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less of the opinions and welfare of others. If well Letters to a Mother, upon Education.
directed, he may become persevering, energetic, steady, LETTER IV.
and successful. Another child, even in the saine family, Dear Madan,
inay develop a more patient, gentle, and yielding dispoAlthough education has been divided sition. If well directed, it may be the basis of a geinto four departinents, and my remarks will be re- nuine sensibility of heart with ali its excellencies; it ill stricted to one at a time as they succeed each other, treated, he may become timid, and even cunning and yet you are aware that they all must be united in pruc
deceitful. Une child may early develop strength of tice, as far as possible. The physical, moral, mental, inental and bodily organization : if well directed, they and religious culture of a child, are all intimately con- may expand into greatness of character; if ill directed, nected, and should all, as far as possible, be begun and his strength may only render him dangerous and abancontinued together. Very early therefore begin that doned. The disposition then should be studied, and as part of his education which comes under the denomina- it developes itself should be directed towards exceltion of the moral, or the direction of his conduct as a lence. member of society, as a responsible creature of God,
There is indeed a critical period, which too often whose present and future happiness will be dependent passes unobserved, but which is intimately connected upon his own behaviour.
with the welfare both of the child and of the parent. I It is alınost superfluous to remind you, that your
mean the subjugation of his will to that of his parent. attention must be directed for this purpose to his un- Since the parent, of course, will know what is best for derstanding and his affections. You must, as soon as the child for many years of its life, the will of the possible, make him understand what is his duty, and
child must submit to that of the parent. This habit teach him also to approve and prefer it upon principle.
ought to be established at a very early period, as every The only inethod of regulating the conduct of any
day after he has tasted the fatal pleasure of self-will, huinan being, is to convince his judginent and affect his would only render the task more difficult and hopeless. heart. Still, as this cannot be done at present, owing
From the first, resolve, as well as you can, upon what to the infantine state of his faculties, it will be needful will be best, adopt your resolution, persevere in it, and for you to begin the moral part of his education in a your child will never 'oppose your judgment. But inanner partly mechanical This will consist in care. should you ever be induced to alter your determination fully, and by system, avoiding every thing which may because it may be less pleasing to hiin, should you ever disturb his complacency, and tend to produce fretful
allow him to learn that tears and entreaty induce you to ness or irritability. Yet as he will soon begin to under- change your proceedings, you have laid the foundation stanol your assiduities, and to rely upon them, it will be for his unhappiness and your own.
The work of eduneedful to avoid cominunicating the idea to him that cation often requires that a child be restrained, and rehe is of great consequence, and especially every thing quired to persevere in a particular line of conduct. that has the appearance of indulgence. I have seen
Human nature is however averse to these things : yet child under contrary treatment, fully conscious of the they are essential to the happiness of a child. When extraordinary attention paid to him, and resenting the
therefore you feel inclined to forego the dictate of your absence of it by tears and passion, even before being judgment, out of regard to the transitory ease and graable to speak plainly. I have feared, in such instances, tification of your child, you lay the foundation for everthat a foundation was being laid for tyranny, impatience, lasting trouble in the process of education. Your comand self-preference. These evils would be excluded by mands, your wishes will be perpetually challenged and a system of intelligent watchfulness over him, which opposed. On the other hand, never from the first acequally provides against neglect and the adinission of quaint him with the fatal secret, that it could be possi. extraordinary instances of attention.
ble for you to change your mind, or that it could be At a very early age the future disposition and charac- possible for him to resist you. Whenever I have seen teristic tendencies of a child, both of body and of mind, a child repeating a request, which had at first been become apparent. It is the opinion of eminent physi. denied him, and winning the compliance of a parent by cians, that all the diseases of the body which it may entreaty, I have thought, There is the spectacle of the suffer, and by which death will be ultimately produced, superior knowledge and wisdom of a father or mother are boro with us. I believe that the same observation all rendered useless, by the false tenderness which holds with regard to the disposition. The whole man allows an ignorant infant to overcome hiin by entreaty. is inclosed in the infant, just as the future tower is I have felt certain that the child never would have contained in the bud, and even in the seed itself; and thought of such a proceeding, had his education been just as the future process of blossoming and bearing properly conducted. I have grieved to anticipate the fruit are but the expansion of the seed, so manhood is ever-widening evils which attend such mistaken conduct. but the development of infancy.
