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luxuries of life, a large proportion sprang counted and played before them in their forth spontaneous. The plum glistened juvenile years, and courage becomes the in the foliage of the wood-the vines of most noble prize which an Indian can the grape mounted the most lofty trees, bestow upon his aspiring offspring. If an and hung their swinging branches from Indian want fame, let him excel in the the dizzy tops, and the earth below was arts of war-all others are of secondary choked and tangled by the creeping consideration. Stratagems-skill-imherbage that ran in wild luxuriance over passiveness under all circumstances it. It might almost have warranted the render a warrior among his tribe noble, belief that it was none other than Eden and his deeds shall be sung long after he itself, unmarred by the hand of civiliza- shall have laid himself down in the shade tion, but lying in all its glory and per- of the forest. fection, as when the unhappy couple fled I must bring up a character who bore before the wrath of the Almighty. a conspicuous part in the island of Hayti,
When the caravals of Columbus were when the Indians began to feel the first seen hovering on the shores of the Spanish yoke, and made a struggle for Indians, their superstition became awaken- their independence. He was a cacique, ed, and they were deeply impressed with named Caonabo. In a deep-laid plot, he an awful reverence. They supposed they was taken by a young cavalier, and came from out the eastern horizon, where brought in prisoner before Columbus. the sky bent down to the waters. Instead Previous to his capture, he had fought of resorting to reason to solve the phe- long and well for freedom, and kept up nomenon, their ignorance called in their the torch of war even when the neighsuperstition, and Columbus with his fleet bouring tribes were silent and peaceful. was supposed to be supernatural, under Columbus deemed him the most for. the care of Him who made the thunder midable foe around him, and therefore and kept the hosts of heaven in their adopted measures for ensnaring him.
And through this very same But when Caonabo came before the ignorance, the Indians have held their admiral, his high and lofty soul remained superstition even unto the present day. unbent—the haughty spirit which he
On the first landing of Columbus, he exhibited in the wilderness had not met with another trait of Indian charac- stooped; but even amid the camp of his ter, hospitality and kindness. Nor could enemies he bore about him an air of this be ascribed to fear alone; for sub- superiority. He plainly told Columbus sequently, when their superstition had he had intended to burn his fortress and become in a manner allayed, and by be- murder his people that he had shed the holding the dead bodies of the Spaniards, blood of some of them, and that it had they assured themselves that they were been his intention to slay more. He even indeed mortal, we find the same love and went so far as to lay before him a plan kindness actuating their conduct toward whereby he was to surprise the fortress, the whites. It is related by Irving, I and then, in the undaunted and firm dethink, in his History of Columbus, of a meanour which characterized him at the cacique, named Suacanagari, that he be head of his tribe, turned upon the admiral friended, and fought for the Spaniards with a scornful eye, bidding defiance to unto the last-even when every tribe his most exquisite tortures. After this beside was arrayed in hostility against he was conducted on board of one of the them, because he had pledged himself caravals, and bound down with chains. to do it; and many instances are on When Columbus visited him, he rerecord, where a chief has submitted to mained seated, rapt in a sullen, melan. the fate of having his village pillaged choly mood, taking no notice of him rather than restore a friend whom he whatever ; but when the young cavalier had taken under his protection. And at who entrapped him, came where he was, the present timé, no kindness goes far- Caonabo shewed every form of respect ther than the Indian's, and no gratitude by rising and saluting him. is quicker retaliated.
asked the reason of not paying due deAs regards the courage of the Indians, ference to the admiral, and lavishing his it is established beyond a doubt-no respect upon a subject, he said he loved dimming it—not even death. It lives the young man for his art in ensnaring amid the flames of the fagot-it never him, and his courage in bearing him away stoops-but is in all cases the same. The from his country and friends. Poor war-song is sounded to them by their Caonabo died on his voyage to Spain. He mothers while yet in their “tree-rocked pined and drooped gradually, even as the cradles”
deeds of chivalry are re- lion of the forest in his iron-bound den.
THE EFFECTS OF HEAT.
A SPANISH EXECUTION.
NOTES OF A READER. the clefts of the rocks, and from the
ground undermined by the lizards, mille
pedes, and cecilias. These are so many A native of Europe, remarks Dr. Arnot, voices, proclaiming that all nature views with surprise the effects of heat in breathes, and that under a thousand equatorial regions. Sealing-wax, he finds, different forms life is diffused throughout will not retain the impression of a seal, the cracked and dusty soil, as well as in butter becomes oil, a tallow-candle must the bosom of the waters, and in the air be poured into a lamp: if he attempt that circulates around us. to pour ether from a bottle, the ether disappears in vapour.
