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Missionary Societies, therefore, and every Institution calculated to hasten that renovated state in our world, shall have our humble but cordial advocacy.

Again, as in the first number of their Publication, the Conductors of the CHRISTIAN's Penny MAGAZINE declare, “that their work shall not be Political, nor Sectarian, nor Controversial, except so far as regards Infidelity and Immorality. With them it will urge a determined warfare, as the worst enemies of our countrymen; yet the contest will be carried on in the spirit of that name, which has been assumed for the title of this Magazine.” They therefore confidently ask the countenance of all who hold sacred Knowledge and Patriotism, Morality and Scriptural Religion.

EXPLANATION OF THE VIGNETTE IN THE TITLE PAGE.

The four principal figures in the Vignette are intended people, relinquishing all connection with the Bishop of to represent the chief PROTESTANT REFORMERS : Luther Rome, and declaring him Antichrist. Luther commenced in the centre, Cranmer on his right hand, Knox on a translation of the Holy Scriptures into the German his left, and Calvin on his extreme right : each holding | language, and completed that inestimable work, which in his hand a manuscript or printed copy of the word incalculably served the cause of truth and religion. After of God. The Rock, on which they are standing, is in a series of the most important services in the cause of tended to denote the Truth of the doctrine of the Divine Christ and of his country, Luther died in the full assurance Oracles; on which, as on an immutable Rock, the Re- of hope, in 1546. formers rested all their claims, in labouring to restore pure John Calvin, the father of the Protestant Reformation in Christianity. Around the RocK OF TRUTH, the waves of France, was born in 1509, at Noyon in Picardy. He was Error and Superstition are seen dashing; and in that sea educated for the church at Paris, but in reading the Holy appear plunged and struggling for existence, the four chief Scriptures, his mind was renewed, and led to discover the supporters of the Papal Antichrist. The principal figure abominations of Popery. This led him to devote himself represents His HOLINE88 The Pope, with his triple crown, to the study of the law: but on embracing the doctrines of grasping in one hand his once dreadful Bull, and in the Luther, he was persecuted in France, on which he fled to other, his formerly terrible sceptre. On his right hand Switzerland, where, in 1535, he published his celebrated appears a bloated MENDICANT FRIAR; on the left, a wily work, entitled " Institutes of the Christian Religion," deJesuit; and on his extreme right a Romish DIGNITARY, dicated to Francis I, king of France. In the year following each with his peculiar symbols of hypocrisy, imposture, and he settled at Geneva, where he continued a most laborious terror; but all become useless to their possessors, in the professor of divinity, and indefatigable preacher of the presence of the published HOLY SCRIPTURES.

Gospel, with some intermissions, until his death in 1564. LUTHER, CALVIN, CRANMER, and Knox, have laid Europe Calvin's fame for learning and piety was great throughout and the whole world under the greatest obligations to Europe, especially in England; and after the death of them, by their courageous, indefatigable, and successful Luther, he was regarded as the chief pillar of the Protestant labours; overthrowing the Priestcraft of Popery, that Reformation. blasphemous “MAN OF Sin," and "MYSTERY OF INIQUITY,” THOMAS CRANMER, the father of the Protestant Reforma2 Thess. ii; and restoring to the people the Holy Scrip- tion in England, was born in 1489, at Aslacton in Nottures, as their only infallible directory in matters of Re- tinghamshire. He was educated for the church at Jesus ligion.