Especially should parents avoid disagreeing upon any
point of conduct in the presence of their children. “ The boy shows the man, as morning shows the day.”
Soon will they learn who is inost inclined to their cause, You will soon perceive the disposition of your child
and thither will the little petitioners carry their rebeginning to develop itself. You will indeed have quest; and if successful, the benefit of the united influto acknowledge, that man is of ence of both parents upon the education of their children is lost for ever.
is, for disposition which is thus inclined, and which may be- the coine the instrument of the evil the individual inay pro- to the mother, and for the father to interfere in those duce and suffer, may also by the benefit of education, cases only which require his advice and authority, and the aid of the Holy Spirit, become the instrument Should there be any difference of opinion upon such of good. It is the province of education, not to topics, the parents will do well to converse and resolve eradicate, but to direct and regulate the natural disposi- upon it privately. In endeavouring to practise these tion. Suppose a child, for instance, early to exhibit directions, it is needless to say that the object intended what is called determination of character, an unwilling- is a uniform system. When this has been adopted from ness to renounce a purpose. If neglected, he may be- the beginning, and steadily maintained, ii will proceed come tyrannical, violent, self-opinionated, and regard- in so silent and effectual a manner as scarcely to be
observed by a stranger, except by its lovely effects, and In the Apology of Quadratus, a fragment of which save infinite trouble and anxiety to the parent.
remains, he notices the miracles of Christ, his curing Above all things, he who teaches or educates another, diseases and raising the dead; some instances of which, must himself be what he would have his scholar be- he says, still existed in his time. coine. All the lessons about good temper and self-con- Adrian died A. D. 137: but we know not the pretrol, like all other good advice, will be best admi- cise year of the birth or martyrdom of Quadratus. nistered by the silent yet forcible eloquence of the parent's own proper conduct. A child never learns so much by what a parent says as by what he does. What
HINT TO CHRISTIANS AND MINISTERS, self-education, what prayer for Divine assistance, what watchfulness does your task require !
Suggested by reading, Captain Parry's Voyage in quest
of a North-West Passage. Believe me, Madam, your, &c.
“ The children of this world are wiser in their generation than CLERICUS.
the children of light.” Luke x, 8.
Where never ship befure was seen to glide ;
Tempt legion-danger, under Polar skies,
And life - if life can such a cline illume26. QUADRATUS, styled by the Greeks, a man of
Is mere existence, breathing through the gloom? great learning and knowledge, was believed to have
Shall he explore that mart of ice and sleet, been a native of Athens, where he was educated in all
Where Nature's pulse is hardly felt to beat; the studies and philosophy cultivated in that celebrated Where everlasting desolation reigns city. Of the precise period of his birth, or of his
O’er earth and ocean, bound in frozen chains ? conversion to Christ, we have no particular account. Shall he tempt regions hideous and dark, Eusebius and Jerome say that he was an auditor of the That never smil'd since Noah left the ark ? apostles. Some suppose that he was bishop of the To crown his temples with his country's wreath, church at Philadelphia, to whom the apostle John Invade these frigid avenues of death; wrote his Epistle. Rev. iii, 7.
The barriers of the Arctic Circle force, In the reign of Trajan, Publius, bishop of the Chris- With not a magnet to direct his course, tians at Athens, terminated his course by martyrdom, With not a sun to gild that arch divine*, and Quadratus was chosen to succeed him. Many of That shows his distance from the Pole and Line? the believers had been scattered from Athens, and the Shall he, when science, honour, fame, invite, church was in a deplorable state of declension, sunk Brave the long gloom of Hyperborean night? almost to apostacy. "This apostolic man applied him- Shall he, shall Parry, for a paltry lure, self vigorously to recover the ancient spirit of religion : These and ten thousand nameless ills endure?he restored church discipline, and induced the exiles And shall not I, when God and duty call, to return to the ordinances of public worship. Re
Fly to the utmost limits of the ball? formation merely did not satisfy Quadratus : but he Cross the wide sea, along the desert toil, laboured successfully to win souls to Christ, and to Or circumnavigate each Indian isle : enlarge the boundaries of the church ; so that through
To torrid regions fly to save the lost, his ministry, many of the Grecian sages embraced the
Or brave the rigour of eternal frost ? gospel of salvation, and acknowledged Jesus as Lord
I may, like Brainerd, perish in my bloom, of all, the Creator of the world, and the Redeercer of
A group of Indians weeping round my tomb : sinners.
may, like Martyn, lay my burning head Tranquillity was enjoyed by the Christians during the
In some lone Persian hut, or Turkish shed: latter part of Trajan's reign, bis cruel edicts being sus.
