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IMPRISONMENT FOR DEBT. take it up; at the saisie time, he be
lieves there are two or three pounds costs Two volumes of a work entitled “Scenes upon it, which he had better be preand Stories by a Clergyman in Debt,” have pared to pay. lately made their appearance. They are “ The gentleman accordingly calls the replete with curious matter, some of next day; the sheriff's officers are in which has the air of romance; but the waiting for him, and he is arrested. He following, extract will shew what is often is taken to a spunging-house, and passing in this great metropolis, un- there for the first time, he is astounded known to nine-tenths of its busy inha- at the use that has been made of the inbitants; so true it is that vice of all terval of time between the day when the complexions is always most active, though bill became due, and the day when the seldom conspicuous in popular cities. money was tendered. He finds that it
“ Supposing a private individual anxi- has been endorsed by some twenty pera ous to discount a bill, which, not being sons, and that, in that interval, the mercantile, he could not get cashed by whole of the twenty have had writs ismeans of a city broker. - He is re- sued against them at a cost of three commended to a person residing in pounds each ; thus leaving his debt at some city squarema Methodist parson, its original amount of forty pounds, and perhaps (we could adduce a notorious his costs at a trifle more than sixty case in point) who will do it for him; pounds! It is well, then, if he have the or he is, as is still oftener the case, re- money to pay; for if he have not, the ferred to the parson's agent, who is al. proceedings are further carried out alowed so much by his employer for gainst all the endorsers, who are, pergetting the bill, and so much by the haps, instructed to plead, for the purpose gentleman for cashing it. The money of swelling costs, and then there is no is given--say 351. for a 401, bill—with knowing where the amount of costs is to the understanding that if the gentleman end. And this nefarious system is no should be short' when it becomes due, exception to the rule of common law; it can be renewed. This intimation is by far a greater number of persons are invariably given when the party is known thrown into prison by it, then ever go to have money, in order to excite a care- there from just debts : and it was once. lessness as to the taking up of the bill, proved in court, that this very Jos. Rusand, if possible, to prevent its being paid sel held at one time upon its practice to the moment. Well, the gentleman twelve prisoners in the Fleet; seventeen departs with his money, and the agent or eighteen in the King's Bench; and Aies off to the parson with the bill. The about thirty in Whitecross Street; and parson at once hands it over to Jos. that upon one action brought upon a Russel. The well-trained and well. bill in a similar manner to that which training Jos., who may be in prison or we have described, where the original debt not, as he finds it answer his purpose, was 1701., a sum of 2001. had been paid; has always a gang of desperate rogues, the furniture of three houses sold up in some in, and some out of gaol, but all execution ; about forty persons comconnected with the debtors' prisons, in his mitted to prison, many of them of course pay. His first step, then, on receiving wilfully; and that then, at the time the bill, is to endorse it himself; his when the defence was put in, the amount next, to repair to these precious confeder- of money claimed was no less a sum than ates, to whom he pays one or two shil- 5801. This is a fact recorded in a court lings each to write their names on the of law ! back of the bill, upon the understanding that, if at large, they are to be arrested ; if in gaol, to be served with common At one of the magnificent shows with writs. In this manner, Jos. procures which Pompey entertained the Romans sixteen or twenty endorsements to the for five days in succession, the populace bill; the more the merrier for Jos. enjoyed the death of gladiators and wild
“ The bill runs its time, and becomes beasts; five hundred lions were killed ; due. The gentleman, careless, as was but on the last day, when twenty eleexpected and intended, is not at home phants were put to death, the people, unwhen it is presented, and perhaps calls in used to the sight, and moved by the a couple of days afterwards to take it up. unaccustomed shrieks of these animals, The methodist parson has not got it, in- were seized with sudden compassion, and deed it is at his attorney's, but if the execrated Pompey himself for being the gentleman will call to-morrow, he can author of so much cruelty.