The whole of living nature is changed. Our oaks and fir trees transplanted to the torrid zone, I had an opportunity, while at Barcebecome stunted and shrubby. Animals lona, of being present at an execution, clothed with wool or thick hair, such as the first I had seen in Spain. The man the sheep and the dog, lose their cover- had been condemned to the galleys for ing, or exhibit only thin silky hair. The some previous offence, and had murdered English bull-dog, taken to India, in a one of his fellow convicts; and, although few months becomes almost naked, and this is not an agreeable spectacle, yet, as is deprived of spirit and courage. But in every country, public spectacles, whethough nature has not the aspect of colder ther agreeable or the reverse, exhibit climes, it assumes other forms of greater some peculiarities either of character or magnificence, and luxuriates in a more of manners, I resolved to be present. profuse development of life. The atmos- Three o'clock was the hour appointed; phere is more clear and pure, and tinged and all that morning, as well as the great with a deeper azure, the arch of heaven part of the day before, there was an is higher, the splendour of the orb of unceasing noise of little bells, carried light more intense, and the colours de- through the streets by boys in scarlet rived from the decomposition of his beams cloaks, with the bell in one hand, and richer and more varied. Vegetation, a box in the other, collecting alms to stimulated by heat and moisture, appears purchase masses in the different convents in its utmost vigour and beauty, from and churches, for the soul of the felon. the fig-tree that shades an Indian army There is another thing worth relating, to the waving plumes of the graceful connected with the last days of a felon in palmetto. The trunk of the adansonia Spain. A society, called the Benevolent measures thirty-four feet in diameter, Society, undertakes to soften the last the New Holland pine rises to a height three days of his existence, and to diof three hundred feet. Nor is the animal minish the terrors of death, by the sinkingdom deficient in magnitude and gular device of increasing the pleasures variety. Within the tropics are found of life. During these three days, he the largest quadrupeds, and birds of may have every luxury he desires ; he brightest plumage. The ground teems
upon the daintiest viands, drink with reptiles, and the air is filled with the choicest wines; and thus learn, in myriads of insects.
quitting the world, new reasons for deThe following description by Humboldt siring to remain in it. gives some idea of the exuberance of ani. I obtained a good situation, close to mation, even in its lowest forms, under the military who guarded the ground. the equator :
Besides the platform, there was erected, At noon, in these burning climates, at a little distance, an altar, upon which the beasts of the forest retire to the was placed an image of the Virgin and thickets, the birds hide themselves beneath Child; and opposite to this, a cross, with the foliage of the trees, or in the crevices an image of Christ extended upon it. I of the rocks. Yet amidst this apparent was much struck with the procession ; silence we hear a dull vibration, a con- the unfortunate felon was accompanied tinual murmur of insects, that fill, if we by upwards of two thousand masked may use the expression, all the lower penitents, who looked more like a train strata of the air. Nothing is better fitted of devils than human beings; a black to make man feel the extent and power of cloak entirely enveloped the body and organic life. Myriads of insects creep the head, holes only being left for the upon the soil and flutter round the plants, eyes and mouth; a black pyramidal cap, parched by the ardour of the sun. A at least eighteen inches high, crowned confused noise issues from every bush, the head; and each carried in his hand a from the decayed trunks of trees, from long white wand. This strange escort
was the result of an indulgence pub- to another, and shewing another paper, lished, and addressed to all persons con- “and you, my lord, know this;" and so scious of secret crimes, and penitent; on, producing documents that connected granting its benefits to such of them as every one present with the conspiracy; submitted to the humiliation of accom- " and now, gentlemen,” said he, addresspanying the felon to the scaffold. , Two ing the assembly, “you perceive that accomplices of the felon also accompanied I hold in my hands proofs of treason him, that they, might benefit by seeing you who have fomented this rebellion him hanged ; and a friar of the Francis, can put it down.; and I have instructions can order, was his spiritual guide. from his majesty, if the rebellion be not
