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guards, detachments, courts-martial, visiting the hospitals and barracks, fatigues or working parties, and orderly duties. No officer can exchange his duty with another, unless by permission of the commanding officer. The ensign bears the colours, and has the charge of them in battle; and, if he be killed, the captain takes them in his stead. The ensign is under the lieutenant, and in his absence supplies his post.
VI. ADJUTANT, is an officer whose business it is to assist the major. Fach battalion of foot and regiment of horse, has an adjutant, who receives orders every night from the brigade-major, which, after carrying to the colonel, he delivers to the serjeants. When detachments are to be made, he gives the number to be furnished by each company or troop, and assigns the hour and place of rendezvous. He also places the guards ; receives and distributes the ammunition to the companies, and, by the major's orders, regulates the prices of bread, beer, and other provisions. The word is sometimes used by the French for an aid-du-camp. Adjutant is to the commanding-officer of a regiment, what our aid-du-camp is to a general, and a major of a brigade to a brigadier. He likewise bears the same relation to a regiment, as an adjutant-general does to an army.
VII. QUARTER-MASTER, is the next staff-officer to an adjutant. His employment is rather of a civil, than a military natnre, having nothing to do with the discipline of a regiment. His care is in providing and inspecting their quarters, clothing, ammunition, firing, &c. Every regiment of foot and artillery, has a quarter-master, and every troop of horse, one.
VIII. The SURGEON is another commissioned officer on the staff of a regiment. He should not only be well skilled in the branch of surgery, but should also be a good physician and apothecary, being frequently obliged to act in these three capacities. He is allowed a mate to assist him, who has no commission, but acts by virtue of a warrant from the colonel. Before
any person can be appointed surgeon or mate to a regiment, he must pass an examiration for each degree, before the board of surgeons.
IX. CHAPLAIN is the last commissioned officer on the staff. . He is generally allowed to act by deputy, when he thinks proper.
X. SERJEANT-MAJOR is the first, and properly speaking, the only non-commissioned officer on the staff. He bears the same subordinate relation to the adjutant, as the adjutant does to the commanding officer; and as the adjutant keeps the register of the officers, so does the serjeant-major keep that of the serjeants and corporals, whom he warns for duty in their turns, and orders the quota of private men each company is to furnish. The serjeantmajor attends all parades of the regiment, to see if the exact number of men are there, and that they are clean and well dressed. He is to make the other serjeants and corporals responsible for neglect in any of those particulars. When the rolls are called, he assembles the serjeant of each company in front or rear of the regiment, in order to receive their reports, and deliver them to the adjutant. He must be well acquainted with the exercise and maneuvres, in which it is frequently his business to instruct the young officers. He must be well versed in regimental duty in general, and his own in particular.
The non-coinmissioned officers are the serjeants and corporals, and upon a proper choice of these officers, the discipline of the company principally depends; for it is more immediately their business to form the soldiers : and from their continual intercourse with them, they have it in their power to attend to matters which cannot so well come under the notice of others. The serjeants being the nerves and sinews of a corps, a commanding officer must, in promoting private soldiers to the knot, have principally in view the training up and forming proper characters for the halbert. A serjeant's command is from twelve to eighteen, with a corporal, and that of a corporal, from three to nine privates. No nou-commissioned officer can change his duty without leave of the serjeant-major, or the adjutant, as well as the commanding-officer of his company. When under arms, or drawn up in rank, the corporals are not to assume any command, or give directions, but unust attend to the word of command like the private men. They should be expert and graceful in
handling their arms, as they are to serve as models to the young soldiers.
XI. The DRUM-Major has the command of all the drum-men, and warns them in their turns for their different duties at roll-call, and all their parades; he is to be answerable for the good appearance of the drummers, and is to report such as are absent without leave to the adjutant or serjeant-major. He is likewise to see that the drums are kept in repair. In action, the drum-ınajor puts himself in the rear of the battalion with all the drummers, except the orderly, to assist the wounded. Whenever the colours are taken out or returned, it is his place to uncase or put them up again in a proper manner. All corporal punishments being inflicted by the drummers of the regiment, the drum-major is to provide the proper
instruments, and is to attend and oblige the drummers to do their duty.
