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of Greece and Rome for his twelve labours. These adventures of Persian heroes, breathe all that wildness of achievement, which characterises the knights of Gothic romance. The Zend-Avesta is the sacred book of the Parsees; it was composed by Zoroaster.

5. Phenician. The principal deities of Pbenicia were Uranus, Chronus, Dagon, Thyoth, Muth or Pluto, Æphcestus or Vulcan, Æsculapius, Nereus, Porcedon or Neptune, and Astarte, Ashtaroth or Venus Urania. As almost all these fictitious personages were afterwards eurolled in the catalogue of Grecian gods, and as their adventures and exploits are, most of them, so absurd, impious, and profane, our readers will easily dispense with a detail, from which neither entertainment nor instruction can be derived.

6. Grecian and Roman. The mythology of Greece comprehends the adventures of Jupiter, Juno, Minerva, Neptune, Venus, Mars, Vulcan, aud Vesta; Apollo, Diana, Ceres, and Mercury. These and other ambitious descendants of the family of the Titans left Phenicia about the age of Moses, and settled in Crete; whence they proceeded to Greece, then inliabited by savages, The arts and inventions which they communicated to the natives; the mysteries of religion which they inculcated; and the laws, customs, polity, and good order which they established; inspired the unpolished inhabited with religious veueration. That adoration which had been exclusively addressell to the host of heaven, was now transferred to these illustrious persons; and hence an inexhaustible fund of the wildest and most inconsistent fictions. The deities already mentioned are called the superior gods; there was a second and third class; and a multitude, of inferior dig, nity. It will be sufficient to name the twelve principal ones, the Muses, and their respective attributes.

I. Jupiter, the first in, rank and most powerful of the Grecian deities, was son of Saturn and Ops; he waged war with the Titans, and having delivered his father from their tyranny, he became master of the empire of the world. He was the king and father of gods and men; every thing and being, except the fates, were under his control. He is represented sitting on a golden or ivory throne; in his right hand he grasps his fulmen or thunderbolt, and in the left he holds bis sceptre; at his feet thcre

is an eagle with wings extended, which is emblematic of sovereignty. The fulmen was a sort of bieroglypbic, and had three different meanings according to the manner in which it was represented. 1. As a wreath of flames in a conical shape, similar to what is called a thunderbolt. This was adapted to Jupiter in his mild character, and was held down in his hand. 2. The saine figure with two transverse darts of lightning, and sometimes with wings on each side of it, to denote swiftness. This was given to Jupiter when punishing. 3. A handful of fames which he held up, when inflicting some exemplary punishment.

II. Juno, is the sister and wife of Jupiter, and is remarkable for her jealousy, her anger, aud her quarrels with her husband. She presided over empires and riches, and was the protectress of married women, who called her by the name of Juno Lucina. Her children were Hebe, Mars, and Vulcan.' She is represented clothed from head to foot in a long robe, seated on a throne. She holds a sceptre in her hand, wears a crown, or has her head encircled with a rainbow, and is attended by a peacock. She is sometimes seen standing in a chariot drawn by peacocks.

III. Minerva, is said to have sprung from the head of Jupiter: she is the goddess of wisdom; the patroness of the arts: and is also emblematic of prudence and other virtues. She has a helinet on her head, and a plume nodding formidably in the air. In her right hand she shakes a spear, and in her lest grasps a shield or agis, with the head of the dying Medusa, encircled with snakes instead of hair. The same figure in all its terrors is also on her breast-plate, and sometimes she has serpents about her bosom. The cock is an emblem of her valour, and the owl

represents her love of meditation. IV. Neptune, or ruler of the seas. He is represented as passing over the calm surface of the waters, with a trident in his right hand, standing in his chariot drawn by sea-lorses, with sometimes a triton on each side, guiding those who draw the chariot.

V. Venus, is said to bave sprung from the froth of the sea, and to have been wafted along on the surface of the waters, in a shell to mount Cithæra. She is the goddess of love and beauty, and on the sea is geuerally attended

by Capids, Nereids, and Dolphins. In the heavens, doves and swans are attached to her light and elegant chariot.

VI. Mars, the god of war. He is represented riding in a chariot drawn by horses which are driven by a distracted fenale. Some of the passions of the mind are transformed inte actual personages. Clamour, Rage, Fear, and Terror, attend him; but discord flies before him. The dog was devoted to Mars for his vigilance in the pursuit of his prey; the wolf for bis fierceness; the raven, because he feasts on the boilies of the slain; and the cock for his watchfulness.

Vil. Vulcan presides over fire, and was the inventor and fabricator of arms and other articles made from metal. He forged the armour of the gods, and Jove's thunder; and is Jupiter's sou, the husband of Venus, and Cupid's father. Vulcan is represented lame and deformed, holding a hammer in the air raised ready to strike, wiiile with the other hand, be turns with pincers a thunderbolt on his anvil, for which an eagle waits to convey it to Jupiter. Vulcan also appears black and hardened from the forge, with a fiery red face, whilst at work and tired, and heated after it.