College, Cambridge. Luther's writings attracted the atAlthough we have adorned our Periodical with the effigies | tention of Cranmer; by which he was led to search the of those illustrious men, we are not prepared to call either Scriptures, to make them the only rule of his faith, and to of them “Master." We esteein One infinitely more worthy, favour the doctrines of the Reformation. Approring of to whom alone we are directed by their imperishable Henry VIII divorcing bis Queen Catherine, who had been writings: “One is our Master, even CHRIST, and all these before married to his elder brother, he was introduced to are brethren." Our principles are those for which the the king, and by him promoted in 1533 to be Archbishop of Martyrs, especially the British Martyrs, shed their blood; Canterbury. His influence with the king was exerted in and their united testimony declares, in the language of favour of the circulation of the Holy Scriptures, which had Chillingworth, “The BiblE-THE BIBLE ONLY — IS THE been translated into English by Tindal. Cranmer employed RELIGION OF PROTESTANTS:" or, in the words of the Pro- his power, during the reign of Edward VI, in promoting testant clergy in Ireland, recently adopted as their noble the cause of pure Christianity, and made various prelimimaxim-"THE BIBLE — THE WHOLE BIBLE — AND NOTHING | nary arrangements towards perfecting the Reformation of BUT THE Bible.”

religion in England: but in 1556, under Mary, he suffered In our future labours we shall have occasion to pourtray martyrdom. more fully the immortal labours of Luther, Calvin, Cran- John Knox, the father of the Protestant Reforination in mer, and Knox; and for that reason we shall only just Scotland, was born in that country at Haddington, or at notice a few particulars respecting them.

the neighbouring village of Gifford. He was educated for MARTIN LUTHER, the father of the Protestant Reforma- the ministry in the Romish Church : but he imbibed the tion in Germany, was born at Isleben in Saxony, in 1483. doctrines of the Reformation, partly from the martyr He was educated for the law; but on becoming pious, in Wishart, and partly from his study of the Scriptures. his twenty-first year, he retired to a monastery, to study for Knox was some time chaplain to Edward VI, and one of the the service of religion. Providence directing him to a six Home Missionaries, licensed to preach the Gospel neglected Latin Bible, he became acquainted with the through the kingdom. He refused a bishopric, and retired purity of Evangelical truth, and a most zealous preacher to the continent, and assisted in the translation of the of the Gospel of Christ. In 1517, he began to oppose the Geneva Bible. In 1559, he returned to Edinburgh, and impositions of Popery, especially in the sale of Indulgences, became the principal agent in perfecting the Reformation and the iniquitous courses of the priests and monks. In in his native country, and establishing the church of 1520 the Pope excommunicated Luther, when he publicly Scotland. He died in 1572, greatly honoured by the prinburnt the papal decrees before an immense concourse of cipal men in the kingdom.

PENNY MAGAZINE.

No. I.

PUBLISHED EVERY SATURDAY.

JUNE 9, 1832.

APPEAL TO THE BRITISH PEOPLE.

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Britons ! intelligent, pious, and generous Britons ! A crisis has arrived in our bistory. Upon yourselves, under the blessing of Providence, much, far beyond all human calculation, depends, as to the interests of our country, and the circumstances of our posterity.

The schoolmaster is abroad,” and we have become, not only a numerous people, but a nation of readers, from the highest to the lowest in society. This peculiarity may become an evil: but with a proper direction, it may be made to contribute to the virtue and the greatness, to the security and happiness of our country.

Judiciously has the present Bishop of London said, in his first charge, “ The almost universal diffusion of elementary knowledge furnishes the enemies of Revealed Religion with abundant materials to work upon: but then it also furnishes the friends of truth with the obvious means of counteracting the influence of erroneous doctrines, and of instilling sounder principles into the bulk of the community. Any attempt to suppress, or even to check, the spirit of inquiry which is abroad in the world, would not only be a vain and fruitless attempt, but a violation of the indefeasible liberty of the human mind, and an interference with its natural constitution. To impart to that spirit a right direction, to sanctify it with holy motives, to temper it to righteous purposes, to shape it to ends which lie beyond the limits of this beginning of our existence, will be the endeavour of those who desire to ipake the cultiva. tion of intellect conducive to moral improvement, and to establish the Kingdom of Christ at once in the understandings and affections of mankind.”

