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*wise been discovered in Cornwall; and the English lead is impregnated with silver. Devonshire, and other conuties in Englaud, produce marble. Pit and sea-coat is found in may counties of England, particularly in the orih, but the city of London is chiefly supplied from the pits in Northumberland, and the bishopric of Durhain. Tlie cargoes are shipped at Newcastle and Sunderland, and the exportation of coals to other countries, is a valuable article of commerce. The fluor spar, or blue John of Derbyshire, is found in large quantities, and forms an elegant article of manufacture, being made into urns, vases, columus, and all the infinite variety of shapes, which the ingenuity or faucy of the artist can devise. Cheshire is remarkable for the extent and value of its salt-mines and springs.*

§ 2. Civil Geography and Divisions. England has been variously divided at different periods of time. When the Romans were masters of this island, they divided it into 1, Britannia Prima, including the southern parts of the kingdom.-2. Britannia Secunda, comprising the western parts, together with Wales.-And 3. Maxima Cæsariensis, which reached from the Treut, as far north as the wall of Severus, between Newcastle and Carlisle, and in some parts as far as that of Adrian, between the Forth and Clyde. After the Saxons became masters of England, they divided it into seven unequal parts, which they called kingdoms ; each leader appropriating to himself those parts which he had either conquered himself, or bad assisted in reducing. The seven kingdoms, forming the Saxon Heptarchy, were as follows; 1. Kent. 2. Sussex, or the South Saxons. 3. Wessex, or the West Saxons. 4. Essex, or the East Saxons. 5. Northumber. land. 6. East Angleland, and 7. Mercia.

The division into shires is attributed to the illustrious king Alfred. They are also styled counties, as having been each governed, in Saxon times, by a count or Eallorman, and who, after the Danish conqirest, was called Earl, from the Danish word JARL, i.e. a greai man. The dignity and title becoming hereditary, the government of the county

For a description of these, see MANUFACTURES, Art, Sult.

devolved upon the earl's deputy, the Shire-reeve, sheriff, or manager of the shire. Yorkshire being a very extensive county, was divided into three parts, called in the Saxon tongue trithings, which are now (corruptly) termed Ridings.

England is divided into forty counties, and the principality of Wales into twelve, making the whole number of counties in South Britain, fifty-two. The following list contains the respective chief towns, together with the population of the counties, and of some of the towns, in the year

1811. For the amount of population in England, as well as in Wales and Scotland, we have consulted the only authentic document on the subject,--the Enumeration Abstract, and Parish Register Abstract, printed by order of the House of Lords, 1811. fol. pp. xxxi. 712. For the general summary of Population in Eugland, Wales, and Scotland, and the increase since 1801. See p. 111.

COUNTIES OF ENGLAND.

.

.

Counties.
Principal Towns.

Population.
Northumberland Newcastle, Berwick, Shields, Morpeth 172,161
Cumberland
Carlisle, Penrith, Whitehaven

133,744
Six in the
Durham
Durham, Stockton, Sunderland

177,525 North. Yorkshire

York, Leeds, Wakefield, Halifax, Whitby 973,113 Westmorland Appleby, Kendal, Lonsdale

45,992 Lancashire

Lancaster, "Manchester, "Liverpool 828,309 Cheshire

Chester, Macclesfield, Stockport. 227,031 Shropshire

Shrewsbury, Ludlow, Bridgnorth 191,298 Herefordshire Hereford, Leominister, Weobley

94,073 Monmouthshire Monmouth, Chepstow, Abergavenvy 69,127 Nottinghamshire Nottingham, Southwell, Newark 162,900 Derbyshire Derby, Chesterfield, Warksworth 185,487 Staffordshire Stafford, Litchfield, Newcastle under Line 295,153

Leicestershire Leicester, Loughborough, Harborough 150,419 Eighteen Rutlandshire Oakham, Uppingham

16,380 Midland, Northamptonshire . Northampton, Peterborough Daventry 141,353

Warwickshire Warwick, Coventry, and Birmingham 228,735
Worcestershire . Worcester, Evesham, Droitwich

160,546
Gloucestershire Gloucester, Tewkesbury, Cirencester 285,514
Oxfordshire Oxford, Witney, Dorchester, Banbury 119,191
Buckinghamshire • Buckingham, Aylesbury, Marlow 117,650
Bedfordshire Bedford, Woburn, Dunstable, Ampthill 70,213
Lincolnshire Lincoln, Stamford, Boston, Grantham 237,891
Huntingdonshire • Huntingdon, St. Ives, Kimbolton

42,208

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• 18,217, 85,753.

Town and Lib. 62, 534.

98,573.

94,376.

34.053.

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Counties.
Cambridgeshire
Norfolk,
Suffolk
Essex
Hertfordshire
Middlesex
Surry
Kent .
Sussex
Berkshire
Wiltshire
Hampshire.
Dorsetshire
Somersetshire
Devonshire
Cornwall

Principal Towns.