I may, like Coke, be buried in the wave: pended : but under Adrian, his successor, they were I may, like Howard, find a Tartar grave: enforced; and those who fell a sacrifice to the fury
Or perish like a Xavier on the beach, of the idolatrous pagans appear to have been nume
In some poor cottage out of friendship's reach: rous, as long lists of martyrs for Christ are given by
I may- but never let my soul repine; ancient writers. Even at Rome, Eustachius, a person “Lo! I am with you :"-- Heaven is in that line ! of some note, and his wife Theopistis, with their two
Tropic or Pole, or mild or burning Zone, sons, are said to have been thrown to the lions, by the
Is but a step from my celestial throne ! emperor's command; but being spared by the savage
E. M. beasts, they were ordered to be burnt to death in the
* The graduated arch of the quadrant. hollow of a brazen bull, which they used for worship.
About the sixth year of his reign, Adrian visited Athens, took upon himself the honour of Archon, “THEREFORE WE ARE ALWAYS CONFIDENT.”- Not celebrated their solemn sports, and entered into the hesitating, as he that cried out on his death-bed, “] venerable Eleusinian mysteries. Adrian staying the have lived carefully, I die doubtfully, I go I know not winter at Athens, persecution raged against the Chris- whither?” Socrates, with all his skill, could not resolve tians. Aristides wrote an apology for the Christians, his friends whether it were better for a man to die or addressed to the emperor: Quadratus presented another to live longer. And Cicero, having comforted himself to Adrian, by which means his fierceness was a little as well as possible agaiust the fear of death by the moderated : it is even said, by a Roman historian, that help of philosophy, acknowledged at last, that the inediAdrian purposed to build a temple to Christ, and to cine was too weak for the disease. It is the Christian receive him into the number of his gods !
only who can be confident that his end shall be happy, Quadratus was brutally treated after Adrian's de- though his beginning and middle perhaps may be trou. parture froin Athens, and driven into exile, where he blesome. “Knowing that whilst we are at home in the suffered martyrdom, as is reported, at Maguesia, a city body, we are absent from the Lord.” “For we walk by in Asia Minor.
faith, not by sight."--Trapp.
REV. WILLIAM PERKINS.
labours, he wrote many excellent books; which, on
account of their worth, were many of thein translated BORN 1558 -- DIED 1602.
into Latin, and sent abroad, where they have been Ar Marston, in Warwickshire, was born the celebrated greatly admired and valued; and soine of them transWilliam Perkins, a great scholar, a profound divine, lated into French, High Dutch, and Low Dutch, and and a successful preacher in the University of Cam- his “ Reformed Catholic,” into Spanish ; which, howbridge. He received his academical education in ever, so far as we know, was never answered. Voetius, Christ's College, in that University, where for some and several of the foreign divines, have mentioned him time he was very wild, and ran great lengths in pro. with great honour : and our Bishop Hall said of him, digality; probably permitted, that when he should “that he excelled in a distinct judgment, and a rare become a preacher, he might more fully detect and lay dexterity in clearing the obscure subtleties of the open the workings of sin and vanity in others, sympa- schools, and easy explication of the most perplexed thize with them in their sad condition, and be the discourses.” He was much afflicted with the stone, better qualified to counsel and comfort them in their the frequeut attendant on a sedentary life, under which “repentance toward God, and faith in our Lord Jesus severe complaint he was remarkably patient. In the Christ.” At the same tiine, and while yet a graduate, last fit, a little before his death, hearing a friend pray he gave proofs of the great genius with which Provi. for the mitigation of his pains, he cried out, “Hold! dence had endowed him, by his deep researches into hold ! do not pray so; but pray the Lord to give ine nature, and the secret operations of natural powers. faith and patience, and then let him lay on ine just what But when the Lord was pleased to convert him from he please."