Intelligent and benevolent Britons! Shall our fellow countrymen be carried away with the stream of deistical Preethinking? Shall we become a nation of Infidels ? A large portion of the press holds a truce with Infidelity, and ridicules every thing sacred. Shall we be satisfied with their preoccupying and filling the minds of our mechanics, our labourers, and our youth, with that which is inflammatory and injurious ? Sincerely may every true Christian rejoice, that there is much put forth that is “Scientific,” “ Entertaining," and “ Useful :” but every one knows, that there is a mass of reading supplied in the cheapest form, of a character which is antichristian and destructive.

Shall we make no corresponding efforts to vindicate the honour of our Dirine Christianity? Shall we practically surrender the Bible? Or shall we labour, according to our professed obligations, to counteract or

VOL. I.

cure the pernicious epidemic? Ponder seriously these momentous considerations.

A writer of no ordinary mind observes, “ The storm which now threatens Europe is no passing cloud. The stream and tendency of opinion in Europe is eminently revolutionary; it is powerful to destroy, but weak to rebuild. Old institutions are rapidly falling before it; but the new institutions which were intended to supply the place of their predecessors, perish still more rapidly than those which they have supplauted. There is no stability, because there is little religion. But God is employing all these political changes and convulsions to introduce one great and permanent revolution, the change of the kingdoms of this world into the everlasting kingdom of the Saviour. The Christian, therefore, while he is warranted to rejoice that those civil and ecclesiastical tyrannies are falling on every side which have so long harred the entrance of the truth, and that freedom, which is the birth-right of every man, should at length be imparted in all probability to many nations, will yet regard this extension of liberty rather as a means than as an end, as accelerating the approach of the reign of the Just One, rather than as sutficient of itself to procure many lasting blessings to men who are as yet but indifferently prepared to receive them.

“The purpose of God is to overturn, overturn, overturn,' till He comes to whom by right the kingdom belongs, and these changes are likely to increase in rapidity and intensity, the nearer we approach to the advent of the universal King. While a Christian, therefore, gives thanks to God for the spread of liberty, he will be most anxiously desirous that God, by his Spirit, should teach ineu the true use of the blessing ; nor will His views rest in these transitory mercies, or ever stop short of that glorious period when all shall partake of spiritual liberty as well as civil, and become partakers of the freedom and inheritance of the children of God.”

Personally, as Christians, the servants of God have nothing to fear on earth, how tumultuous soever it inay be; “ for we know that all things work together for good, to them that love God.” Still we have interests at stake, the greatest, and the dearest which can possibly be contemplated, next to our own personal salvation. Our children, and “our children's children,” and our property, liberty, and privileges for their sakes, we must desire to transmit to them unimpaired as their inheritance. Their welfare, in every

B

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respect, is involved in the character of the present and a fact) from the breast of a dead parent. The unhappy future age ; and every thing which affects their inte- heads of fainilies possess no resources for engaging and rests must be dear to us — as men—as patriots - and

occupying, for at once amusing and instructing, the

younger minds; no descriptions of the most wonderful as Christians.

objects, or narratives of the most memorable events, The Conductors of the “ Christian's Penny Maga- to set, for superior attraction, against the idle stories zine” hold sacred the principles of the Protestant Re- of the neighbourhood; no assemblage of admirable ex. formation ; and they deemn it right to declare, that

amples, from the sacred or other records of human

character, to give a beautiful real form to virtue and their Work will not be Political, nor Sectarian, nor

religion, and promote an aversion to base companionControversial, except so far as regards Infidelity and Immorality. With them it will wage a determined " Now imagine a week, month, or year, of the inwarfare, as the worst enemies of our countrymen; yet

tercourse spent in such a domestic society, the course the contest will be carried on in the spirit of that

of talk, the mutual manners, and the progress of the

mind and character; where there is a sense of drud. name, which has been assumed as the title of their

gery approaching to that of slavery, in the unrelenting Magazine.

necessity of labour; where there is none of the interest Assistance and cooperation from their talented friends,

of imparting knowledge or receiving it, or of reciprothey respectfully request, in rendering effectual this

cating knowledge that has been imparted and received;

where there is not an acre, if we might express it so, humble attempt to befriend their countrymen, and to of intellectual space around them, clear of the thick make their labours the means of furnishing rational universal fog of ignorance ; where, especially, the luentertainment, useful instruction, and Christian edifica- minaries of the spiritual heaven, the attributes of the tion.