VIII. Vesta, daughter of Saturn and Rhea, was the patroness of the vestal virgins, and the goddess of fire. She had a temple raised to her bonour, where the Palladium of Troy or statue of Minerva was supposed to be deposited. Here the sacred fire was kept burning continually, by a certain number of virgins dedicated to the service of the goddess. She was represented in a long flowing robe with a veil on her head, holding in one land a lamp, or a twoeared vessel, and in the other a javelin, or sometimes a Palladiuin.

IX, Apollo, sometimes named Phebus, the son of Jupiter and Latona, was the god of all the tine arts, of me dicine, of music, poetry, and cloquence; of all which he was considered the inventor. He was also deeply skilled in divination, and the art of foretelling future events. He is represented as a tall handsome young man, holding in bis land a bow, and sometimes a lyre, and his head is surrounded with beams of light. The figure of him, best known to us, is that of the Apollo Belvidere. In this matchless specimen of antient sculpture, he has a cloak thrown, carelessly, over his shoulders, and on his feet bus

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kins used in hunting; in luis hand he holds a bow, wbuch has just discharged an arrow' at the serpent Python. The countenance is inexpressibly beautiful. It displays an air of triumph at having destroyed this sea-nionster.

X. Diana, was the goddess of hunting, and of the woods; she also presided over chastity. In heaven she was adored as Luna; on earth as Diana; and in che infere nal regions uuder the character of Hecate. She is repre. sented as a beautiful feniale, generally with a crescent on her forehead, in a hunting dress, in her hand a bow, and carelessly suspended from her shoulders, a quiver of ar

XI. Ceres, the goddess of agrieulture; she, it is said, taught the art of tilling the earih, and soumg corn; to her the making of bread is also attributed. She is dressed in a long robe which falls down to her feet, and her head is crowned with corn or poppies.

XII. Mercury, was the messenger of the gods; the patron of travellers and of shepherds. He not only presided over orators, merchants, declaimers,---but was also the god of thieves, pick-pockets, and all dishonest persons. He was called Hermes by the Greeks, on account of his attention to eloquence. Mercury is represented as young, airy, and light; all qualities proper for swiftness. His distinguishing attributes are his petasus, or winged cap; the talaria, or wings for his feet; and the caduceus or wand, round which were entwined two serpents. He is generally seen in the act of flying through the air, with his chlamys, or garment floating behind him.

The Muses were goddesses who presided over poetry, music, dancing, and all the liberal arts. They were the daughters of Jupiter and Mnemosyne, companions of Apollo and dwelt wiih hiin chiefly on the hills Parnassus, Helicon, and Pindus: the Hippocrene fountains at the foot of Parnassils were sacred to them, as were also the palm-tree and laurel. They were nine in number, and generally represented as young and beautiful.

1. Clio. Her office was to celebrate the actions of departed heroes. She presided over history. She is represented crowned with laurels, holding a roll or book in one hand, and a trumpet in the other. Sometimes slie holds a plectrum or quill with a lute.

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II. Thalia, was the muse of comedy and pastorals, and is distinguished by a comic mask in her hand, and her pastoral crook.

III. Terpsichorè, presided over dancing, of which she was accounted the inventress.


a young virgin, crowned with laurel, holding in her hand a musical instrument.

IV. Euterpe, presided over music, and was considered as the inventress of the fule and of all wind instruments. She is represented as crowned with Bowers, and holding a ffute in her hand.

V. Erato, presided over lyric poetry. She is represented as crowned with roses and myrtle; bolding a lyre in her right hand, and a lute in her left; justruments of which she was said to be the inventress.

VI. Calliope, presided over eloquence and heroic poesy. She was represented with a trumpet in her right hand, and with rolls or books in the other, to mark her office; which was to note dowu the worthy actions of the living.

VII. Polyhymnia, or Polymnia presided over singing and rhetoric, and was deemed the inventress of harmony and theatrical gestures. She is clothed in white and veiled, holding a sceptre in her left hand: her right is raised up, as if ready to harangue.

VIII. Urania, presided over astronomy. She appears as a young virgin, dressed in an azure-coloured robe, crowed with stars, holding a globe in her hand, with many miathematical instruments placed round.

IX, Melpomerè, presided over tragedy and melancholy subjects. She was generally represented as a young womair with a serious countenance; she wore a buskin, held a dagger in one hand, and in the other a scepire and crown.

The Roman Mythology was a transcript from that of Greece, with the addition of a few fables from the Pelangi and Etruscans. The Romans had addicted themselves for a long time to war and civil polity; when they conquered Greece, the native land of science, her arts, her sciences, and her mythology, were introduced and practised.

7. Celtic or Druid. The Druids were the priests or ministers of religion among the antient Celtæ or Gauls, the Britons, and Germans. They were the first and most distingaished order ainong the Gauls and Britons; they were

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