At length patience had its perfect work, the error of his ways, he applied hiinself with uncom- and he bade a final and everlasting farewell to all pain mon diligence to the study of divinity, and, in a short of the body and affliction of the soul; was crowned time, made an almost incredible proficiency.
with eternal rest and glory, A.D. 1602, in the fortyAbout the age of twenty-four, he was chosen fellow fourth year of his age. He was born in the first, and of Christ's College, and entered into holy orders; when, died in the last year of the reign of Queen Elizabeth. according to the precepts of the gospel, having " freely He died rich only in grace, and in the love of God and received, he freely gave ;” and after the pattern of his of good men : yet, like the Apostle Paul (2 Cor. vi, 10), great exemplar, went and preached deliverance to however poor, he was enabled to make many rich. the captives.” The gaoler being prevailed upon to He was buried with great solemnity, at the sole exbring the prisoners into the county house, near to the pense of Christ's College; the university and the town gaol, he preached the gospel to them every Sunday, striving which should show the most gratitude for his with great power and success. As soon as this pious faithful labours ainong them, or pay the greatest relabour was known, many from the neighbouring spect to his inemory. Doctor Montague preached his parishes resorted thither to hear him; and it pleased funeral sermon on the following words,
Moses, my God to make him the happy instrument in bringing servant, is dead.” Josh. i, 2. to the knowledge of salvation, and into the “liberty of He was so pious and exemplary in his life and conthe children of God," not only those whose bodies versation, that malice itself could find no ground for were in prison, but those whose souls, like theirs, were scandal or reproach. He was naturally cheerful and in captivity and bondage to sin and Satan. His fame, pleasant ; rather reserved toward strangers, but when which was afterwards in all the churches, soon spread once acquainted, very familiar. He was of a middle through Cambridge; and he was chosen to St. Andrew's stature, ruddy complexion, bright hair, and inclined parish in that town, where he remained an industrious, to corpulency, but lame of liis right hand; yet with faithful labourer, till he finally “entered into the joy his left hand he wrote two folio volumes, so well, and of his Lord.”
to so good purpose, that he proved hiinself an able Being settled thus in a university, his hearers con- evangelical divine, and an invincible champion in the sisted of the collegians, town's people, and people from Protestant cause. And such was his humanity and conthe country, which required such a peculiar gift as Provi. descension, that he not only preached to the prisoners, as dence had bestowed on Mr. Perkins ; for, in all his dis- we observed before, but accompanied the condemned courses, he was able to acommodate his style and phrases to the place of execution; and what success he had in to the capacities of the common people; and at the this line of his labours, will appear from the following same time the pious scholar could not but admire them. example :—A stout young man going up the ladder, Luther used to say,
" that as thunder without rain did discovered great dejection of spirit, and when he came more harm than good; so ministers that preach the to the top, and turned round to speak to the people, terrors of the law, but do not at the same tiine drop in he looked like one half dead; which Mr. Perkins observthe dew of gospel instruction and consolation, are ing, endeavoured to encourage him; but finding it to not wise master builders ; for they pull down, but be without effect, said, “Man, what is the matter with build nothing up again." But Mr. Perkins's serinons thee? Art thou afraid of death?” “Ah, no (said the were said to be all law, and all gospel! He was a rare malefactor, shaking his head), but of a worse thing.” instance of those opposite gifts meeting in so eminent Dost thou so (replied Mr. Perkins), then come down a degree in one and the same preacher ; the veheinence again, and thou shalt see what God's grace will do to and thunder of a Boanerges, to awaken sinners to a strengthen thee.” When he came down, Mr. Perkins sense of their danger, and to drive them from destruc- took him by the hand, and, at the foot of the ladder, tion; and the gentle persuasives and comforts of a they both kneeled down, hand in hand; when Mr. PerBarnabas, to pour in the wine and oil of gospel conso- kins prayed with so much of the Divine presence, and lation into the wounded spirit, which he pointed to
power, in confession of sin, with its aggravatJesus Christ. And such was his wisdom in adminis- ing circumstances, and the horrible and eternal punishtering advice and comfort in all cases of conscience, ment due to the same, according to God's justice, that that it is said, “the afflicted in spirit came far and the poor man burst out into a flood of tears, being near to him, and received comfort from him.”