Almighty, the grand plenomenon of redeeming mediation, the solemn realities of a future state and another world, are totally obscured in that shade; where

the conscience aud the discriminations of duty are dull EVILS OF POPULAR IGNORANCE.

and indistinct, from the youngest to the oldest; where Solomon, by divine inspiration, has said, “That the there is no genuine respect felt or shown on the one soul be without knowledge, it is not good.” Facts şide, nor affection unmixed with vulgar petulance and of the most appalling description, from every part of harshness, expressed perhaps in wicked imprecations, our country, at once prove and illustrate this heaven- on the other; where a mutual coarseness of manners born sentiment. Mr. Foster remarks

and language has the effect, without their being aware “ One of the most melancholy views in which a of it as a cause, of debasing their worth in one anohuman being can be presented to us, is when we be- ther's esteem, all round; and where, notwithstanding hold a man of perhaps seventy years, sunk in the gross all, they absolutely must pass a great deal of time stupidity of an almost total ignorance of all the most together, to converse, and to display their dispositions momentous subjects, and reflect, that more than three towards one another, and exemplify what the primary thousand Sundays have passed over him, of which every relations of life are reduced to, when divested of all hour successively has been his time, since he came to that is to give them dignity, endearment, and conduan age of some natural capacity for mental exercise. civeness to the highest advantage of existence." Perhaps some compassionate friend may have been pleading in his behalf, Alas! what opportunity, what time, has the poor mortal ever had ? His lot has been to labour hard through the week, throughout almost

THE ANTIQUITY OF THE BIBLE. his whole life. Yes, we answer, but he has had three In what point of view soever we regard the Bible, we thousand Sundays ; what would not the most moderate must acknowledge that it is an extraordinary book. improvement of so immense a quantity of time have And whether we consider our readers as Britons or as done for him ?---But the ill-fated man (perhaps rejoins Christians, we are persuaded that we shall render them the commiserating pleader) had no advantages of edu- an essential service by calling their attention to its Ancation, had nothing in any sense deserving the name. tiquity. We extract therefore the chapter with the There, we reply, you strike the mark. Sundays are of above title, from a popular and valuable little workno practical value, nor Bibles, nor the enlarged know- “ The Companion to the Bible.” ledge of the age, nor Heaven, nor Earth, to beings “ That the Bible has existed from very remote ages, brought up in estrangement from all discipline of their will not be disputed, except by those who are grossly minds.

ignorant. The proofs of its antiquity are, beyond all “How many families have we seen, where the pa- comparison, more numerous and convincing, than can rents were only older and stronger animals than their be advanced in favour of any other book in existence. children, where they could teach nothing but the It has never been without its intelligent witnesses, and methods and tasks of labour. They naturally could not zealous guardians; though some of them have been the be the mere companions, for alternate play and quarrel, greatest perverters of its peculiar principles, or the bit. of their children, and were disqualified by mental rude- terest enemies of the Christian name. ness to be their respected guardians. There were “ The Old Testament has been preserved by the about them these young and rising forms, containing Jews, in every age, with a scrupulous jealousy, and the inextinguishable principle, which was capable of with a veneration for its words and letters, bordering entering on an endless progression of wisdom, good. on superstition; demonstrating their regard for it as ness, and happiness; needing numberless suggestions, divinely inspired. The Hebrews never were guilty of explanations, admonitions, and brief reasonings, and negligence in relation even to the words of their sacred a training to follow the thoughts of written instruction. books; for they used to transcribe and compare them But nothing of all this from the parental mind. Their so carefully, that they could tell how often every letter case was as hopeless for receiving this benefit, as the came over again in writing any book of the Old Testacondition for physical nutriment of infants attempting ment. to draw it (we have beard of so affecting and mournful “ The Old Testament contains, besides the account