XII. Soldier. There is a provision for disabled sol. diers; and when a soldier hus served twenty years, he is entitled to be an out-pensioner of Chelsea Hospital, from which he receives about 71. a year, and can set up his trade in any part of the kingdom. He may, if wounded and unable to get his living, be taken into the Hospital and be maintained for life. Sometimes a regiment is reduced; in which case the men are disbanded or discharged, and the officers receive half-pay for their lives.
BATTALION. A battalion has from five to eight hundred men, of which one third were formerly armed with pikes, which are now laid aside, and the other two thirds with muskets, posted on the wings. They are usually drawn up with three men in files, or one before another.
When there are companies of several regiments in a garrison to form a battalion, those of the oldest regiment post themselves on the right, those of the second on the left, and so on until the youngest fall into the centre. Each battalion is divided into four divisions, and each division forms two platoons.
Brigade, is a party or division of a body of soldiers, whether horse or foot, under the command of a brigadier.
An army is divided into brigades of horse, and brigades of foot. A brigade of a troop of guards, is a third part of it, but if the troop consist of 100, then only a sixth. There are, properly speaking, three sorts of brigades, viz. the brigade of an army, the brigade of a troop of horse, and the brigade of artillery. A brigade of the army is either foot or dragoons, whose exact number is not fixed, but generally consists of three regiments, or six battalions ; a brigade of horse may consist of eight, ten, or twelve squadrons; and that of artillery, of eight or ten pieces of cannon, with all their appurtenances, and the due number
CAVALRY is a body of soldiers that charge on horseback. The chief use of cavalry is to make frequent excursions to disturb the enemy, and also to insure the retreat of ihe foot.
COMPANY denotes a light body of infantry, commanded by a captain. There are commonly filiy centinels, three serjeants, three corporals, and two druins. In the guards, a company consists of 80 private men. What are called independent companies are not embodied into regiments.
DRAGOONS fight both on foot and on horseback. They are usually posted in the front of the camp, and march first to the charge. They are divided into brigades as the cavalry, and each regiment into troops; each troop having a captain, lieutenant, cornet, quarter-master, two serjeants, three corporals, and two drums. Dragoons are very useful where dispatch is requisite.
FUSILEERS are foot soldiers armed with muskets, which are generally slung. There is a regiment of fusileers to guard the artillery.
GRENADIERs form one company of every regiment, and march at the head of that regiment. They are the tallest, and best made men, picked out of the whole.
Hussars, a soldiery in Poland, and Hungary, commonly opposed to the Ottoman cavalry. They are horsemen clothed in tygers' and other skins, and decorated with plumes of feathers; their arms are the sabre and bayonet. They are very resolute, and better in skirmishes than in a set battle.
JANISARIES, an order of infantry in the Turkish armies,
and reputed the grand signior's foot guards. The discia pline observed among them is conformable, in many instances, to that used in the Roman legions.
Light Horse, includes all the horse except those of the life guards. The term is sometimes applied to an independent troop; or a troop not embodied into a regiment.
MIlitia, signifies the inhabitants, or as we call them, the trained bands of a town or country, who arm themselves on a short warning, for their own defence. The anilitia are a distinct body of nyen, though they are disciplined like the army, and co-operate with them, in time of war: they have this peculiarity, in distinction from other soldiers, that they cannot be compelled to go beyond sea, on military duty. They are selected by ballot, a certain number out of each county, hundred, and parish, according to its respective population ; and for their direction and command, the king constitutes a lord-lieutenant of each county. Wounded militia-men, are, like other soldiers, entitled to the benefit of Chelsea hospital, and have other privileges like them.
REGIMENT, a body consisting of several troops of horse, or companies of foot, commanded by a colonel and inajor. The number of men in a regiment is as undetermined as that of the men in a troop or a company. Generals have no pay but when employed; but admirals are always in pay. When they are paid, their pay is in proportion to their rank; froin two pounds a day to ten pounds. The widows of officers have pensions, after their death, whether they are killed in battle or not.
SQUADRON. A squadron of horse is commonly from one to two hundred. It usually consists of three troops of fifty men each, and is always drawn up three deep, or in three ranks.
Troop, a small body of horse or dragoons, usually about fifty, commanded by a captain, answering to a com
pany of foot.
S 3. Artillery and Implements of War.
1. Artillery, in its most appropriate acceptation, denotes fire-arms, mounted on carriages, and ready for action, with