INFLUENCE OF HABIT.
compartments, containing quatrefoils, SEPULCHRAL MONUMENTS the interior sweeps of which are richly, OF THE 15TH CENTURY. cusped and feathered; these contain
small shields, and the spandrels or spaces “A certain variety," says Mr. Blox- between the angles of the square comham in his 'glimpse' at the monuments partment and quatrefoil are filled up with of our ancestors, “is apparent in the foliated tracery. Portions of panelled designs of tòmbs of this era, which may tracery sometimes intervene between be classed as follows :
gost 9*. each compartment, and the basement of “ First-Such as approach in style of; the tomb is occasionally covered by a composition the tombs) of Edwardthes sériescof small quatrefoils in circles. The Third and Richard the: Second, and ex-; greater' number of altar tombs of this hibit their sides covered with rich cano. century are of this description, and that pied niches for statues; intermixed withi in Wimborné minster, of Johir Beaufort, panelled tracery; some of these partake: Duke of Somerset, who died in 1444, is so much of the characteristịcs. common, a fine specimen. A tomb of this kind to tombs of the latter partjof the pre-r in Meriden-church, Warwickshire, is ceding century, that it is sometimes also worthy of remark." difficult to point out any striking dissimilarity between them. Of this descrip-i tion are the splendid monuments in
HOSPITALITY. church, Durham, of Ralph Neville, T," said a traveller, is one of the Earl of Westmorland, who died in 14925;l fanest;fellows. I know. He exhibits real and in the Beaughamp chapel, Warwick, hospitality. He not only has à plate ever of Richard Beauchamp, Earl of War- ready for any of his friends, but he sends wick, who died in 1439.
a horse to your door whenever you wish. “ Secondly-Those tombs, the sides to ride." “. That, vindeed," replied whereof are embellished with recesses another, “is real horse-pitality.?? or niches for statủes, surmounted by ogee canopies, crocketted, and divided only by small buttresses, the spaces be- An old French writer, more remarkable tween the canopied heads of the niches for originality of thought than for grace being filled with panelling. Of such of style, was once reproached by a friend is the tomb of William of Wyckham; with the frequent repetitions to be found the sides are covered with arched re- in his works. " Name them to me," cesses, divided by small buttresses; the said the author. The critic, with obheads of the arches are cusped or foli. liging precision, mentioned all the ideas ated, and surmounted by .ogee-shaped which had most frequently recurred in canopies, and the spaces intervening be- the book. “I am satisfied,” replied the tween the canopies are filled with nar- honest, author; “you remember my row arched panels, trefoil-headed. The ideas ; I repeated them so often on purtomb in_Arundel church, Sussex, of pose to prevent you forgetting them. Thomas Fitzalan, Earl of Arundel, who Without my repetitions I should never died in 1415, and of his countess, Bea have succeeded." trix, is of the same description, though much richer in design than that of Wyckham, and has a small sculptured The Chinese are often compelled to make figure within each of the niches.
their dwellings in large boats on the “Thirdly-Such as present their sides rivers. An officer in the navy tells me covered with a series of narrow arched he observed one of these, who kept ducks panels, cusped or foliated in the heads : for a living, practice an odd piece of inexemplars of these may be seen on the genuity. In the day-time the ducks tomb in Newbold church, Warwick- were permitted to float about, but in the shire, of Geoffry Allesley, who died in night-time they were carefully collected. 1401 ; on that in St. Saviour's church, The keeper, when the night set in, gave Southwark, of Gower, the poet, who a whistle, when the ducks always few died in 1408; and on some rich tombs towards him with violent speed, so that in Ratcliffe church, and the Mayor's they were all invariably gathered in a chapel, Bristol.
minute. How do you suppose he had “Fourthly-Such tombs, the sides educated his flock so effectually?. He whereof are divided into square recessed always beat the last duck.,
OF FICTION, POETRY, HISTORY, AND GENERAL LITERATURE.
AN HISTORIC TALE.