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of the former ages of the world, the code of the Jerrish own mind as to lead myself into a more grateful conlaws, both civil and religious; and the records of their templation of the value of revealed religion, of “ the national history, for more than one thousand nine hun. excellency of the knowledge of Christ Jesus our Lord.” dred years, from the call of Abraham ; as well as pro- Mentioning to a gentleman of property and of prophecies, which regarded a distant futurity, and which fessed liberality of thinking, a case of Christian chahave respect to times yet to come. The celebrated rity, for which I was soliciting contributions, he made Roman historian Tacitus, who lived in the apostolic me an abrupt reply. With a tone and countenance age, speaks of the Jewish books as very ancient in his expressive of ineffable contempt and self-complacency, time. They were translated from the Hebrew into the he delivered himself in substance as follows: “I am Greek language more than two thousand and one one of those persons who do not believe in that book hundred years ago; and they were possessed in both called the Bille, as divinely inspired. I regard it as those languages by the Jews. By those Jews who lived the work of interested priests, contrived to uphold and among the Greeks, they were read in their synagogues support their craft. The noble mind of inan does not every sabbath day, in the translation, the same as the need a divinely written law as its guide of life; and I Hebrew Scriptures were read by the native Jews: com- do not believe that God ever gave a written revelation.” mentaries were written upon them by their learned I was astonished at the unhesitating boldness of this doctors; copies of them were circulated in every nation avowal, and a number of queries soon arose in my where the Jews were scattered, and thus the sacred mind respecting the moral influence of such disbelief. books were multiplied without pumber.

What,” said I, " is the real genius of this rejection “The books of Moses, including Genesis, Exodus,

of the Bible? Is it more rational, more virtuous, or Leviticus, Numbers, and Deuteronomy, were written blissful, than repentance towards God and faith in the more than three thousand and three hundred years ago, doctrine of atonement by our Lord Jesus Christ? and nearly fifteen hundred years before the Christian Does it sanctify the conjugal relation? Does it excite era; many of the other books were published above a and direct parental and filial affection? Does it conthousand years, and those of the elder prophets about tribute to the endearinents of domestic intercourse ? eight hundred years before the advent of Christ.

Does it strengthen the social compact ? Does it in"As to the writings of uninspired men, they are spire the sacred flame of patriotism? Does it elevate modern compared with the Holy Scriptures. The ear- the tone of universal philanthropy! Does it afford liest profane history which is known is that of Hero- any powerful stimulus to virtue?" I forbear to state dotus, in Greek; which was written po earlier than the what I know of the influence of Deism in the case to time of Malachi, the last of the Old Testament writers. which I have made allusion. To each of the foregoing Somewhat inore ancient than Herodotus, are the poems reasonable questions, veritable facts compelled me to of Homer and Hesiod : the period in which they were give an unqualified negative. The practical denial of written cannot be correctly ascertained; but those who Christianity has never, in any age or nation, contriallow them the remotest antiquity, place Homer only buted, in the smallest degree, either to exalt the chain the days of Isaiah the prophet, and Hesiod in the racter, or to advance the happiness of man. age of Elijah. It is not, indeed, agreed among the Are there, then, no moral benefits in existence, the learned, whether there ever was such a person as

fruits of Deism? If there be, where are they to be Hesiod. The books of these ancient, uninspired wri

discovered? In what nation, or province, or city? ters are of a quite different character from the Holy Where is the town or village that they have blessed Scriptures; they are filled with silly and absurd fables, with elevating knowledge and fraternal concord? Do and contain many impurities. They make no disco- the fruits of Deism appear in asylums prepared for the very of the just character of the only living and true foundling and orphan?-in the schools established for God, though they contain much concerning religion. the instruction of the ignorant poor?-in the retreats As to the history by Herodotus, it contains much that erected for the repose of the aged ?-in the hospitals is merely fabulous and untrue; but as far as it re- endowed for the sick and diseased? Have its professors cords the transactions of his own age, or describes the sent forth and supported missionaries to enlighten and things within the compass of his own observation, or civilize the barbarous and idolatrous nations ?-or have details matters of fact of which he was correctly in- they directed their united energies to emancipate the formed, his statements confirm the faithfulness and slave, and purchase liberty for the oppressed captive? accuracy of the records contained in the holy and in. Ah, no! None of these works of benevolence have spired word of the Lord.”