After having been ted to thesaltar, and put down within forty-eight hours-I then below the cross, where he repeated am sorry for the alternative, gentlemena number of prayers, t: he aseended the but my instructions are peremptory, to platform, attended by the féiär, .who hạng every one of you ; and it will be a carried a large cross in his hand. When consolation for you to know that the the offices of religion were concluded, interest of the church shall not suffer, the man wished to caddress the people, for the king has already named successors and twice began,': Mis hermanos,” but to the vacant sees.” This reasoning was his voice was instantly drowned by shouts effectual'; the bishops knew the man from a, crowd at same behind they had to deal with*; and within a few the platform; no doubt so instructed"; hours the insurrection was at an end. A and when he found that he could not be man who threatens to hang a bench of heard, he gave the signal, and the execu- bishops, cannot be called apostolical. tioner immediately leaped I upon his - At the same period, but before the shoulders,sandaswung off the platform. council had been called,, when Gerona while the friar, continued to speak, and was closely, pressed by the insurgents, extend the cross towards bim, long after the bishop despatched a letter, to the he was insensible to its consolations. conde de Espana, saying, that it would be The spectacle concluded by the friar necessary to give up the city to the ascending to the summit of the ladder, besiegers. The conde, who very well and delivering a sermon, in which he knew how the inclinations of the bishop did not omit the exhortation of contri. lay, and what were the defences of the buting largely towards masses for the city, but who also knew the influence soul of the deceased. The exhortation possessed by him over the inhabitants, was not without its effect; the little who might force the troops to give it up, bells immediately began to ring, and wrote, in reply to the bishop, that his hundreds obeyed the invitation to piety. lordship being upon the spot, was no
doubt best able to judge of the state of the city ; and adding, that along with the letter which he had sent to the bishop,
he had also sent instructions to Gerona, In the latter part of 1827, when the Ca- that when the enemy entered the gate, talunian insurrection in favour of the the first thing they should see, might be Carlists took place, and when fifty thou- the gibbet of a traitor bishop. sand men in arms threatened the province with anarchy, and Barcelona with capture, the conde de Espana represented to the king the necessity of his appearing No one who has not attempted the task in Catalunia; and after his majesty had can fully appreciate the difficulty of comarrived, he, by the advice of the conde, pressing within prescribed limits the called a convocation of bishops, ostensibly remarks suggested by a subject affording to consult respecting the state of the superabundant materials of interest and province. The conde well knew, the excitement. When some one asked Sir connexion of the bishops with the plot; Walter Scott why he did not write his and was in possession of documents that Life of Napoleon in three volumes, instead proved their guilt. The conde, as repre- of nine, his answer was, “I had not time.” senting his majesty in that province, or A reply which will appear by no means by express delegation, presided ; and all paradoxical to any who have had the the bishops being assembled, he addressed least literary experience; as it is a truism them to this effect, if not almost in these among all such, that it is much easier to words : “ My lord bishop,” said he, amplify than to condense; to be verbose taking a paper from his pocket, and un- on the most barren, than concise on the folding it, “you know this;” and turning most fertile theme.
ENERGETIC MODE OF REASONING.
DIFFICULTY OF COMPRESSION.
OF FICTION, POETRY, HISTORY, AND GENERAL LITERATURE
ROMANCE THE SECOND.
MANORIAL ARCHIVES. explored, with patient feet, the dales, the
woods, and the river banks, which thy
monkişh or knightly edifices adorn, how (For the Parterre.)
great must be the disappointment!
I had mused a whole autumnal day in THE SCOURGED PAGE.
that enormous Abbey of Fountains, watching the sunshine and the shadow, as they mantled its majestic steeple, and
listening to the wind that made unearthly BELLARIO.-These two fair cedar branches, The noblest of the mountain where they grew,
harmonies among the herbage and shrubs Straightest and tallest; under whose still shades that fringed its hollow eastern window. Tbe wortbier beasts have made tbeir lairs, and
I had descended into the horrible souterslept
rains of Pontefract, shuddering at the Free from the Sirian star, and the fell thunderstroke,
gaunt and guilty aspect of its fatal Tower. Free from the clouds, when they were big with And often and again had I moralized humour,
on that verse in the Book of Chronicles And delivered, in thousand spouts, their issues always a favourite of mine, which says
to the earth. Oh! there was none but silent Quiet there !
of King Jotham:Till never-pleased Fortune shut up shrubs, “He built the high gate of the House Base under brambles, to divorce these branches. of the Lord; and on the wall of Ophel And now a gentle gale bath blown again,
he built much. Moreover he built cities That made these branches meet and twine together.