THE ANGLO-SPANISH BRIDE; riority, in the mind of the writer, to the
violent religious and national prejudices
and animosities of his country and his (From the untranslated works of Cervantes.]
age. Cervantes, it should be remem( For the Parterre.)
bered, wrote this tale after the signal suc
cesses of the protestant arms of England; [This story, which, as Cervantes as- more especially in the defeat of the sures us, is founded upon fact, highly grand armada, and the sacking, yet more characteristic of the state of religious disgraceful to the Spanish crown, of the and political feeling in Europe at that greatest of its commercial cities, Cadiz, period; since there enters into the had inflamed the hostile feelings of the complication of its interest, not only, Spanish nation against England and its as in “ The Generous Lover," the queen to the highest possible pitch. grand contest between the crescent and Lope de Vega, the great literary conthe cross, but also the great strife temporary, and in some sort rival of Cerwhich divided and weakened Christen- vantes, having been an eye-witness to dom itself, between Roman Catholicism the disasters of the armada, seems to and Protestantism.
have imbibed his full share of the rankIt possesses, too, a peculiar interest for ling malice of disappointed enmity, long the English reader ; the scene of it being harboured against England by her laid for the
most part in England, in the humbled foe. He designated queen reign of Elizabeth, and most of the Elizabeth, in his writings, as a bloody chief actors in it being English-the Jezebel, a second Athalia, an obdurate queen herself among the number. sphynx, the incestuous progeny of a harpy.
The tone of the narration exhibits in a Cervantes was superior to all this. He most striking manner the noble supe- ever spoke of the English with respect
for he felt that the vigour of their cha- taldo's family were secretly catholics, racter and genius deserved it. And it is though in public they conformed to the remarkable that nowhere has Queen religion of their queen. Clotaldo had Elizabeth been portrayed in more a son named Ricaredo, twelve years of amiable colours, than in the tale before age, whom his parents had brought up us; yet without at all losing sight of the in the love and fear of God, and a strict jealous haughtiness which so strongly adherence to the truths of the catholic characterized her general demeanour. faith.
I have rendered this story with close Catalina, the wife of Clotaldo, a noble, fidelity to the text of the author, who religious, and prudent lady, grew so will be found constantly speaking in his fond of Isabel, that she educated her own person; so that I have not even with as much tenderness and diligence ventured to substitute English names as if she had been her own daughter; for those of Spanish form, which he has and the child was of so good a dispogiven to his English personages. The sition, that she learned with facility reader, I conceive, is more interested in whatever they taught her. Time, and being shewn precisely how Cervantes the kindness which she thus experienced, himself wrote about England, than in the gradually banished from her memorythat rectification of slight local incongruities, which her real parents had shewn her into which, with his keen and retentive so entirely, however, but that she observation, he never fell when treating would oftentimes remember and sigh for of any one among the various localities them. Nor, although she was learning the which he had actually visited.
English language, did she lose her know-
care to bring Spaniards privately to his
house, in order that they might converse Among the spoils which the English with her; so that, as we have said, without carried off from the city of Cadiz, an forgetting her mother tongue, she spoke English gentleman named Clotaldo, English as if she had been born in Loncommanding a naval squadron, took don. After teaching her all those kinds with him to London a little girl about of needle-work which a girl of good seven years old. This he did without family ought to be mistress of, they the knowledge and against the desire of taught her to read and write extremely the Earl of Essex, who had the child well. But what she most of all excelled diligently sought for in order to restore in was, the touching of all musical inher to her parents; they having come struments proper for a woman's handto complain to him of the loss of their accompanying her perfect and tasteful daughter, entreating him that, since he execution with an exquisite and enchantcontented himself with taking the pro- ing voice. perty of the inhabitants, leaving their All these acquired graces, superadded persons free; they, his petitioners, might to her natural charms, were gradually not have the peculiar hardship, now that inflaming the bosom of Ricaredo, whom they were left in poverty, to be left also she affectionately attended as the son of without their daughter, who was the her lord and master. light of their eyes, and the most beau- proached him in the guise of a certain tiful creature of the whole city. The pleasure which he felt in gazing upon Earl had orders published through all Isabel's matchless beauty, and contemthe fleet, that, on pain of death, whoso- plating her numberless virtues and ever had the girl in his possession should graces-loving her as if she had been his restore her. But neither penalty nor sister, with pure affection, unmingled apprehension had power to make Clo- with desire. But as Isabel grew up, taldo give her up, who kept her con- who had already completed her twelfth cealed in his own vessel, having con- year, this first kind feeling towards her, ceived a sort of parental fondness for and gratification in beholding her, were the beauty of Isabel--for that was the converted into most ardent wishes of child's name—so that her parents at possessing her. Not that he aimed at last remained without her, sad and dis- this thiough any other means than consolate ; and Clotaldo, rejoicing in becoming her husband; since from the his capture, arrived at London, and pre- incomparable modesty of Isabella (for so sented the lovely child to his lady as his her adoptive parents called her), nothing richest prize.