been either accomplished or undertaken by the sons of

infidelity, the votaries of Deism. Deism has reared to THE FRUITS OF INFIDELITY.

its immortal fame no monuments of mercy in any land Mr. Editor,

in any quarter of the world.

Its spirit is indeed distinguished, but it is principally If you think the following suitable for your from being shrunk with selfishness. “Thou shalt love intended Magazine, it is at your service, with my best thy neighbour as thyself,” cannot possibly have any

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place in its system of morals. It has no golden rule of INFIDELITY continues to rage! but “great is truth, duiy, nor any solid ground of immortal anticipation. and it must prevail !” May every possible effort be Its gloomy futurity is bounded by the impenetrable made to advance the one and confound the other! The darkness of the grave, at best by the yawning gulph of unskilful villager and inexperienced youth require the terrifying uncertainty. friends of wisdom and virtue to fortify their minds Let the poor, the unlearned, and the young, learn to agaiust the influence of pernicious principles. May judge of principles by their fruits, and with abhorthese classes never be forgotten by the intelligent advo. rence they will soon reject every attack upon their cates of morality and religion.

must holy faith. Thus they will be prepared to say, Our divine Master has given us a comprehensive with Dr. Watts, that exainple of human excellence and thougb simple rule, calculated for universal adoption,

universal benerolence, in reference not only to teachers, but also with respect

“ Should all the forms that men devise to principles : “ By their fruits ye shall know them.”

Assault my faith with ireach'rous art, A short time ago, I was led to try its application in the

I'd call them vanity and lies, case of deistical infidelity: not so much to satisfy my

And bind the gospel to my heart,"

wishes.

ON THE CHANGES THAT TAKE PLACE IN I to 125. Of the counties in Ireland, that which has NATURE.

the largest proportion is Longford, being I to 260 : the SURRounded as we are by wonders of cvery kind, and lowest proportion is in Downshire, which has only existing only by a miraculous concurrence of events, I criminal to 990 inhabitants. Of the total number admiration scems the natural avocation of our being; of persons convicted in Ireland, viz. 9,902, only 262 nor is it easy to pronounce amidst such a creation what were sentenced to death; and of these, 95 were for is most wonderful. But few things appear more in

offences against the person : of the 262 sentenced to comprehensible than the constant production and re

death, 39 suffered.--Eclectic Review for April 1832. absorption of matter.--An animal falls to the ground

Crime is well ascertained to be the consequence of and dies, myriads of creatures are now summoned, by a call, by an impulse of which we have no perception,

ignorance: ignorance not inerely of letters, but of pure, to remove it, and prepare it for a new combination; scriptural religion. He is therefore the best friend to chemical agencies, fermentation and solution, imme- the people, who is most successful in promulgating the diately commence their actions to separate the parts,

unadulterated truths of Christianity. and in a short time, of all this great body nothing remains but the framework or bones, perhaps a little hair or some wool, and all the rest is departed we know

ON A TEAR. not whither! Worms and insects have done their parts; the earth has received a portion, and the rest,

Oh that the chemist's inagic art converted into gases and exhalable matters, has dis.