broken and contrite in heart: which when Mr. Perkins He had a surprising talent in perusing books so observed, he proceeded to the second part of his prayer, speedily that one would think he read nothing ; yet
in which he set forth the Lord Jesus Christ, the so accurately, that one must think he had read áll. Saviour of every believing penitent sinner, as stretching Besides his frequent preaching, and other ministerial forth his arms of mercy and power to save him in his
miserable and distressed condition, and from all the and each guarded by two soldiers with drawn swords. powers of darkness, and to give him heaven and glory. He was on horseback. The breast of his coat was This he was enabled to do in so wonderful and successful thickly wrought with jewels and gold, and his cap, a manner, that the poor creature continued indeed to which was of a beautiful red, was set with diamonds, shed tears, but they were now tears of love, gratitude, and from the top a long gold tassel hung around its side. and joy, flowing froin a belief that all his sins were He wore a black coat of rich broadcloth over his dress, cancelled by the merciful shedding of his Saviour's so that we could see but little of it. His saddle and blood. And when they rose from prayer, he evidenced bridle trimninings were very heavy, and all of gold. so good and satisfactory a confession, that the spectators He has a very solid and intelligent countenance, and a lifted up their hands, and praised God, for seeing such piercing eye. We were very near him, and he gazed a glorious display of sovereign grace, in converting at at us some time as he passed. He has certainly accomthe eleventh hour this dying malefactor, who went up plished wonders, by way of reform, during his reign the ladder again with apparently great comfort, and
thus far, and I have no doubt he is the greatest man hastening as it were to have the grace he had so lately that noir sits upon a throne. Would that he were been made a partaker of, consuminated in glory. good as he is great! It is heart.chilling to reflect upon
the quantity of blood he has been the instrument of
shedding among his own subjects, to say nothing of his A FEW PLAIN QUESTIONS
cruelties to the Greeks. It is supposed that by his or. ON KEEPING THE SABBATH DAY HOLY.
der, at least sixty thousand persons have been beheaded Is it enough to give a few hours to Public Worship,
or ztrangled. This includes the Janissaries, thirty and then give oursclves to the world and its cares?
thousand of whom were massacred in one day."
Is it the Sabbath Morning that we are to sanctify, or the Sabbath Evening only, and not the Sabbath Day! Let
LIBERTY. us enumerate those various secular works which are
Blest be the land, where'er it lies, unlawful on this day of the Lord. Let us expose the
'Neath brilliant blue Arcadian skies ; miserable sophistry, which substitutes a mere change
Or far in dreary solitude, of worldly engageinents for the holy duties of divine
'Mid cataract and forest rude, prayer and praise. If we close our offices or our
It shores a desert sea : shops, and open our drawer of accounts, and write
To me it shall be holy ground, letters on affairs of business, are we sanctifying the
If in its air there lives one sound, Sabbath? If we withdraw from the exchange or the
And that glad sound is Liberty! courts of law, into the chamber of consultation or the
Dear Liberty !-- thou ray of Heaven ! secret room of settlements and bargains, is this keeping
Bright emanation fron our God! the Lord's day? We employ not our labourers on Sun- Spirit, to whom a power is given day; but we pay them their wages, and almost oblige
Superior to the prophet's rou, them to make their purchases on that sacred day: and
Where'er thou touchest, flows a stream is this to keep it holy? Or we quit the hurry of the
Of grace and grandeur, brightening all ! city or town, for the mere sensual indulgence of the
Beauty awakez as froin a dreain-rural retreat--" we eat, and drink, and are merry”—
Wealth hears, and straight obeys thy call ! we collect around us friends as thoughtless as ourselves Brave are thy youths, and fair thy maids,
- we employ our servants in the unnecessary toil of The very soul of love pervades preparing luxurious meals --we go from the church to
Their every word and sigh ! ihc ride, the garden, the park, the pleasure.ground,
Around thou turn'st thine eagle gaze, the river--we walk over our farm or our lands — we
And tyrants wither in the blaze arrange for the business of the following week --- we
Of thine insulted eye! plunge into literary or scientific reading --- we lose our There is no attribute of mind, devotional feelings in the abominations of a Sunday newspaper ;—and this we call Religion !- this we de
No glow of faculties refin'd,
No charm (that genius gave) signate as the sanctification of the Lord's day!!
and strengthens in thy light:
And lives there one such gifts to blight? THE GRAND SEIGNIOR OF TURKEY.