else was to be hoped for; nor, indeed, It fortunately happened, that all Clo- would he have desired to entertain any
Love first ap
other hope, had it been possible--seeing myself assured that you will be mine, that his own good birth, and the esti- will be enough to restore me to health, mation in which he held Isabella, forbade and to keep me cheerful and happy, any evil intention to implant itself in until the blissful moment which I long his breast.
for shall arrive.” Many a time did he resolve to declare While Ricaredo was thus speaking, bis wishes to his parents, and as often Isabella was listening to him with downdid he shrink from his resolution ; for cast eyes; clearly shewing, at that mohe knew that they intended him for a ment, that she had no less modesty than very wealthy young Scotch lady of high beauty, no less reserve than intelligence. rank, secretly a catholic like themselves; And so, finding that Ricaredo was now and it was clear, said he to himself, that silent, she, modest, beautiful, and sensithey would not give that to a slave (if ble, answered him in these terms :Isabella could be so called), which they “ Since the time when it pleased had already agreed to give to a lady; the rigour or the clemency of heaven and so, perplexed and thoughtful, not (for i know not well to which of the knowing what course to take in order two I ought to attibute it), to take me to attain the fulfilment of his honest from my own parents, Senor Ricaredo, wishes, his life became so wretched, that - and give me to yours ; grateful for the he was in danger of losing it altogether. numberless kindnesses they have done But as it seemed to him to be great me, I have been resolved that my will cowardice, to let himself die thus, with should never oppose itself to theirs; so out making any attempt to procure that, were it against their will, I should relief for his malady, he at length took regard not as fortunate, but as unforcourage, and determined to bring him- tunate for myself. the inestimable favour self to make his wishes known to which you seek to do me. If, with their Isabella.
knowledge, I should be so happy as to The whole household were in sorrow deserve you, I here freely tender you the and agitation on account of Ricaredo's liberty they may so give me; and should illness; for he was beloved by all, and that be delayed or prevented, let it in the by his parents with the greatest tender- mean time soothe your wishes to know, ness-not only because he was their only that mine will ever sincerely desire for son, but because his great virtue, bravery, you all the happiness that heaven can and intelligence, well deserved it. The give you." physicians could not find out the cause So ended Isabella's modest and sensible of his malady ; nor did he himself either reply; and so began Ricaredo's recovery, dare or choose to disclose it. At last, and the revival of his parents' hopes, however, bent upon breaking through which in his illness had died away. the difficulties which he had fancied, The pair took courteous leave of each one day, when Isabella entered his other; he with tears in his eyes; she apartment to wait upon him, finding with wonder in her heart, to find that of that she was alone, he, with fainting Ricaredo so devoted to her in love. The voice and faltering tongue, addressed latter, having risen from his bed-as his her thus:
parents thought, by miracle-resolved to • Fair Isabella, it is owing to your keep his thoughts no longer secret from own great worth, virtue, and beauty, them; and so he one day communicated that I am in the state in which you them to his mother, telling her at the end
If you wish me not to of his explanation, which was a long one, quit this life in the greatest agony ima- that if they did not marry him to Isabella, ginable, let your own will correspond to their denying her to him would be his my honourable wish—which is no other sentence of death. With such arguments than to make you my wife, unknown to and such encomiums did Ricaredo extol my parents ; from whom I fear that, for the virtues of Isabella to the skies, as want of knowing, as I know, how much made her think that after all, the advan. you deserve, they would deny me that tage of the match would be chiefly to her good which I so much need to possess. She gave him good hopes that she If you will give me your word to be mine, should succeed in inducing his father to I forthwith pledge you my own word, enter willingly into the view which she as a true catholic christian, to be yours. herself had already embraced; and acFor though I should not possess you, cordingly, by alleging to her husband as indeed I shall not, until the church the same reasons which her son had and my parents shall have given us their urged upon herself, she easily persuaded benediction,-yet the mere imagining him to favour that which his son so