Populntion. Cambridge, Ely, Newmarket

101,109 Norwich, Thetford, Lynn, Yarmouth 291.999 Ipswich, Bury. Lowestoft, Sudbury 231,211 Chelmsford, Colchester, Harwich

252, 173 Hertford, St. Albans, Royston, Ware . 111,054 London, iWestminster, Brentford 958,476 kSouthwark, Kingston, Guilford, Croydon 323,451 Maidstone, Canterbury, Rochester 373,095 Chichester, Lewes, Rye, Hastings 190,083 Reading, Windsor, Newbury, Abingdon 118,277 Salisbury, Marlborough, Wilton, Devizes 193,848 . Winchester, Southampton, 'Portsmouth 245,080 Dorchester, Shaftesbury, Poole

124,693 m Bristol, “Bath, Taunton, Wells

303,180 °Exeter, PPlymouth, Dartmouth

383,308 Launceston, Falmouth, Truro

216,667

Six in the
South.

.

Four in

the West

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Besides the above counties, there are counties corporate, consisting of certain districts, to which the liberties and jurisdictions peculiar to a county have been granted by royal charter. Thus the city of London is a county distinct from Middlesex'; the cities of York, Chester, Bristol, Exeter, Norwich, Worcester, and the towns of Kingston upon Hull, and Newcastle upon Tyne, are counties of themselves, distinct from those in which they lie. So also is Berwick upon Tweed, which lies in Scoiland, and has within its jurisdiction a smail territory of two miles on the north side of the river.

Under the name of a town, are contained boroughs and cities, for every borough or city is a town, though every e town is not a borough or city.. A borough is so called, because it sends up burgesses to parliament; and this makes a difference between a village or town and a borough. Some boroughs are corporate, and some not corporate; and though decayed, as old Sarum, they still send burgesses to parliament. A city is a corporate borough, that has either had, or at present has, a bishop; for if the bishopric be dissolved, yet the city remains.

837,256. London within the walls in 1811, contained 55,484 Inhabitants; without the walls, 65,425.

i Westminster in 1811, contained 162,085 Inhabitants. The Metropolis, including London and Westminster, the Out-Parishes, &c. contained in 1801, nine hundred thousand Inhabitants, and in 1811, one million and fifty thousand. I and town of Portsea, 40,567. » 76,433.

= 31,496 • 18,8962

P 56,060.

k 72, 119.

§ 3. Ecclesiastical Geography of England. It is by no means certain, by whom Christianity was first planted in this country. Some antient authors have averred, that the Gospel was first preached in South Bri

tain, by the apostles and their disciples : but it is a well attested fact, that many of the soldiers and officers in the Roman armies were Christians, and as tbeir legions were repeatedly sent over to England to extend, as well as to preserve their conquests, it is probable that thus Christianity was diffused among the natives. The constitution of & the church is episcopal: it is governed by bishops, whose benefices were converted by the Norman conqneror into temporal baronies, in right of which, every bishop has a seat and vote in the House of Peers. The benefices of the inferior clergy are now freehold, but in many places, the tithes are impropriated in favour of the laity.

The dignitaries of the church of England, such as deans, prebendaries, and the like, have generally large incomes ; some of them exceeding in value those of bishopries, for which reason, the revenues of a rich deanery, or other liring, are often annexed to a poor bishopric. At present, the clergy of the church of England, as to temporal matters, are in a most flourishing situation, because the value of their tithes increases with the improvement of lands, which have, of late, been amazing in England : and Parliament has also made considerable grants in favour of the poorer livings.

The church of England is governed by two archbishops, and twenty-four bishops, besides the bishop of Sodor and Man, who not being possessed of an English barony, does not sit in the House of Peers. A list of each is annexed, together with their salaries as they appear on the king's books.

ARCHBISHOPRICS. Canterbury

£2682 12 2 York

1610 0 0

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BISHOPRIC8.

London
Durliam
Winchester

2000 0 0 1821 1 3 3124 12 8

The three last bishoprics take precedency of all others in

England, and the others according to the seniority of

their consecrations. Ely

2134 18 6 Bath and Wells

533 1 3 Hereford

768 11 0 Rochester

358 40 Litchfield and Coventry

559 17 3 Chester

420 1 8 Worcester

929 13 3 Chichester

677 1 3 St. Asaph

187 11 8 Salisbury

1385 5 0 Bangor

131 16 3 Norwich

834 11 7 Gloucester

315 7 3 Lincoln

324 18 1 Llandaff

154 14 2 Bristol

294 11 0 Carlisle

531 4 9 Exeter

500 Peterborough

414 17 8 Oxford

381 11 0 St. David's

426 23 The archbishop of Canterbury ranks next to the princes of the blood royal, above all other peers, and also above all the officers of state. The archbishop of York has the same rank, giving place only to the archbishop of Canterbury, and to the Lord Chaucellor. They are both dig. nified with the addressYour Grace." The other bishops rank above all temporal barons : they are addressed

- Your Lordships, and are styled, “ Right Reverend Fathers in God."

Deans and prebendaries of cathedrals have already been mentioned: but besides these, England contains about sixty archdeacons, whose office is to visit the churches twice or thrice every year, but their offices are less fucrative than honourable, Subordinate to them are the rural deans, formerly styled archpresbyters, who signify the bishop's pleasure to his clergy, the lower class of which consists of priests and deacons.

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