. It could not be long, indeed, before they must have gained reputation even without this pretext, so admirably were they calculated to civilize, polith, and refine the mind, and to promote social converse and felicity.

When Manco Capac had founded Cuzco, and reconciled his savage subjects to society, he began with planting colonies, as we find by the above narrative of the inca.' To the eastward he established 13 villages, filled with the tribe called Roques. To the westward he planted 30 villages within the space of cight leagues, which flourished so amazingly, that in a few years the whole country, as far as the royal road of Cantifuya,



elegantly wrought, that they a dreadful earthquake was felt, were called tocabo, or royal. which overturned mountains, They had a golden sling of pe- and entombed hills, woods, culiar virtues, produced great and rocks, in the bowels of the abundance of wrought plate, af- earth. Ayarache was seen flyfumed the government of the ing.through the air with beaucountry, built Pacavec Tampu. tifully painted wings, and a Ayarache having got the fling voice was heard, admonishing into his poffefsion, overturned the two brothers not to be amountains, and gained such a fraid, for Ayarache was going fuperiority, that his brothers, to found the empire of the injealous of his power, laid a Ayarache then discovered Aratagem to destroy him. They himself to his brothers, and enpersuaded him to enter a cave tered into farther conversation for a precious vessel, which they with them. He desired them had forgot, and to pray to their to build a temple where Cuzco father the Sun, to aslift them in now stands, in which the Sun the reduction of that country, should be worshipped: he preand bending the minds of the dieted that it would grow into favage people to the regulations a great city: he promised to of social institution. The un- watch over its safety and growth suspecting Ayarache entered the on a neighbouring hill, in his dark recess, and no sooner dif- present form, which he desired appeared, than his brothers might be held in adoration by blocked up the mouth of the his brothers, and their pofterity; cave with stones, to prevent his and he required, that as an emreturn; immediately upon whịch blem of their sovereignty, they


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