Philaster in the mountains of Judah, and in the
forests he built Castles and Towers." YORKSHIRE! gigantic, princely Yorkshire! Think how I must have prepared the what treacherous scribe was it, who, some best room in all my imagination to brief years back, advertised " Traditions receive the previous stores of tradition or Chronicles” of thy grand and romantic which such high-haunted places promised Castles? To an enthusiastic pilgrim like me! Alas 't was all in vain! Not one myself, who have, for many a summer castle or convent in all the three Ridings,
hath been as yet the better known for principal staircase of the keep leading this wide-mouthed “ Promissor!” from the lady's bower to the hall.
And yet, genius of romance! what a The stripling was of gallant aspect, glorious field is there for research and and both in thewes and inches, as well as for embellishment.
in the general character of his face, might Look for instance at the antique town have challenged several years above his of Richmond :
actual age, which scarcely exceeded fourCross the Swale by yonder bridge, and teen summers. ascend Bank-top, that steep and leaf-clad His chest was deep, his shoulders hill on the opposite side: from under- broad, and something more than down neath its grove of beech, and plane, and began to darken his rich cheek and proud fir, how very story-speaking is the aspect upper lip; while in his hawk's eye, aqui. of the castle. The Swale rushes loudly line nose, and clear polished forehead, over its stony bed below; on one side you might peruse daring, perhaps preof
you is a pine, shooting straight and sumption, and firmness, if not obstinacy; pillarwise into the blue heaven, and with and
imagine withal certain shades and the beauteous branches feathering from outlines of other qualities, which you a beech; on the other, it forms a frame, would scarcely wish to see fully devethrough which the great castle, and the loped. castle alone, dilates upon the eye.
His attire was redolent of that pictoThe steep burgh, variegated with hoar rial splendour which distinguished the and rocky vegetation, rising from the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries; and, river brink, its gleaning coronal of walls, by its gay colours and sumptuous matethe extensive façade of the south front, rials, proclaimed him the favoured and the ivied windows of its sunny hall, the even spoiled protege of the family at chapel and the bell-tower, but chiefly the Middleham. imperious Norman donjon, enthroned in His surcoat, fitted to his form so as the centre, and haughtily apart; the to shew its graceful proportions to advandespot of the pile,-all sheathed in a tage, reached from his throat to the midgolden panoply of meridian sunlight, dle of his thighs; it was of bright green stand up in the most picturesque inequa- velvet, powdered with golden grape cluslity of outline against a blue summer sky. ters; his mantle was short, and of the
Can you look without falling into a finest black cloth lined with rose-coloured trance? Can you not hear the bell chime satin, and its wide sleeves were scalloped to chapel or to hall? Do you not see in front, so as to shew a profusion of gilt the banner as
buttons, studding the vest from the cuff Fanned by conquest's crimson wing,
to the elbow; chausses of dark crimson It mocks the air with idle state?
silk, lent their aid to the rest of his cos- the beam glinted from the morion and
tume in setting forth a figure which partizan of the sentinel? the iris-woven seemed to have anticipated the vigour of scarf streaming from the damsel in the manhood, while it wore the bloom of courtyard?-the blue-gowned beadsman? springing youth. The Phrygian-shaped -the corded Gray Friar?—the baron cap, so much in vogue at this period, himself, with his hand of fate and eye of contrasted well with its deep scarlet die, gloom ? and what more fruitful vineyard those luxuriant locks of raven blackness do you in conscience demand, for a com
filling the summer air with needless bat, a murder, an amour, a siege, or an
odours from the costly unguents in which execution?
they glittered. This cap, having the The vicinity of this nobly seated town
black bull of the Nevilles in front, and is prolific in ancient structures, and to a
their motto NE VILE VELis in gold letters walk over the vast moorland, half sunset
embroidered below, added not a little to and half moonrise, between Richmond the striking and peculiar expression of and the wood-embosomed village of Red- his handsome but audacious features. mire, the public is indebted for the ines. His mien was confident and even haughty; timable boon of the ensuing story.
and his eye had not yet lost the triumphant flash which some recent instance of favour,
flattery, or success, appeared to have The summer's noon was laughing on enkindled there. On his wrist sate a the purple Ure, and the lazy breeze scarce- tercel gentle, hooded and belled; and, ly breathed through the glancing loop- trotting at his heels, came a beautiful holes of Middleham Castle, when, gaily spaniel, with brown spots, curly hair, carolling, the Damoiseau of the Baron ears that brushed the ground, and of de Neville came bounding down the merits not to be enumerated!