Go !- cast the traitor from thy sight,
To crawl an abject slave! Much has been said of the greatness and wisdom of the present Turkish Sultan. Probably much of it is
Yes ! by whatever ocean bound, correct; but his policy has been such as to render his
That land to me is hallow'd ground, name a curse and an execration among all people.
If from its heart there springs one sound, The following passages from a letter of 'an Ainerican
The lofty sound of Liberty! missionary to Turkey and Greece, will be read with London: l'rinted and Published by C. WOOD AND SON, l'oppin's Court, much interest, especially by those who have an oppor
Fleet Street; to whom all Communications for the Editor (post prid)
should be addressed; —- ind sold by all Booksellers and Newsmen in the tunity of seeing the sovereign of Great Britian, whose empire and resources are incalculably greater than
Hawkers and Dealers supplied on Wholsale Terms, in Lomioa, by Srem.., those of the Sultan, passing through the streets of
Paternoster Row; BERGER, Holywell Street, Strand; and F. BASLER,
121, Oxford Street. London, Windsor, or Brighton, as a father among
Birminghain, by Butterworth. Norrbury, Vardy. people. The writer is the Rev. Harrison G.O. Dwight; Brighton, Saunders and Son. Nuruich, Dorles. it is dated Pera, April 26, 1830.
Briseul, Westley and Co.
01ford, Wheeler. “ Last Friday I had a fine view of the Grand Seignior Chippenham, Alexander.
Portsen, Horsey, Jun. himself, as he was going to and from the mosque.
Chipping Norton, Smith.
Edinburgh, Laing and Forbes. Romsey, Hants, Gray.
l'abridge, Lake. and on each side of his person was a line of soldiers Lirerpool, Willmer and Smith. Iarwick, Merridew, with drawn swords, and behind him a body of soldiers
Macclesfield, Wright. with inuskets and bayonets fixed. Before him eleven
And in Paris, by G. G. BENNIS, No.55, rue Neure St. Angustin. beautiful Arabian horses were led, richly caparisoned,
Or whom may be bad any of the previons Parts or Numbers.
PUBLISHED EVERY SATURDAY.
NOVEMBER 3, 1832.
THE CHURCH OF THE HOLY SEPULCHRE.
light, and exactly under it stands our Saviour's Sepulchre. B. The round Cupola of the Church of the Holy Sepulchre.
conceive, had proportionably decreased, for within an
hour I had completed its circuit." “JERUSALEM,” said our blessed Saviour, “shall be Mr. Buckingham says, “The city occupies an irretrodden down of the Gentiles, until the times of the gular square, of about two miles and a half in circunGentiles be fulfilled.” Luke xxi, 24. This affecting ference. The walls appear to be about fifty feet in prediction has hitherto been fulfilled in the most re- height, but are not surrounded by a ditch. They are markable manner; and the history of that celebrated flanked at irregular distances by square towers, and city, and its present condition, furnish the most con- have battlements running all round on their suinmits, vincing proof of the divinity of Christianity.
with loop-holes for arrows or musquetry close to the Jerusalem, as it existed in the times of the sacred top.— Within the walls of the city are seen crowded writers, our readers will remember is no more! Not dwellings, remarkable in no respect, except being the smallest vestige remains of the splendid capital of terminated by flat roofs, ard generally built of stone. David, and Solomon, and Herod ! Not a single monu- On the south are some gardens and vineyards, with the ment of their times is standing : the circuit of the long red mosque of Al Sakhara, having two tiers of walls is changed, and no one can determine the ancient windows, a sloping roof, and a dark done at one end, boundaries of the holy city!
and the mosque of Sion and the sepulchre of David in Jerusalem has been described by many modern tra- the same quarter. On the west is seen the high square vellers, whom curiosity has impelled to visit the theatre castle and palace of the same monarch, near the Bethon which the work of human redemption was accom- lehem gate. In the centre rise two cupolas of unequal plished by INCARNATE DEITY!
form und size, the one blue and the other white, cwer“The city of Jerusalem,” says Joh Heinrich Mayr, ing the CHURCH OF THE HOLY SEPULCHRE. Around, a modern German traveller, « which in the time of in different directions, are seen the minarets of eight Christ is said to have contained nearly three millions of or ten mosques, ainid an assemblage of about two inhabitants, now includes from twelve to fifteen thou- thousand dwellings. And on the east is seated the Vol. 1.