Could crystallize this sacred treasure ! persed all over the region, which, received into vege

Long should it glitter near my heart, table circulation, is again separated and changed, be

A secret source of pensive pleasure. comes modified anew, and nourishes that which is to

The little brilliant, ere it fell, continue the future generations of life. The petal of

Its lustre caught from Chloe's eye, the rose; the pulp of the peach ; the azure and the

Then, trembling, left its coral eellgold on the wing of the insect; all the various produc

The spring of sensibility. tions of the animal and vegetable world; the very salts

Sweet drop of pure and pearly light! and compounds of the soil, are but the changes some

In thee the rays of virtue shine ; other matters have undergone, which have circulated

More calmly clear, more mildly luright, through innumerable channels since the first produetion of all things, and no particle been lost. Bearing

Than any gem that gilds the mine. in mind this assured truth, that all these combinations

Benign restorer of the soul, have not been effected by chance or peculiarity of cir

Who ever flies to bring relief, cumstance, but the predeterinination of an Alunighty

When first we feel the rude control Intelligence, who sees the station, progress, and final

Of love or pity, joy or grief. destination of an atom, what an infinity of power and

The sage's and the poet's theine, intellective spirit does this point out! Au Omnipo.

In every clime, in every age; tence, the bodied minds of us poor creatures cannot

Thou charm’st in fancy's idle dream, conceive. Truly may we say, “who can find out the

In reason's philosophic page. Almighty to perfection !”-Journal of a Naturalist.

That very law which moulds a tear,

And bids it trickle from its source,

That law preserves the earth a sphere, CRIME IN ENGLAND AND WALES, &c.

And guides the planets in their course. The number of criminals committed during the last

ROGERS. year, throughout England, has been in the proportion of 1 to 740 inhabitants; in Wales, I to 2,320; in Scot

MY BOOK OF WISDOM. land, I to 1,130; and in Ireland, I to 490. lv London

Mr. Editor, and Middlesex, the proportion of comunitients has

If you think any of the extracts from been higher than in any other county in England, being “ Book of Wisdom,” will be useful to your readers,

my I criminal to 400 inhabitants. In Surrey, the propor

I shall be gratified by your using them in the projected tion is I to 680; in Kent, 1 to 730; in Sussex, i to 750; in Essex, 1 to 650 , in Hertfordshire, I tó 520 ;

“ Christian’s Penny Magazine." 1 herewith send you

a few of them. in Bedfordshire, 1 to 710. In the manufacturing districts, the proportion is, in Lancashire, I to 650; in “No revenge is more heroic, than that which turWarwickshire, 1 to 480; in Gloucestershire (including ments envy by perseverance in doing good.” Bristol), 1 to 630; in Nottinghamshire, 1 to 750; in Money, like manure, does no good till it is spread. Cheshire, 1 to 630. In the more remote counties, the There is no real use of riches, except in the distribuproportion is small; that of Northumberland being tion: the rest is all conceit, or delusion." only 1 to 2,700; in Westmoreland, 1 to 2,500; in “Pitch upon that course of life which is the most Durham, I to 2,460; and in Cornwall, 1 to 1,600. In excellent; and habit will render it most agreeable and Rutland also, the proportion is very much smaller than delightful." in the adjacent counties. In Wales, the highest pro- * There is but one way of fortifying the soul against portion of offenders is found in the most populous all gloomy presages and terrors of the mind; and that county, Glamorgan; while Cardigan presents the lowest is, by securing to ourselves the friendship and protecproportion of crime in any county of the United King- tion of that Being, who disposes of events, and governs dom, being only 1 to 4,920. In the large manufactur- futurity.” ing counties of Scotland, the proportion is nearly as “Truth is always consistent with itself, and needs high as in England : in Edinburgh it is ) to 540; in nothing to help it out. It is always near at hand, and Lanark, the most populous county, 1 10 690. In Ire- sits upon our lips, and is ready to drop out before we Jand, the highest proportion of crime is in the city of are aware: whereas a lie is troublesome, and sets a Dublin, where there has been I criminal to 96 inha. man's invention upon the rack; and one trick necds a bitants : in the city of Waterford, the proportion is great many more to make it good in appeurabce.”

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